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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 25 (2013): Heft 8 (December 2013)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

5 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Editors’ Note

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 661 - 661

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

We would like to inform our readers that early next year our website will be relaunched. BeiträgezurTabakforschung International will subsequently appear on the online platform of the publishing house of De Gruyter as an open access journal. The journal will thus be integrated with a worldwide network of other journals, databases and libraries and its contents will be distributed to a global network of users. Our readers will be able to access it - as before - free of charges but they will be asked to register as a user on this platform before access can be made. Our authors are invited to submit their manuscripts using the online manuscript submission and peer review system.

We would like to wish all of you a blessed Christmas and a prosperous and Happy New Year.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Comparison of Smoke Yield Data Collected from Different Laboratories

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 662 - 670

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In the context of increasing tobacco product regulations, more requirements are observed for the reporting of smoke constituent yield data and its variability e.g., US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The objective of this work was to evaluate the relevance of the short term standard deviation to describe the variability of measurements using the dataset of the CORESTA 2006 Joint Experiment which included a number of cigarette smoke constituents more recently identified by FDA for reporting. Their testing protocol required the analysis of Kentucky Reference cigarettes 2R4F and 1R5F performing five replicates run over consecutive days, repeated during three different time periods. This dataset provided access to different sources of smoke yield variability across measurements: short term and medium term within-laboratory variability and among-laboratory variability. For each reference cigarette, analysis of variance on one factor (laboratory) combined with the Newman-Keuls multiple range test was performed to compare data generated across laboratories. Results showed that the expression of yield variability as an individual standard deviation (describing repeatability) gives erroneous conclusions due to the major contribution of amonglaboratory variability not being taken into account. The different sources of variability can be taken into account in the comparison using the critical difference, as described in the ISO Standard 5725 part 6. This paper shows the importance of having i) the appropriate statistical methods to compare results from different laboratories in order to avoid erroneous conclusions, and ii) validated and standardized methods with known precision across laboratories. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the number of replicates had only a minor effect on product comparison on the basis of the critical difference as a function of repeatability and reproducibility of the methods.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Relationship Between Mainstream Cigarette Smoke “Tar” and Nicotine Yields

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 671 - 684

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between mainstream “tar” and nicotine yields and refine the commonly used linear model with a positive intercept to incorporate non-linearity and product-toproduct differences in filler nicotine content. “Tar” and nicotine yields are examined for a wide range of cigarettes (U.S. and international) using the Cambridge filter (CF), ISO, and the more intense MDPH, and HC smoking methods. Particularly at very low machine yields, a nonlinearity is observed that can be more accurately modeled by a power law relationship, and can be further improved by incorporating the concentration of nicotine in the cigarette filler into the equation. The resultant power law relationship is the better statistical fit to the available data, avoids the physical implausibility of positive nicotine yield at zero “tar” yield and lack of dependence on filler nicotine that are inherent in the simple linear model relating nicotine yield to “tar” yield alone, and explains the nonconstancy of the “tar”-to-nicotine ratio. The relationship between “tar” and nicotine can be affected by the use of very long or very short puff intervals, and, with the same tobacco blend and the same “tar” yield, longer cigarettes tend to have a slightly higher nicotine yield than shorter cigarettes.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Assessing Smoking Behaviour and Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Definitions and Methods

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 685 - 699

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In recent years, the increased availability of tobacco products other than conventional cigarettes, the use of puffing topography devices for smoking behaviour studies and the use of biomarkers to study smoke constituents exposure have generated the need for a more comprehensive set of definitions concerning smoking behaviour and exposure to smoke. The definitions offered in this paper are based on many years of practical experience and on consensus within a broad group of scientists working in these areas. It is intended that, with wider and more consistent usage, these definitions should reduce any misunderstandings and facilitate interpretation of future studies.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Updates of CORESTA Recommended Methods after Further Collaborative Studies Carried Out under Both ISO and Health Canada Intense Smoking Regimes

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 700 - 707

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

During 2012, three CORESTA Recommended Methods (CRMs) (1-3) were updated to include smoke yield and variability data under both ISO (4) and the Canadian Intense (CI) (5) smoking regimes. At that time, repeatability and reproducibility data under the CI regime on smoke analytes other than “tar”, nicotine and carbon monoxide (6) and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) (7) were not available in the public literature. The subsequent work involved the determination of the mainstream smoke yields of benzo[a]-pyrene, selected volatiles (benzene, toluene, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, acrylonitrile), and selected carbonyls (acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, crotonaldehyde, acrolein, acetone and 2-butanone) in ten cigarette products followed by statistical analyses according to the ISO protocol (8). This paper provides some additional perspective on the data variability under the ISO and CI smoking regimes not given in the CRMs.

5 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Editors’ Note

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 661 - 661

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

We would like to inform our readers that early next year our website will be relaunched. BeiträgezurTabakforschung International will subsequently appear on the online platform of the publishing house of De Gruyter as an open access journal. The journal will thus be integrated with a worldwide network of other journals, databases and libraries and its contents will be distributed to a global network of users. Our readers will be able to access it - as before - free of charges but they will be asked to register as a user on this platform before access can be made. Our authors are invited to submit their manuscripts using the online manuscript submission and peer review system.

We would like to wish all of you a blessed Christmas and a prosperous and Happy New Year.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Comparison of Smoke Yield Data Collected from Different Laboratories

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 662 - 670

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In the context of increasing tobacco product regulations, more requirements are observed for the reporting of smoke constituent yield data and its variability e.g., US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The objective of this work was to evaluate the relevance of the short term standard deviation to describe the variability of measurements using the dataset of the CORESTA 2006 Joint Experiment which included a number of cigarette smoke constituents more recently identified by FDA for reporting. Their testing protocol required the analysis of Kentucky Reference cigarettes 2R4F and 1R5F performing five replicates run over consecutive days, repeated during three different time periods. This dataset provided access to different sources of smoke yield variability across measurements: short term and medium term within-laboratory variability and among-laboratory variability. For each reference cigarette, analysis of variance on one factor (laboratory) combined with the Newman-Keuls multiple range test was performed to compare data generated across laboratories. Results showed that the expression of yield variability as an individual standard deviation (describing repeatability) gives erroneous conclusions due to the major contribution of amonglaboratory variability not being taken into account. The different sources of variability can be taken into account in the comparison using the critical difference, as described in the ISO Standard 5725 part 6. This paper shows the importance of having i) the appropriate statistical methods to compare results from different laboratories in order to avoid erroneous conclusions, and ii) validated and standardized methods with known precision across laboratories. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the number of replicates had only a minor effect on product comparison on the basis of the critical difference as a function of repeatability and reproducibility of the methods.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Relationship Between Mainstream Cigarette Smoke “Tar” and Nicotine Yields

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 671 - 684

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between mainstream “tar” and nicotine yields and refine the commonly used linear model with a positive intercept to incorporate non-linearity and product-toproduct differences in filler nicotine content. “Tar” and nicotine yields are examined for a wide range of cigarettes (U.S. and international) using the Cambridge filter (CF), ISO, and the more intense MDPH, and HC smoking methods. Particularly at very low machine yields, a nonlinearity is observed that can be more accurately modeled by a power law relationship, and can be further improved by incorporating the concentration of nicotine in the cigarette filler into the equation. The resultant power law relationship is the better statistical fit to the available data, avoids the physical implausibility of positive nicotine yield at zero “tar” yield and lack of dependence on filler nicotine that are inherent in the simple linear model relating nicotine yield to “tar” yield alone, and explains the nonconstancy of the “tar”-to-nicotine ratio. The relationship between “tar” and nicotine can be affected by the use of very long or very short puff intervals, and, with the same tobacco blend and the same “tar” yield, longer cigarettes tend to have a slightly higher nicotine yield than shorter cigarettes.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Assessing Smoking Behaviour and Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Definitions and Methods

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 685 - 699

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In recent years, the increased availability of tobacco products other than conventional cigarettes, the use of puffing topography devices for smoking behaviour studies and the use of biomarkers to study smoke constituents exposure have generated the need for a more comprehensive set of definitions concerning smoking behaviour and exposure to smoke. The definitions offered in this paper are based on many years of practical experience and on consensus within a broad group of scientists working in these areas. It is intended that, with wider and more consistent usage, these definitions should reduce any misunderstandings and facilitate interpretation of future studies.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Updates of CORESTA Recommended Methods after Further Collaborative Studies Carried Out under Both ISO and Health Canada Intense Smoking Regimes

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 700 - 707

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

During 2012, three CORESTA Recommended Methods (CRMs) (1-3) were updated to include smoke yield and variability data under both ISO (4) and the Canadian Intense (CI) (5) smoking regimes. At that time, repeatability and reproducibility data under the CI regime on smoke analytes other than “tar”, nicotine and carbon monoxide (6) and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) (7) were not available in the public literature. The subsequent work involved the determination of the mainstream smoke yields of benzo[a]-pyrene, selected volatiles (benzene, toluene, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, acrylonitrile), and selected carbonyls (acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, crotonaldehyde, acrolein, acetone and 2-butanone) in ten cigarette products followed by statistical analyses according to the ISO protocol (8). This paper provides some additional perspective on the data variability under the ISO and CI smoking regimes not given in the CRMs.

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