Zeitschriften und Ausgaben

Volumen 31 (2022): Heft 2 (July 2022)

Volumen 31 (2022): Heft 1 (March 2022)

Volumen 30 (2021): Heft 4 (November 2021)

Volumen 30 (2021): Heft 3 (July 2021)

Volumen 30 (2021): Heft 2 (May 2021)

Volumen 30 (2021): Heft 1 (March 2021)

Volumen 29 (2020): Heft 3 (December 2020)

Volumen 29 (2020): Heft 2 (August 2020)

Volumen 29 (2020): Heft 1 (April 2020)

Volumen 28 (2019): Heft 7 (December 2019)

Volumen 28 (2019): Heft 6 (August 2019)

Volumen 28 (2019): Heft 5 (May 2019)

Volumen 28 (2018): Heft 4 (December 2018)

Volumen 28 (2018): Heft 3 (October 2018)

Volumen 28 (2018): Heft 2 (August 2018)

Volumen 28 (2018): Heft 1 (April 2018)

Volumen 27 (2017): Heft 8 (December 2017)

Volumen 27 (2017): Heft 7 (September 2017)

Volumen 27 (2017): Heft 6 (April 2017)

Volumen 27 (2017): Heft 5 (January 2017)

Volumen 27 (2016): Heft 4 (October 2016)

Volumen 27 (2016): Heft 3 (July 2016)

Volumen 27 (2016): Heft 2 (April 2016)

Volumen 27 (2016): Heft 1 (January 2016)

Volumen 26 (2015): Heft 7 (September 2015)

Volumen 26 (2015): Heft 6 (June 2015)

Volumen 26 (2015): Heft 5 (March 2015)

Volumen 26 (2014): Heft 4 (December 2014)

Volumen 26 (2014): Heft 3 (September 2014)

Volumen 26 (2014): Heft 2 (July 2014)

Volumen 26 (2014): Heft 1 (April 2014)

Volumen 25 (2013): Heft 8 (December 2013)

Volumen 25 (2013): Heft 7 (September 2013)

Volumen 25 (2013): Heft 6 (June 2013)

Volumen 25 (2013): Heft 5 (March 2013)

Volumen 25 (2012): Heft 4 (December 2012)

Volumen 25 (2012): Heft 3 (August 2012)

Volumen 25 (2012): Heft 2 (June 2012)

Volumen 25 (2012): Heft 1 (February 2012)

Volumen 24 (2011): Heft 6 (November 2011)

Volumen 24 (2011): Heft 5 (May 2011)

Volumen 24 (2011): Heft 4 (January 2011)

Volumen 24 (2010): Heft 3 (November 2010)

Volumen 24 (2010): Heft 2 (July 2010)

Volumen 24 (2010): Heft 1 (April 2010)

Volumen 23 (2009): Heft 6 (December 2009)

Volumen 23 (2009): Heft 5 (September 2009)

Volumen 23 (2009): Heft 4 (May 2009)

Volumen 23 (2008): Heft 3 (December 2008)

Volumen 23 (2008): Heft 2 (August 2008)

Volumen 23 (2008): Heft 1 (April 2008)

Volumen 22 (2007): Heft 5 (June 2007)

Volumen 22 (2007): Heft 4 (January 2007)

Volumen 22 (2006): Heft 3 (October 2006)

Volumen 22 (2006): Heft 2 (July 2006)

Volumen 22 (2006): Heft 1 (April 2006)

Volumen 21 (2005): Heft 8 (December 2005)

Volumen 21 (2005): Heft 7 (October 2005)

Volumen 21 (2005): Heft 6 (July 2005)

Volumen 21 (2005): Heft 5 (April 2005)

Volumen 21 (2004): Heft 4 (December 2004)

Volumen 21 (2004): Heft 3 (October 2004)

Volumen 21 (2004): Heft 2 (July 2004)

Volumen 21 (2004): Heft 1 (March 2004)

Volumen 20 (2003): Heft 8 (December 2003)

Volumen 20 (2003): Heft 7 (November 2003)

Volumen 20 (2003): Heft 6 (July 2003)

Volumen 20 (2003): Heft 5 (March 2003)

Volumen 20 (2002): Heft 4 (December 2002)

Volumen 20 (2002): Heft 3 (August 2002)

Volumen 20 (2002): Heft 2 (June 2002)

Volumen 20 (2002): Heft 1 (February 2002)

Volumen 19 (2001): Heft 7 (October 2001)

Volumen 19 (2001): Heft 6 (July 2001)

Volumen 19 (2001): Heft 5 (April 2001)

Volumen 19 (2001): Heft 4 (January 2001)

Volumen 19 (2000): Heft 3 (October 2000)

Volumen 19 (2000): Heft 2 (July 2000)

Volumen 19 (2000): Heft 1 (April 2000)

Volumen 18 (1999): Heft 6 (December 1999)

Volumen 18 (1999): Heft 5 (July 1999)

Volumen 18 (1999): Heft 4 (April 1999)

Volumen 18 (1998): Heft 3 (December 1998)

Volumen 18 (1998): Heft 2 (August 1998)

Volumen 18 (1998): Heft 1 (April 1998)

Volumen 17 (1997): Heft 3 (December 1997)

Volumen 17 (1997): Heft 2 (September 1997)

Volumen 17 (1996): Heft 1 (December 1996)

Volumen 16 (1995): Heft 4 (November 1995)

Volumen 16 (1995): Heft 3 (July 1995)

Volumen 16 (1994): Heft 2 (June 1994)

Volumen 16 (1994): Heft 1 (May 1994)

Volumen 15 (1992): Heft 3 (November 1992)

Volumen 15 (1992): Heft 2 (April 1992)

Volumen 15 (1991): Heft 1 (August 1991)

Volumen 14 (1990): Heft 6 (June 1990)

Volumen 14 (1989): Heft 5 (October 1989)

Volumen 14 (1989): Heft 4 (February 1989)

Volumen 14 (1989): Heft 3 (January 1989)

Volumen 14 (1988): Heft 2 (October 1988)

Volumen 14 (1987): Heft 1 (December 1987)

Volumen 13 (1986): Heft 5 (December 1986)

Volumen 13 (1986): Heft 4 (August 1986)

Volumen 13 (1986): Heft 3 (July 1986)

Volumen 13 (1985): Heft 2 (December 1985)

Volumen 13 (1985): Heft 1 (January 1985)

Volumen 12 (1984): Heft 5 (November 1984)

Volumen 12 (1984): Heft 4 (July 1984)

Volumen 12 (1984): Heft 3 (February 1984)

Volumen 12 (1983): Heft 2 (June 1983)

Volumen 12 (1983): Heft 1 (February 1983)

Volumen 11 (1982): Heft 5 (November 1982)

Volumen 11 (1982): Heft 4 (August 1982)

Volumen 11 (1982): Heft 3 (January 1982)

Volumen 11 (1981): Heft 2 (September 1981)

Volumen 11 (1981): Heft 1 (March 1981)

Volumen 10 (1980): Heft 3 (October 1980)

Volumen 10 (1980): Heft 2 (July 1980)

Volumen 10 (1979): Heft 1 (December 1979)

Volumen 9 (1978): Heft 5 (December 1978)

Volumen 9 (1978): Heft 4 (July 1978)

Volumen 9 (1977): Heft 3 (October 1977)

Volumen 9 (1977): Heft 2 (June 1977)

Volumen 9 (1977): Heft 1 (April 1977)

Volumen 8 (1976): Heft 7 (October 1976)

Volumen 8 (1976): Heft 6 (June 1976)

Volumen 8 (1976): Heft 5 (March 1976)

Volumen 8 (1975): Heft 4 (December 1975)

Volumen 8 (1975): Heft 3 (August 1975)

Volumen 8 (1975): Heft 2 (May 1975)

Volumen 8 (1975): Heft 1 (January 1975)

Volumen 7 (1974): Heft 5 (September 1974)

Volumen 7 (1974): Heft 4 (April 1974)

Volumen 7 (1973): Heft 3 (November 1973)

Volumen 7 (1973): Heft 2 (June 1973)

Volumen 7 (1973): Heft 1 (January 1973)

Volumen 6 (1972): Heft 5 (October 1972)

Volumen 6 (1972): Heft 4 (August 1972)

Volumen 6 (1972): Heft 3 (March 1972)

Volumen 6 (1971): Heft 2 (September 1971)

Volumen 6 (1971): Heft 1 (July 1971)

Volumen 5 (1970): Heft 6 (December 1970)

Volumen 5 (1970): Heft 5 (November 1970)

Volumen 5 (1970): Heft 4 (August 1970)

Volumen 5 (1969): Heft 3 (December 1969)

Volumen 5 (1969): Heft 2 (August 1969)

Volumen 5 (1969): Heft 1 (June 1969)

Volumen 4 (1968): Heft 7 (December 1968)

Volumen 4 (1968): Heft 6 (November 1968)

Volumen 4 (1968): Heft 5 (July 1968)

Volumen 4 (1968): Heft 4 (May 1968)

Volumen 4 (1968): Heft 3 (February 1968)

Volumen 4 (1967): Heft 2 (October 1967)

Volumen 4 (1967): Heft 1 (August 1967)

Volumen 3 (1966): Heft 9 (December 1966)

Volumen 3 (1966): Heft 8 (December 1966)

Volumen 3 (1966): Heft 7 (November 1966)

Volumen 3 (1966): Heft 6 (September 1966)

Volumen 3 (1966): Heft 5 (May 1966)

Volumen 3 (1965): Heft 4 (October 1965)

Volumen 3 (1965): Heft 3 (August 1965)

Volumen 3 (1965): Heft 2 (May 1965)

Volumen 3 (1965): Heft 1 (April 1965)

Volumen 2 (1964): Heft 7 (November 1964)

Volumen 2 (1964): Heft 6 (October 1964)

Volumen 2 (1964): Heft 5 (May 1964)

Volumen 2 (1964): Heft 4 (February 1964)

Volumen 2 (1963): Heft 3 (October 1963)

Volumen 2 (1963): Heft 2 (June 1963)

Volumen 2 (1963): Heft 1 (March 1963)

Volumen 1 (1962): Heft 10 (December 1962)

Volumen 1 (1962): Heft 9 (December 1962)

Volumen 1 (1962): Heft 8 (November 1962)

Volumen 1 (1962): Heft 7 (November 1962)

Volumen 1 (1962): Heft 6 (July 1962)

Volumen 1 (1962): Heft 5 (February 1962)

Volumen 1 (1961): Heft 4 (November 1961)

Volumen 1 (1961): Heft 3 (August 1961)

Volumen 1 (1961): Heft 2 (May 1961)

Volumen 1 (1961): Heft 1 (January 1961)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 15 (1992): Heft 3 (November 1992)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

3 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Steady State Flow in the Cigarette and its Influence on Pressure Drop - Die stationäreStrömung in der Cigarette und derenEinfluß auf den Zugwiderstand

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 93 - 122

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A theoretical treatment of steady state fluid mechanics of filtered cigarettes has been developed. By assuming laminar fluid flow, the well knownKozeny-Carman equation has been used to evaluate the flow resistance of the tobacco rod and the linear relationship of cigarette pressure drop to flow rate. Based on this relationship, models with distributed parameters (using impedances per unit length and differential equations) and lumped parameters (using a four terminal network of flow impedances and difference equations) have been established. These were used to calculate spatial flow variables such as pressure drop, volumetric flow rate and degree of ventilation. The effects of changes in coal resistance and reduction in rod length during smoking are demonstrated in a parameter study. A great advantage of mathematical modeling based on physical principles is the wide range of validity which allows a deeper insight into the behaviour of the fluid flow process. This is illustrated using a canonical example. Invariant model parameters such as the characteristic wave impedance and the propagation coefficient have been calculated and are presented as measurable. In order to calculate the dynamic fluid flow pattern of filtered cigarettes smoked on a conventional smoking machine, the model must be extend to include kinetic terms according to the Bernouilli equation. This will be presented in a later paper.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Influence of Different Filter Parameters on the Semivolatile Composition of Mainstream Smoke

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 123 - 128

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The semivolatile fraction of cigarette smoke contains the most important aroma and taste compounds which contribute to the smoker's enjoyment. Obviously, the semivolatile composition is strongly affected by cigarette filters and consequently by the material which is used for filter manufacturing. We have studied the effect of cellulose acetate and polypropylene as filter material on the smoke semivolatiles. Further, the effect of other parameters like pressure drop and the use of additives has been investigated. Smoke condensate was collected on a Cambridge filter pad, the semivolatiles were evaporated using a headspace apparatus and subsequently collected in a cold trap. Semivolatile analyses were performed by high-resolution GC/MS. The cellulose acetate filter, due to its polar structure, selectively retains polar compounds such as phenols and furans while the non-polar polypropylene filter shows a non-selective retention behaviour. The addition to polypropylene filters of a polar compound such as triacetin, which is used as plasticiser in the manufacturing of cellulose acetate filters, does not affect the retention behaviour towards the semivolatiles.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Pattern-Arrangements of Tobacco Shreds in the Internal Structure of Cigarettes

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 129 - 134

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Analyses of indices observed in macro-photographs of a variety of cigarette cross-sections have shown that tobacco shreds forming the internal structure of cigarettes are highly arranged in a defined pattern in which their lenghts are predominantly oriented along the cigarette lenghts and their widths - parallel to the cigarette seams. These pattern-arrangements of tobacco shreds have an effect upon the dielectric properties and deformation of cigarettes. The deformation has been found to be bigger when measured perpendicular to seams.

3 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Steady State Flow in the Cigarette and its Influence on Pressure Drop - Die stationäreStrömung in der Cigarette und derenEinfluß auf den Zugwiderstand

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 93 - 122

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A theoretical treatment of steady state fluid mechanics of filtered cigarettes has been developed. By assuming laminar fluid flow, the well knownKozeny-Carman equation has been used to evaluate the flow resistance of the tobacco rod and the linear relationship of cigarette pressure drop to flow rate. Based on this relationship, models with distributed parameters (using impedances per unit length and differential equations) and lumped parameters (using a four terminal network of flow impedances and difference equations) have been established. These were used to calculate spatial flow variables such as pressure drop, volumetric flow rate and degree of ventilation. The effects of changes in coal resistance and reduction in rod length during smoking are demonstrated in a parameter study. A great advantage of mathematical modeling based on physical principles is the wide range of validity which allows a deeper insight into the behaviour of the fluid flow process. This is illustrated using a canonical example. Invariant model parameters such as the characteristic wave impedance and the propagation coefficient have been calculated and are presented as measurable. In order to calculate the dynamic fluid flow pattern of filtered cigarettes smoked on a conventional smoking machine, the model must be extend to include kinetic terms according to the Bernouilli equation. This will be presented in a later paper.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Influence of Different Filter Parameters on the Semivolatile Composition of Mainstream Smoke

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 123 - 128

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The semivolatile fraction of cigarette smoke contains the most important aroma and taste compounds which contribute to the smoker's enjoyment. Obviously, the semivolatile composition is strongly affected by cigarette filters and consequently by the material which is used for filter manufacturing. We have studied the effect of cellulose acetate and polypropylene as filter material on the smoke semivolatiles. Further, the effect of other parameters like pressure drop and the use of additives has been investigated. Smoke condensate was collected on a Cambridge filter pad, the semivolatiles were evaporated using a headspace apparatus and subsequently collected in a cold trap. Semivolatile analyses were performed by high-resolution GC/MS. The cellulose acetate filter, due to its polar structure, selectively retains polar compounds such as phenols and furans while the non-polar polypropylene filter shows a non-selective retention behaviour. The addition to polypropylene filters of a polar compound such as triacetin, which is used as plasticiser in the manufacturing of cellulose acetate filters, does not affect the retention behaviour towards the semivolatiles.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Pattern-Arrangements of Tobacco Shreds in the Internal Structure of Cigarettes

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 129 - 134

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Analyses of indices observed in macro-photographs of a variety of cigarette cross-sections have shown that tobacco shreds forming the internal structure of cigarettes are highly arranged in a defined pattern in which their lenghts are predominantly oriented along the cigarette lenghts and their widths - parallel to the cigarette seams. These pattern-arrangements of tobacco shreds have an effect upon the dielectric properties and deformation of cigarettes. The deformation has been found to be bigger when measured perpendicular to seams.

Planen Sie Ihre Fernkonferenz mit Scienceendo