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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 25 (2012): Heft 3 (August 2012)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

4 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

EDITORS’ NOTE

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 409 - 409

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In 2002, Dr. Hubert Klus wrote a guest editorial introducing a review article on “Effects of Ingredients on Cigarette Smoke Composition and Biological Activity: A Literature Overview” [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 20 (2002) 107-247]. On this occasion, he turned to some historical facts on the monitoring and regulation of additives used for tobacco products. He reported that already some 200 years ago stringent rules were set up in Nuremberg for the correct use of ingredients in manufacturing tobacco products (and vinegar)! In the decade from 2000 on, a wealth of valuable scientific information as well as opinionated reviews were published on the potential effects of additives on consumer behavior and health. Therefore, we believe that the critical review in this issue is important and right on time.

It is with great sadness that we have to inform our readers that Professor ZHU Zunquan passed away in July. He was one of the most important scientists in tobacco research in China. He was born in 1919 in Xiangyang, China, and has for a long time been honorary or visiting professor of four universities in China. Of Professor Zhu's large spectrum of scientific publications we would like to mention especially the books “Cigarette Manufacturing Technology” and “Tobacco Technology”. Professor Zhu served also as executive editor of the journals “Tobacco Science and Technology” and “ActaTabacariaSinica”. Dr. Nicolas Baskevitch wrote a personal obituary for this issue.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Professor ZHU Zunquan - 1919-2012

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 410 - 410

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

“I do hope that in another twenty years, 2028, CORESTA would meet in China again and I certainly would be here in welcoming you”, said 89-year-old Professor ZHU Zunquan, at the 2008 CORESTA Congress, where he received an enthusiastic ovation for his sincere wish. It was very sad to hear the information that he died on July 16, his magnetic voice is still lively in my mind.

I have met Professor ZHU so many times since my first visit to the Zhengzhou Tobacco Research Institute in 1984. Having worked in CORESTA and as a consultant in China for many years, I knew that he had been actively pushing the China tobacco industry to play roles in international tobacco research organisations. In 1988, the CORESTA Congress was held in Guangzhou due to his unremitting efforts, this was the first CORESTA Congress ever held in China. He made an invited report and became a member of the Scientific Commission from 1988 to 1990. In 2008, he received the award of the CORESTA Prize at the age of 89, acknowledging his life-long work in tobacco science. During the congress, he made an impressive report “Leaf Tobacco Production in China: Past, Present, and Perspective”.

Over the years he has been truly my teacher about tobacco in China and not only tobacco. Without his inspiration, I would never have enjoyed the successes that China has brought me in my professional career. Professor ZHU was well known as the expert in tobacco agronomy and cigarette manufacturing technology. He devoted himself to the research work on reducing the harmful components and tar level of cigarettes. He put forward the concept “reducing tar level and hazard” in the early 1980s and switched it to “reducing hazard and tar level” in 2003, which guided and is still guiding the direction of Chinese style cigarette development. Also, he was the one, who developed the first Chinese low-tar blended cigarette. We shared the ideas about low-tar cigarette development. “Professor ZHU Zunquan's death was a big loss for Zhengzhou Tobacco Research Institute of CNTC, a big loss for China tobacco industry, and a big loss for China engineering of science and technology”, said XIE Jianping, ZHU's student and the vice president of Zhengzhou Tobacco Research Institute of CNTC.

Besides that, he has in fact helped me quite a lot in understanding Chinese culture and humour. I still remember, in May 1984, when we met for the first time, he told me the most important sentence that I had to remember in Chinese language: He showed me the wall and said: what is it? I said it's a “wall”, then he showed me his eye and said: what is it? I said it's an “eye”, then he showed me his knee and said: what is it? I said it's a “knee”. Good he said, now please repeat the 3 words together, and I said: Wo Ai Ni! Indeed this was the most important sentence in Chinese language, meaning “I love you”.

I will remember professor ZHU for the rest of my life.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Influence of Additives on Cigarette Related Health Risks

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 412 - 493

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Tobacco additives play an important role in the manufacturing and for the quality of tobacco products, particularly cigarettes and roll-your-own tobaccos. Attention is increasingly given to the potential effects of additives on consumer behavior and health. This review is intended to compile, collate and - to some degree - evaluate the wealth of pertinent scientific information available from the published literature and other special sources. At first, the reasons are set forth for the use of additives in cigarette manufacturing. In response to the growing controversy over the attractiveness and addictiveness of smoking, the clarification of terms and concepts is followed by a detailed discussion of two kinds of substances with particular relevance: Additives like ammonium compounds that are claimed to increase nicotine availability, and additives that are claimed to increase nicotine addictiveness.

The composition and toxicity of mainstream smoke of cigarettes with and without additives are assessed in several respects. The potentials of pyrolysis studies are explored by looking at a number of key studies and some basic considerations regarding in vitro and in vivo toxicity testing are addressed. Five major literature reviews on additives published between 1994 and 2004, and the results of several comprehensive experimental studies covering a large range of additives, released between 2002 and 2012, are dealt with in detail. Single tobacco additives of particular importance (menthol, glycerol, 1,2-propylene glycol, sorbitol, sugars, cocoa, licorice, citric acid, triacetin, and ammonium compounds) are discussed in dedicated chapters, which are generally subdivided into special sections: Use and toxicological assessment; inclusion level in cigarettes, transfer and pyrolysis; attractiveness and addictiveness; effect on cigarette mainstream smoke composition; effect on cigarette mainstream smoke toxicity. Epidemiological findings and data obtained by the biomonitoring of smokers consuming cigarettes with and without additives are compiled and interpreted specifically for American blend cigarettes, Virginia cigarettes, “French” (dark) cigarettes and menthol cigarettes whereby the focus is on the effects of additives on smoking topography and potential health risks.

Opinionated reviews were published in recent years that are compromised by arbitrary selection of sources and unbalanced views. Leaving those unconsidered, the aggregated scientific knowledge shows that tobacco additives have only occasional and limited effects on cigarette mainstream smoke composition, which are almost never reflected in the results of toxicological in vitro assays or in vivo studies. This supports the conclusion that tobacco additives are not likely to increase the known health risks of smoking. There is also no evidence for sustaining claims that certain additives increase nicotine availability or nicotine addictiveness.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Executive Summary - Influence of Additives on Cigarette Related Health Risks

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 492 - 493

Zusammenfassung

4 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

EDITORS’ NOTE

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 409 - 409

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In 2002, Dr. Hubert Klus wrote a guest editorial introducing a review article on “Effects of Ingredients on Cigarette Smoke Composition and Biological Activity: A Literature Overview” [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 20 (2002) 107-247]. On this occasion, he turned to some historical facts on the monitoring and regulation of additives used for tobacco products. He reported that already some 200 years ago stringent rules were set up in Nuremberg for the correct use of ingredients in manufacturing tobacco products (and vinegar)! In the decade from 2000 on, a wealth of valuable scientific information as well as opinionated reviews were published on the potential effects of additives on consumer behavior and health. Therefore, we believe that the critical review in this issue is important and right on time.

It is with great sadness that we have to inform our readers that Professor ZHU Zunquan passed away in July. He was one of the most important scientists in tobacco research in China. He was born in 1919 in Xiangyang, China, and has for a long time been honorary or visiting professor of four universities in China. Of Professor Zhu's large spectrum of scientific publications we would like to mention especially the books “Cigarette Manufacturing Technology” and “Tobacco Technology”. Professor Zhu served also as executive editor of the journals “Tobacco Science and Technology” and “ActaTabacariaSinica”. Dr. Nicolas Baskevitch wrote a personal obituary for this issue.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Professor ZHU Zunquan - 1919-2012

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 410 - 410

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

“I do hope that in another twenty years, 2028, CORESTA would meet in China again and I certainly would be here in welcoming you”, said 89-year-old Professor ZHU Zunquan, at the 2008 CORESTA Congress, where he received an enthusiastic ovation for his sincere wish. It was very sad to hear the information that he died on July 16, his magnetic voice is still lively in my mind.

I have met Professor ZHU so many times since my first visit to the Zhengzhou Tobacco Research Institute in 1984. Having worked in CORESTA and as a consultant in China for many years, I knew that he had been actively pushing the China tobacco industry to play roles in international tobacco research organisations. In 1988, the CORESTA Congress was held in Guangzhou due to his unremitting efforts, this was the first CORESTA Congress ever held in China. He made an invited report and became a member of the Scientific Commission from 1988 to 1990. In 2008, he received the award of the CORESTA Prize at the age of 89, acknowledging his life-long work in tobacco science. During the congress, he made an impressive report “Leaf Tobacco Production in China: Past, Present, and Perspective”.

Over the years he has been truly my teacher about tobacco in China and not only tobacco. Without his inspiration, I would never have enjoyed the successes that China has brought me in my professional career. Professor ZHU was well known as the expert in tobacco agronomy and cigarette manufacturing technology. He devoted himself to the research work on reducing the harmful components and tar level of cigarettes. He put forward the concept “reducing tar level and hazard” in the early 1980s and switched it to “reducing hazard and tar level” in 2003, which guided and is still guiding the direction of Chinese style cigarette development. Also, he was the one, who developed the first Chinese low-tar blended cigarette. We shared the ideas about low-tar cigarette development. “Professor ZHU Zunquan's death was a big loss for Zhengzhou Tobacco Research Institute of CNTC, a big loss for China tobacco industry, and a big loss for China engineering of science and technology”, said XIE Jianping, ZHU's student and the vice president of Zhengzhou Tobacco Research Institute of CNTC.

Besides that, he has in fact helped me quite a lot in understanding Chinese culture and humour. I still remember, in May 1984, when we met for the first time, he told me the most important sentence that I had to remember in Chinese language: He showed me the wall and said: what is it? I said it's a “wall”, then he showed me his eye and said: what is it? I said it's an “eye”, then he showed me his knee and said: what is it? I said it's a “knee”. Good he said, now please repeat the 3 words together, and I said: Wo Ai Ni! Indeed this was the most important sentence in Chinese language, meaning “I love you”.

I will remember professor ZHU for the rest of my life.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Influence of Additives on Cigarette Related Health Risks

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 412 - 493

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Tobacco additives play an important role in the manufacturing and for the quality of tobacco products, particularly cigarettes and roll-your-own tobaccos. Attention is increasingly given to the potential effects of additives on consumer behavior and health. This review is intended to compile, collate and - to some degree - evaluate the wealth of pertinent scientific information available from the published literature and other special sources. At first, the reasons are set forth for the use of additives in cigarette manufacturing. In response to the growing controversy over the attractiveness and addictiveness of smoking, the clarification of terms and concepts is followed by a detailed discussion of two kinds of substances with particular relevance: Additives like ammonium compounds that are claimed to increase nicotine availability, and additives that are claimed to increase nicotine addictiveness.

The composition and toxicity of mainstream smoke of cigarettes with and without additives are assessed in several respects. The potentials of pyrolysis studies are explored by looking at a number of key studies and some basic considerations regarding in vitro and in vivo toxicity testing are addressed. Five major literature reviews on additives published between 1994 and 2004, and the results of several comprehensive experimental studies covering a large range of additives, released between 2002 and 2012, are dealt with in detail. Single tobacco additives of particular importance (menthol, glycerol, 1,2-propylene glycol, sorbitol, sugars, cocoa, licorice, citric acid, triacetin, and ammonium compounds) are discussed in dedicated chapters, which are generally subdivided into special sections: Use and toxicological assessment; inclusion level in cigarettes, transfer and pyrolysis; attractiveness and addictiveness; effect on cigarette mainstream smoke composition; effect on cigarette mainstream smoke toxicity. Epidemiological findings and data obtained by the biomonitoring of smokers consuming cigarettes with and without additives are compiled and interpreted specifically for American blend cigarettes, Virginia cigarettes, “French” (dark) cigarettes and menthol cigarettes whereby the focus is on the effects of additives on smoking topography and potential health risks.

Opinionated reviews were published in recent years that are compromised by arbitrary selection of sources and unbalanced views. Leaving those unconsidered, the aggregated scientific knowledge shows that tobacco additives have only occasional and limited effects on cigarette mainstream smoke composition, which are almost never reflected in the results of toxicological in vitro assays or in vivo studies. This supports the conclusion that tobacco additives are not likely to increase the known health risks of smoking. There is also no evidence for sustaining claims that certain additives increase nicotine availability or nicotine addictiveness.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Executive Summary - Influence of Additives on Cigarette Related Health Risks

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 492 - 493

Zusammenfassung

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