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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 18 (1998): Heft 2 (August 1998)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

4 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Evaluation of the Efficacy of CGA 245704 Combined or Not with CGA 329 351 (Mefenoxam) for the Control of Tobacco Blue Mold (Peronospora Tabacina): Results of Four Years of Experiments

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 55 - 62

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A compound for activating systemic resistance (CGA 245 704), in the chemical class of benzothiadiazoles, was studied since 1993 for the control of tobacco blue mold (Peronosporatabacina A.) in seedbeds and in the field. One foliar application of CGA 245 704 at 1.6 g active ingredient/hl every 14 days protected tobacco plants against blue mold but protection was not total. Mixed with mefenoxam (CGA 329 351) at 16 g active ingredient/hl the protection is equivalent to standard Acylon¯ TC (25 % metalaxyl, 50 % maneb) applied as foliar spray at 0.160 kg/hl (40 g active ingredient metalaxyl per hl). This allows a reduction in the quantity of fungicides dispersed in the environment and the pesticide residues on the tobacco leaves. At the rate applied, no phytotoxic effects were observed in seedbeds or in the field.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Induction of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins of Group 1 by Systemic Virus Infections of Nicotiana tabacum L.

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 63 - 70

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The induction of acid pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-proteins) of group 1 (PR-1) by systemic virus infections of tobacco plants was investigated during a time period between 3 and 19 days after inoculation. Each leaf position was investigated separately. The PR proteins were detected electrophoretically and, in addition, virus protein was detected by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Potato virus X (PVX) and potato virus Y (PVY) were found to highly induce PR proteins in N. tabacum L. “Samsun NN”. The same results were obtained when PVX was investigated in N. tabacum L. “Samsun”. The accumulation started later and took place more slowly than during hypersensitive host reaction (HR) of “Samsun NN” to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). A correlation was found between the accumulation of PR proteins and the accumulation of the virus in the same leaf. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was less effective in PR protein induction than PVX and PVY. Consequently it could be demonstrated that PR proteins do not only appear due to hypersensitive host reactions but also during systemic virus infections.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Incidence and Consequences of Filter Vent Blocking Amongst British Smokers

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 71 - 83

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Vent blocking, the intentional or unintentional covering of the filter ventilation holes during smoking, is an aspect of smoking behaviour which could influence mainstream smoke yields. This study was designed to determine if, and to what extent, vent blocking by smokers’ lips occurs. Three groups of British smokers were asked to smoke their own brand of cigarette which was either an unventilated filter brand, or one of two brands containing different levels of filter ventilation. 300 Smokers were used in each group and the filter butts were collected. Approximately 10 filter butts per smoker were collected. The filter tipping papers were removed and treated with a ninhydrin solution. This stained the saliva imprint on the paper so that the mouth insertion depth of the cigarette could be measured. In addition, levels of retained nicotine on the filters were also determined. This, together with the known filtration efficiencies of the filter, enabled an estimate to be made of the mainstream nicotine yield of the cigarette during the smoking. The results indicate that British smokers have an average insertion depth of about 8.5 mm. 85 % of the ventilated filters examined showed no vent coverage by the smokers’ lips, 15 % showed some coverage. Based on the techniques used in the present study it appears that the presence or absence of filter ventilation zone coverage by lips is not reflected in the estimated nicotine yields to smokers. It is likely that other smoker behaviour factors have a more substantial role in determining nicotine yields within each cigarette delivery category.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Mouth Insertion Depths in Canadian Smokers

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 85 - 91

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

There is the potential for smokers of ventilated cigarettes to block the ventilation holes either accidentally or deliberately thereby altering the smoke deliveries from those obtained by standardized machine smoking. One way in which the holes can be blocked is by inserting the cigarette into the mouth so that the holes are partially or completely blocked by the lips of the smoker. We have assessed to what extent this occurs amongst Canadian smokers by measuring the saliva patterns on 2756 cigarette butts collected in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver. The butts were a cross-section of brands smoked in Canada. Saliva stains were visualized by treating the tipping paper with ninhydrin solution. The insertion depth was assumed to be the maximum extent of the saliva stain from the mouth end of the tipping. The brand of each cigarette butt was identified where possible as well as whether the filter was ventilated and if so, the distance of the vent holes from the mouth end. The butt lengths were also determined. Of the 2756 butts collected, 2232 had lip imprint patterns that could be visualized with ninhydrin solution. 56.2 % of the butts with measurable insertion depths, and which could be identified by brand, were ventilated. There was no significant difference between the average insertion depths for ventilated and non-ventilated brands (10.6 AA± 3.6 and 11.0 AA± 3.6 mm respectively). It was estimated that for the ventilated brands between 3.7-10.3 % of the butts could have had the vents blocked completely for at least one puff, 13.8-20.4 % of the butts had vents that could have been partially blocked and 75.9 % of the butts showed no sign of any vent blockage during smoking.

4 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Evaluation of the Efficacy of CGA 245704 Combined or Not with CGA 329 351 (Mefenoxam) for the Control of Tobacco Blue Mold (Peronospora Tabacina): Results of Four Years of Experiments

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 55 - 62

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A compound for activating systemic resistance (CGA 245 704), in the chemical class of benzothiadiazoles, was studied since 1993 for the control of tobacco blue mold (Peronosporatabacina A.) in seedbeds and in the field. One foliar application of CGA 245 704 at 1.6 g active ingredient/hl every 14 days protected tobacco plants against blue mold but protection was not total. Mixed with mefenoxam (CGA 329 351) at 16 g active ingredient/hl the protection is equivalent to standard Acylon¯ TC (25 % metalaxyl, 50 % maneb) applied as foliar spray at 0.160 kg/hl (40 g active ingredient metalaxyl per hl). This allows a reduction in the quantity of fungicides dispersed in the environment and the pesticide residues on the tobacco leaves. At the rate applied, no phytotoxic effects were observed in seedbeds or in the field.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Induction of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins of Group 1 by Systemic Virus Infections of Nicotiana tabacum L.

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 63 - 70

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The induction of acid pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-proteins) of group 1 (PR-1) by systemic virus infections of tobacco plants was investigated during a time period between 3 and 19 days after inoculation. Each leaf position was investigated separately. The PR proteins were detected electrophoretically and, in addition, virus protein was detected by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Potato virus X (PVX) and potato virus Y (PVY) were found to highly induce PR proteins in N. tabacum L. “Samsun NN”. The same results were obtained when PVX was investigated in N. tabacum L. “Samsun”. The accumulation started later and took place more slowly than during hypersensitive host reaction (HR) of “Samsun NN” to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). A correlation was found between the accumulation of PR proteins and the accumulation of the virus in the same leaf. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was less effective in PR protein induction than PVX and PVY. Consequently it could be demonstrated that PR proteins do not only appear due to hypersensitive host reactions but also during systemic virus infections.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Incidence and Consequences of Filter Vent Blocking Amongst British Smokers

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 71 - 83

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Vent blocking, the intentional or unintentional covering of the filter ventilation holes during smoking, is an aspect of smoking behaviour which could influence mainstream smoke yields. This study was designed to determine if, and to what extent, vent blocking by smokers’ lips occurs. Three groups of British smokers were asked to smoke their own brand of cigarette which was either an unventilated filter brand, or one of two brands containing different levels of filter ventilation. 300 Smokers were used in each group and the filter butts were collected. Approximately 10 filter butts per smoker were collected. The filter tipping papers were removed and treated with a ninhydrin solution. This stained the saliva imprint on the paper so that the mouth insertion depth of the cigarette could be measured. In addition, levels of retained nicotine on the filters were also determined. This, together with the known filtration efficiencies of the filter, enabled an estimate to be made of the mainstream nicotine yield of the cigarette during the smoking. The results indicate that British smokers have an average insertion depth of about 8.5 mm. 85 % of the ventilated filters examined showed no vent coverage by the smokers’ lips, 15 % showed some coverage. Based on the techniques used in the present study it appears that the presence or absence of filter ventilation zone coverage by lips is not reflected in the estimated nicotine yields to smokers. It is likely that other smoker behaviour factors have a more substantial role in determining nicotine yields within each cigarette delivery category.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Mouth Insertion Depths in Canadian Smokers

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 85 - 91

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

There is the potential for smokers of ventilated cigarettes to block the ventilation holes either accidentally or deliberately thereby altering the smoke deliveries from those obtained by standardized machine smoking. One way in which the holes can be blocked is by inserting the cigarette into the mouth so that the holes are partially or completely blocked by the lips of the smoker. We have assessed to what extent this occurs amongst Canadian smokers by measuring the saliva patterns on 2756 cigarette butts collected in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver. The butts were a cross-section of brands smoked in Canada. Saliva stains were visualized by treating the tipping paper with ninhydrin solution. The insertion depth was assumed to be the maximum extent of the saliva stain from the mouth end of the tipping. The brand of each cigarette butt was identified where possible as well as whether the filter was ventilated and if so, the distance of the vent holes from the mouth end. The butt lengths were also determined. Of the 2756 butts collected, 2232 had lip imprint patterns that could be visualized with ninhydrin solution. 56.2 % of the butts with measurable insertion depths, and which could be identified by brand, were ventilated. There was no significant difference between the average insertion depths for ventilated and non-ventilated brands (10.6 AA± 3.6 and 11.0 AA± 3.6 mm respectively). It was estimated that for the ventilated brands between 3.7-10.3 % of the butts could have had the vents blocked completely for at least one puff, 13.8-20.4 % of the butts had vents that could have been partially blocked and 75.9 % of the butts showed no sign of any vent blockage during smoking.

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