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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 14 (1990): Heft 6 (June 1990)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

6 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Alkaloid Composition of the Nicotiana Species

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 327 - 339

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Plants from 64 Nicotiana species were sampled in the greenhouse in 1983 and 1984 and from the field in 1985 and 1986 for the purpose of developing a chemical profile of each species. Mature green leaves were harvested at flowering, freeze-dried and ground to pass a 1 mm screen prior to chemical analysis. In this study we report the type and amounts of nicotinoid alkaloids. Alkaloid values were determined by glass-capillary gas chromatography and were averaged over the two years for each environment. Both total alkaloids (mg g-1 dry weight) and the distribution (percentage composition) of nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine, and anatabine were highly correlated between years for greenhouse and field samples. Greenhouse and field data were highly correlated, although total-alkaloid levels were significantly higher from field-grown plants. All of the Nicotiana species tested contained a measurable alkaloid fraction (at least 10 µg g-1). There was a wide range in total-alkaloid levels with nearly a 200-fold difference among greenhouse-grown samples and a 400-fold difference among field-grown species. In general, total-alkaloid levels among the species were found to be relatively low. Eleven species were found to have a different alkaloid composition when green leaf and air-dried samples were compared. Evidence is presented for the association between alkaloid characteristics and the phylogenetic classification of the species in the genus.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Practical Modeling of Filter Filtration Efficiency

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 341 - 352

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A simple and general mathematical model has been developed to calculate filter-filtration efficiency, which is based on practical design parameters: pressure drop, filter dimension, flow rate, and filament denier. This model has been verified by examining published experimental data, which include a broad range of design parameters. This model surpasses other models currently described in the literature in terms of accuracy. The drag force of the filter (which is accounted for by the pressure drop times the circumference squared, DP • C2) appears to be the most important contribution to filter-filtration efficiency, but its contribution can be drastically reduced by varying design parameters.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A Review of the Uses of Nuclear Radiation in Tobacco and Smoke Research

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 353 - 378

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In summary, nuclear radiation has been widely used to elucidate many aspects of the mechanisms of tobacco being converted to smoke. In addition, the mechanisms of smoke transfer, tobacco inorganic chemistry and smoke filtration have been clarified by many authors worldwide. The newer techniques now being developed, using radiation detection coupled with the enhanced use of electronic-data reduction and interpretation, promise to continue the important role these techniques have played in understanding smoke-formation mechanisms.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of Exogenous Potassium on the Reduction in Tar, Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide Deliveries in the Mainstream Smoke of Cigarettes

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 379 - 385

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Deliveries of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide in mainstream smoke decreased as the exogenous-potassium content of tobacco increased. The puff count was almost unchanged with added potassium malate, but slightly decreased with added nitrate. Potassium malate was more effective than the nitrate for the reduction of carbon monoxide, whereas the opposite was observed in the case of nicotine. Both the exogenous and the endogenous potassium contents influenced the reduction of carbon-monoxide delivery through a decrease in the peak temperature of the burning cone. The pungency and off-taste peculiar to the tobacco were eliminated to some extent by the addition of potassium malate at levels less than 2 % expressed as potassium.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Fate of Chlorpyrifos on Tobacco during Smoking

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 387 - 391

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Cigarettes made from flue-cured tobacco, treated with different amounts of chlorpyrifos, were smoked according to Federal Trade Commission specifications, and the chlorpyrifos levels in the butts, various ashes, and mainstream and sidestream smokes were determined. Of all the chlorpyrifos in a cigarette, 28 % to 29.5 % was left in the butts, 13.5 % to 15 % and 2.0 % to 4.6 % were transferred into mainstream and sidestream smokes, respectively, and about 52 % to 55 % was either combusted or decomposed into unknown fragments. The various ashes did not show any detectable amount of chlorpyrifos.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Dibenzofurans in Cigarette Smoke - Polychlordibenzodioxine und Polychlordibenzofurane in Cigarettenrauch

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 393 - 402

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper describes a method for the determination of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and -furans both in gas phase and in particulate matter of cigarette smoke. This method was used for analysing the concentrations of all relevant polychlorinated dibenzofurans in the smoke of the ten best-selling German cigarette brands. The distribution of the various tetra-octachlordibenzodioxin isomers was similar to that obtained after combustion. None of the cigarettes investigated was found to contain 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzodioxin. The total values expressed as TCDD toxic equivalent values are low, ranging from 0.05 to 0.17 pg/cig. These results are compared with the data reported in the literature to date. Regarding uptake of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and -furans, cigarette smoke is only a source of minor importance as compared to nutrition.

6 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Alkaloid Composition of the Nicotiana Species

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 327 - 339

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Plants from 64 Nicotiana species were sampled in the greenhouse in 1983 and 1984 and from the field in 1985 and 1986 for the purpose of developing a chemical profile of each species. Mature green leaves were harvested at flowering, freeze-dried and ground to pass a 1 mm screen prior to chemical analysis. In this study we report the type and amounts of nicotinoid alkaloids. Alkaloid values were determined by glass-capillary gas chromatography and were averaged over the two years for each environment. Both total alkaloids (mg g-1 dry weight) and the distribution (percentage composition) of nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine, and anatabine were highly correlated between years for greenhouse and field samples. Greenhouse and field data were highly correlated, although total-alkaloid levels were significantly higher from field-grown plants. All of the Nicotiana species tested contained a measurable alkaloid fraction (at least 10 µg g-1). There was a wide range in total-alkaloid levels with nearly a 200-fold difference among greenhouse-grown samples and a 400-fold difference among field-grown species. In general, total-alkaloid levels among the species were found to be relatively low. Eleven species were found to have a different alkaloid composition when green leaf and air-dried samples were compared. Evidence is presented for the association between alkaloid characteristics and the phylogenetic classification of the species in the genus.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Practical Modeling of Filter Filtration Efficiency

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 341 - 352

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A simple and general mathematical model has been developed to calculate filter-filtration efficiency, which is based on practical design parameters: pressure drop, filter dimension, flow rate, and filament denier. This model has been verified by examining published experimental data, which include a broad range of design parameters. This model surpasses other models currently described in the literature in terms of accuracy. The drag force of the filter (which is accounted for by the pressure drop times the circumference squared, DP • C2) appears to be the most important contribution to filter-filtration efficiency, but its contribution can be drastically reduced by varying design parameters.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A Review of the Uses of Nuclear Radiation in Tobacco and Smoke Research

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 353 - 378

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In summary, nuclear radiation has been widely used to elucidate many aspects of the mechanisms of tobacco being converted to smoke. In addition, the mechanisms of smoke transfer, tobacco inorganic chemistry and smoke filtration have been clarified by many authors worldwide. The newer techniques now being developed, using radiation detection coupled with the enhanced use of electronic-data reduction and interpretation, promise to continue the important role these techniques have played in understanding smoke-formation mechanisms.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of Exogenous Potassium on the Reduction in Tar, Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide Deliveries in the Mainstream Smoke of Cigarettes

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 379 - 385

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Deliveries of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide in mainstream smoke decreased as the exogenous-potassium content of tobacco increased. The puff count was almost unchanged with added potassium malate, but slightly decreased with added nitrate. Potassium malate was more effective than the nitrate for the reduction of carbon monoxide, whereas the opposite was observed in the case of nicotine. Both the exogenous and the endogenous potassium contents influenced the reduction of carbon-monoxide delivery through a decrease in the peak temperature of the burning cone. The pungency and off-taste peculiar to the tobacco were eliminated to some extent by the addition of potassium malate at levels less than 2 % expressed as potassium.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Fate of Chlorpyrifos on Tobacco during Smoking

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 387 - 391

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Cigarettes made from flue-cured tobacco, treated with different amounts of chlorpyrifos, were smoked according to Federal Trade Commission specifications, and the chlorpyrifos levels in the butts, various ashes, and mainstream and sidestream smokes were determined. Of all the chlorpyrifos in a cigarette, 28 % to 29.5 % was left in the butts, 13.5 % to 15 % and 2.0 % to 4.6 % were transferred into mainstream and sidestream smokes, respectively, and about 52 % to 55 % was either combusted or decomposed into unknown fragments. The various ashes did not show any detectable amount of chlorpyrifos.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Dibenzofurans in Cigarette Smoke - Polychlordibenzodioxine und Polychlordibenzofurane in Cigarettenrauch

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 393 - 402

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper describes a method for the determination of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and -furans both in gas phase and in particulate matter of cigarette smoke. This method was used for analysing the concentrations of all relevant polychlorinated dibenzofurans in the smoke of the ten best-selling German cigarette brands. The distribution of the various tetra-octachlordibenzodioxin isomers was similar to that obtained after combustion. None of the cigarettes investigated was found to contain 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzodioxin. The total values expressed as TCDD toxic equivalent values are low, ranging from 0.05 to 0.17 pg/cig. These results are compared with the data reported in the literature to date. Regarding uptake of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and -furans, cigarette smoke is only a source of minor importance as compared to nutrition.

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