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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 12 (1984): Heft 5 (November 1984)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

6 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Isolation and Identification of N´ -Acylalkaloids of Cigarette Smoke

Online veröffentlicht: 14 Aug 2014
Seitenbereich: 227 - 243

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Methods have been developed for the analyses of the minor high-boiling bases of smoke. Fused silica glass capillary columns coated with Superox-4 were prepared and used successfully for the GC analyses of the basic fraction of smoke, containing compounds covering a wide range of volatility and polarity (nicotine to norbarman). The Superox-4 capillary column also produced an excellent separation of the numerous Nacylalkaloids, which have been reported in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Several new N´-acylalkaloids are reported. The described methodology should be a great asset in future isolation and identification studies of these and other, as yet to be characterized, minor bases of smoke and leaf.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Quantitative Analysis of Cigarette Smoke Condensate Monophenols by Reverse-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Online veröffentlicht: 14 Aug 2014
Seitenbereich: 245 - 250

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A rapid and quantitative method for the determination of cigarette smoke condensate monophenols using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. Total particulate matter was collected on cigarette filter tips and Cambridge filter pads. Phenolic compounds were extracted with a 1 N sodium hydroxide solution. Five different brands of filter-tipped cigarettes from the French market were analysed. Their phenol, guaiacol, methylphenols and dimethylphenols levels were determined in comparison with an internal standard, o-chlorophenol. With the same method we compared the phenolic retention efficiency of different cigarette filter tips.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Distribution of Cigarette Smoke Components between Mainstream and Sidestream Smoke: III. Middle and Higher Boiling Components

Online veröffentlicht: 14 Aug 2014
Seitenbereich: 251 - 258

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Yields in sidestream smoke (SS) and mainstream smoke (MS) and sidestream smoke to mainstream smoke distribution ratios (SS/MS) of middle and higher boiling compounds, including neutral ones, were investigated for four types of unblended cigarette (bright, Burley, Turkish and domestic (cv. Matsukawa)). Both sidestream and mainstream smokes were separately collected with a combination of a glass fiber filter assembly, a small Elmenhorst cold trap and a liquid trap containing acetone cooled by dry ice - methanol. Of the 31 components quantitatively determined by gas chromatography, nicotine and acetic acid were the predominant components in both sidestream and mainstream smokes from all types of tobacco, followed by limonene, phenol, 3-vinylpyridine and 2-furaldehyde in sidestream smoke and neophytadiene, 3-hydroxypyridine, phenol and acetamide in mainstream smoke. The SS/MS ratios of the major compounds were as follows: pyridine, 10.2-13.3; limonene, 4.3-2.1; 3-picoline, 5.2-10.1; 2-cyclopentenone, 2.9-3.8; 2-furaldehyde, 4.9-7.4; pyrrole, 9.0-13.7; furfuryl alcohol, 3.0-4.8; acetamide, 0.8-1.7; 2.4-pentadien-4-olide, 5.2-8.9; neophytadiene, 1.0-1.8.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of Cigarette Circumference on Weight Loss during Puffs and Total Delivery of Tar and Nicotine

Online veröffentlicht: 14 Aug 2014
Seitenbereich: 259 - 269

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Using cigarettes of different circumference but a constant packing density, the weight loss during a puff, Wp, and the total deliveries of tar and nicotine were measured. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: the puff count, n, and the weight loss during a puff, Wp, were nearly proportional to the radius of the cigarette. The total deliveries of tar and nicotine were closely proportional to the weight loss during puffs. Based on these results the following equations were derived:

for tar:

for nicotine:

where

Ts = amount of tar in mainstream smoke,

Ns = amount of nicotine in mainstream smoke,

W = weight of tobacco column,

L = length of tobacco column,

ns = nicotine content (%) based on actual weight,

lt = length of tobacco column butt,

lf = length of filter,

µt = filtration coefficient of tobacco column,

µf = filtration coefficient of filter,

Kt / Kn experimental constants depending on blend type and others.

From these equations, the amount of tar and nicotine in mainstream smoke can easily be estimated.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Flavor Composition of Maryland Tobacco

Online veröffentlicht: 14 Aug 2014
Seitenbereich: 271 - 278

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study was undertaken to determine if Maryland tobacco contains any unique flavour components and to compare its composition to that of flue-cured and Burley tobaccos. Methylene chloride extracts prepared from these tobaccos were fractionated by liquid-liquid partitions and by preparative liquid chromatography. The resulting fractions were analysed by glass capillary gas chromatography and by glass capillary gas chromatography / mass spectroscopy. The essential oils of these tobaccos were also examined. Only one minor component was found in Maryland tobacco that was not found in the other tobaccos. If the minor and trace components were further studied, other differences might be found. Based on this study, however, the uniqueness of Maryland tobacco is primarily, if not entirely, due to quantitative differences. Also, Maryland tobacco is no more similar to Burley (middle-stalk or low-stalk leaves) than it is to flue-cured tobacco.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Inhibition of Axillary and Terminal Bud Growth on Tobacco by a Series of C2 to C10 Diol Formulations

Online veröffentlicht: 14 Aug 2014
Seitenbereich: 279 - 284

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A series of straight chain or n-diols were evaluated as aqueous emulsions for their ability tO inhibit terminal or axillary bud growth of tobacco plants. These n-C2 to n-C10 diol formulations (hydroxyls at terminal carbons) were considerably less active than formulations of straight chain alcohols of the same carbon lengths. Shifting the position of the hydroxyls from the terminal carbons changed activity only slighdy. The straight chain diols with 5, 6 or 7 carbons were more active than shorter or longer chain lengths. The efficacy of 1,6-hexanediol was increased when it was formulated with a surfactant having a lOw hydrophilic-lipophilic balance value (11.6 vs. 16.3) so that its effectiveness was similar to that of the n-C8 plus n-C10 alcohol formulation. Of several substituted diolș evaluated, 2-ethyl- 1,3-hexanediol was the· most active but it caused severe damage to mature leaves thus it is not considered to be a selective plant growth inhibitor. Both 2,5-dimethyl- 2,5-hexanediol and 1,4-cyclohexanediol caused a general growth retardation rather than tissue kill

6 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Isolation and Identification of N´ -Acylalkaloids of Cigarette Smoke

Online veröffentlicht: 14 Aug 2014
Seitenbereich: 227 - 243

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Methods have been developed for the analyses of the minor high-boiling bases of smoke. Fused silica glass capillary columns coated with Superox-4 were prepared and used successfully for the GC analyses of the basic fraction of smoke, containing compounds covering a wide range of volatility and polarity (nicotine to norbarman). The Superox-4 capillary column also produced an excellent separation of the numerous Nacylalkaloids, which have been reported in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Several new N´-acylalkaloids are reported. The described methodology should be a great asset in future isolation and identification studies of these and other, as yet to be characterized, minor bases of smoke and leaf.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Quantitative Analysis of Cigarette Smoke Condensate Monophenols by Reverse-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Online veröffentlicht: 14 Aug 2014
Seitenbereich: 245 - 250

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A rapid and quantitative method for the determination of cigarette smoke condensate monophenols using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. Total particulate matter was collected on cigarette filter tips and Cambridge filter pads. Phenolic compounds were extracted with a 1 N sodium hydroxide solution. Five different brands of filter-tipped cigarettes from the French market were analysed. Their phenol, guaiacol, methylphenols and dimethylphenols levels were determined in comparison with an internal standard, o-chlorophenol. With the same method we compared the phenolic retention efficiency of different cigarette filter tips.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Distribution of Cigarette Smoke Components between Mainstream and Sidestream Smoke: III. Middle and Higher Boiling Components

Online veröffentlicht: 14 Aug 2014
Seitenbereich: 251 - 258

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Yields in sidestream smoke (SS) and mainstream smoke (MS) and sidestream smoke to mainstream smoke distribution ratios (SS/MS) of middle and higher boiling compounds, including neutral ones, were investigated for four types of unblended cigarette (bright, Burley, Turkish and domestic (cv. Matsukawa)). Both sidestream and mainstream smokes were separately collected with a combination of a glass fiber filter assembly, a small Elmenhorst cold trap and a liquid trap containing acetone cooled by dry ice - methanol. Of the 31 components quantitatively determined by gas chromatography, nicotine and acetic acid were the predominant components in both sidestream and mainstream smokes from all types of tobacco, followed by limonene, phenol, 3-vinylpyridine and 2-furaldehyde in sidestream smoke and neophytadiene, 3-hydroxypyridine, phenol and acetamide in mainstream smoke. The SS/MS ratios of the major compounds were as follows: pyridine, 10.2-13.3; limonene, 4.3-2.1; 3-picoline, 5.2-10.1; 2-cyclopentenone, 2.9-3.8; 2-furaldehyde, 4.9-7.4; pyrrole, 9.0-13.7; furfuryl alcohol, 3.0-4.8; acetamide, 0.8-1.7; 2.4-pentadien-4-olide, 5.2-8.9; neophytadiene, 1.0-1.8.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of Cigarette Circumference on Weight Loss during Puffs and Total Delivery of Tar and Nicotine

Online veröffentlicht: 14 Aug 2014
Seitenbereich: 259 - 269

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Using cigarettes of different circumference but a constant packing density, the weight loss during a puff, Wp, and the total deliveries of tar and nicotine were measured. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: the puff count, n, and the weight loss during a puff, Wp, were nearly proportional to the radius of the cigarette. The total deliveries of tar and nicotine were closely proportional to the weight loss during puffs. Based on these results the following equations were derived:

for tar:

for nicotine:

where

Ts = amount of tar in mainstream smoke,

Ns = amount of nicotine in mainstream smoke,

W = weight of tobacco column,

L = length of tobacco column,

ns = nicotine content (%) based on actual weight,

lt = length of tobacco column butt,

lf = length of filter,

µt = filtration coefficient of tobacco column,

µf = filtration coefficient of filter,

Kt / Kn experimental constants depending on blend type and others.

From these equations, the amount of tar and nicotine in mainstream smoke can easily be estimated.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Flavor Composition of Maryland Tobacco

Online veröffentlicht: 14 Aug 2014
Seitenbereich: 271 - 278

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study was undertaken to determine if Maryland tobacco contains any unique flavour components and to compare its composition to that of flue-cured and Burley tobaccos. Methylene chloride extracts prepared from these tobaccos were fractionated by liquid-liquid partitions and by preparative liquid chromatography. The resulting fractions were analysed by glass capillary gas chromatography and by glass capillary gas chromatography / mass spectroscopy. The essential oils of these tobaccos were also examined. Only one minor component was found in Maryland tobacco that was not found in the other tobaccos. If the minor and trace components were further studied, other differences might be found. Based on this study, however, the uniqueness of Maryland tobacco is primarily, if not entirely, due to quantitative differences. Also, Maryland tobacco is no more similar to Burley (middle-stalk or low-stalk leaves) than it is to flue-cured tobacco.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Inhibition of Axillary and Terminal Bud Growth on Tobacco by a Series of C2 to C10 Diol Formulations

Online veröffentlicht: 14 Aug 2014
Seitenbereich: 279 - 284

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A series of straight chain or n-diols were evaluated as aqueous emulsions for their ability tO inhibit terminal or axillary bud growth of tobacco plants. These n-C2 to n-C10 diol formulations (hydroxyls at terminal carbons) were considerably less active than formulations of straight chain alcohols of the same carbon lengths. Shifting the position of the hydroxyls from the terminal carbons changed activity only slighdy. The straight chain diols with 5, 6 or 7 carbons were more active than shorter or longer chain lengths. The efficacy of 1,6-hexanediol was increased when it was formulated with a surfactant having a lOw hydrophilic-lipophilic balance value (11.6 vs. 16.3) so that its effectiveness was similar to that of the n-C8 plus n-C10 alcohol formulation. Of several substituted diolș evaluated, 2-ethyl- 1,3-hexanediol was the· most active but it caused severe damage to mature leaves thus it is not considered to be a selective plant growth inhibitor. Both 2,5-dimethyl- 2,5-hexanediol and 1,4-cyclohexanediol caused a general growth retardation rather than tissue kill

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