- 01 Jan 1992
- 4 Hefte pro Jahr
- Uneingeschränkter Zugang
Seitenbereich: 37 - 37
- Uneingeschränkter Zugang
An Improved Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology to Obtain More Accurate Water and “Tar” Values: In Situ Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology
Seitenbereich: 38 - 49
Previous investigations by others and internal investigations at Philip Morris International (PMI) have shown that the standard trapping and extraction procedure used for conventional cigarettes, defined in the International Standard ISO 4387 (Cigarettes -- Determination of total and nicotine-free dry particulate matter using a routine analytical smoking machine), is not suitable for high-water content aerosols. Errors occur because of water losses during the opening of the Cambridge filter pad holder to remove the filter pad as well as during the manual handling of the filter pad, and because the commercially available filter pad holder, which is constructed out of plastic, may adsorb water. This results in inaccurate values for the water content, and erroneous and overestimated values for Nicotine Free Dry Particulate Matter (NFDPM). A modified 44 mm Cambridge filter pad holder and extraction equipment which supports in situ extraction methodology has been developed and tested. The principle of the in situ extraction methodology is to avoid any of the above mentioned water losses by extracting the loaded filter pad while kept in the Cambridge filter pad holder which is hermetically sealed by two caps. This is achieved by flushing the extraction solvent numerous times through the hermetically sealed Cambridge filter pad holder by means of an in situ extractor. The in situ methodology showed a significantly more complete water recovery, resulting in more accurate NFDPM values for high-water content aerosols compared to the standard ISO methodology. The work presented in this publication demonstrates that the in situ extraction methodology applies to a wider range of smoking products and smoking regimens, whereas the standard ISO methodology only applies to a limited range of smoking products and smoking regimens, e.g., conventional cigarettes smoked under ISO smoking regimen. In cases where a comparison of yields between the PMI HTP and conventional cigarettes is required the in situ extraction methodology must be used for the aerosol of the PMI HTP to obtain accurate NFDPM/”tar” values. This would be for example the case if there were a need to print “tar” yields on packs or compare yields to ceilings. Failure to use the in situ extraction methodology will result in erroneous and overestimated NFDPM/”tar” values.
- Uneingeschränkter Zugang
A Model for the Determination of Diffusion Capacity Under Non-Standard Temperature and Pressure Conditions
Seitenbereich: 50 - 56
The diffusion capacity of cigarette paper has been reported to be an important parameter in relation to the self-extinguishment of cigarettes and also in relation to carbon monoxide yields. Although the diffusion capacity is routinely measured and instruments for this measurement have been available for several years, differences between measured values obtained on the same paper sample but on different instruments or in different laboratories may be substantial and may make it difficult to use these values, for example, as a basis for paper specifications. Among several reasons, deviations of temperature and pressure from standard conditions, especially within the measurement chamber of the instrument, may contribute to the high variation in diffusion capacity data. Deviations of temperature and pressure will have an influence on the gas flow rates, the diffusion processes inside the measurement chamber and consequently the measured CO2 concentration. Generally, the diffusion capacity is determined from a mathematical model, which describes the diffusion processes inside the measurement chamber. Such models provide the CO2 concentration in the outflow gas for a given diffusion capacity. For practical applications the inverse model is needed, that is, the diffusion capacity shall be determined from a measured CO2 concentration. Often such an inverse model is approximated by a polynomial, which, however, is only valid for standard temperature and pressure. It is shown that relative approximation errors from such polynomials, even without temperature and pressure deviations, cannot always be neglected and it is proposed to eliminate such errors by direct inversion of the model with a comparably simple iterative method. A model which includes temperature and pressure effects is described and the effects of temperature and pressure deviations on the diffusion capacity are theoretically estimated by comparing the output of a model with and without inclusion of temperature and pressure effects. The results suggest that these effects may cause relative differences in the diffusion capacity up to 50% for pressure and temperature ranges of practical relevance
- Uneingeschränkter Zugang
Analysis of Reference Cigarette Smoke Yield Data From 21 Laboratories for 28 Selected Analytes as a Guide to Selection of New Coresta Recommended Methods
Seitenbereich: 57 - 73
Since 1999, the CORESTA Special Analytes Sub Group (SPA SG) has been working on the development of CORESTA Recommended Methods (CRMs) for the analysis of cigarette smoke components. All CRMs have been posted on the CORESTA website and several associated papers published. In this study, 21 laboratories shared data and in-house methodologies for 28 additional smoke components of regulatory interest to prioritise the development of further CRMs. Laboratories provided data, where available, from CORESTA monitor test pieces (CM6 and CM7) and Kentucky Reference Cigarettes (1R5F / 3R4F) covering the period 2010-2012 obtained under both the ISO 3308 and Health Canada Intense regimes. Scant data were available on the CORESTA monitor test pieces and the Kentucky 1R5F reference. The greatest amount of data was obtained on the Kentucky 3R4F and this was used in the analyses described in this paper. SPA SG discussions provided invaluable insight into identifying causes and ways of reducing inter-laboratory variability which will be investigated in joint experiments before embarking on final collaborative studies using draft CRMs to obtain mean yields, repeatability and reproducibility values. Phenolic compounds (phenol, 3 cresol isomers, hydroquinone, catechol and resorcinol) gave consistent results by liquid chromatography (LC) separation and fluorescence detection after extracting collected “tar” on a Cambridge filter pad (CFP). Yields were similar to those obtained by a derivatisation method followed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Similar ratios of phenols were also obtained from each method. Of the 28 studied analytes, the between-laboratory variability was lowest for the phenols. Hydrogen cyanide was derivatised using various reagents and the colour development measured after continuous flow analysis (CFA) by ultra-violet absorbance. Although, methodologies gave reasonably consistent results, investigations on the trapping system and on differences in the application of the various colour complexes used for quantification with UV absorbance is required. Ammonia analysis was carried out by ion chromatography (IC) followed by conductivity measurement and gave very similar results between laboratories. Yields were similar to those obtained by a derivatisation method followed by LC/MS-MS methodology. Optimal conditions for the separation of ammonium from interfering ions and minimizing artefactual ammonia formation from other smoke components need to be addressed during standardisation. Aromatic amine methods involved either LC/MS-MS separation and detection or derivatisation by one of two main reagents followed by GC-MS analysis. Yields were at similar but variable levels using these different techniques. It is currently unclear which method will be taken to a CRM. In general, four compounds were measured (1-amino naphthalene; 2-amino naphthalene; 3-amino biphenyl and 4-amino biphenyl) although two others were incorporated in methodologies used by 3 laboratories (o-anisidine and o-toluidine). Semi-volatiles (pyridine, quinoline and styrene) were often integrated with the selected volatiles method by measurement of the combination of CFP extracts and the contents of the impinger trapping system. Less data, obtained mainly by inductively-coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were available on metals (cadmium, lead, arsenic, beryllium, cobalt, chromium, nickel, selenium and mercury) in smoke. Trace metals were the most variable of the studied smoke analytes. Optimisation of the digestion step to remove the organic matrix needs to be addressed. As a consequence of this study and subsequent discussions within the Sub Group, it was decided to prioritise the development of CRMs for selected phenols followed by hydrogen cyanide and ammonia.
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Seitenbereich: 74 - 84
A device for measuring the flow, duration and volume characteristics of human puffing behaviour when smoking cigarettes is described. Cigarettes are smoked through a holder comprising a measured pressure drop across a critical orifice. The holder also contains a Light Emitting Diode (LED) and photodetector that measures light obscuration in order to estimate nicotine-free dry particulate matter (NFDPM, “tar”) delivery. All data are recorded on a puff-by-puff basis and displayed in real time. These NFDPM estimates are known as optical “tar” (OT), and are derived from the calibration of the OT measurement versus gravimetric NFDPM yields of cigarettes under a range of smoking regimes. In a test study, puff volumes from 20-80 mL were recorded to ± 6.0% of a pre-set volume, with an absolute error of 4.7 mL for an 80 mL volume drawn on a lit cigarette, and an average error of less than 2.0 mL across the range 20-80 mL. The relationship between NFDPM and OT was linear (R2 = 0.99) and accurate to ± 1.3 mg per cigarette over the range 1-23 mg per cigarette. The device provides an alternative to the widely used part filter methodology for estimating mouth level exposure with an added benefit that no further laboratory smoking replication or analysis is required. When used in conjunction with the part filter methodology, the puffing behaviour recorded can explain anomalies in the data while providing a second independent estimate.