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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 4 (1968): Heft 3 (February 1968)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

7 Artikel
Open Access

The Water Desorption Curves of Tobacco / Über die Wasserdesorption des Tabaks

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 85 - 89

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The evolution of the desorption curves of different Greek cigarette brands at a relative humidity of air of above 5 % is presented by means of the formula established by Brunauer, Emmet and Teller. The hygroscopic equilibrium attained with determined temperature and relative humidity of air depends on the yield of tobacco smoke condensate. The higher the condensate values are, the lower are the tobacco moisture levels. A quantitative relation could not be demonstrated

Open Access

Volatile Components of Tobacco Smoke. The Chemical Constituents of the Gas Vapour Phase / Flüchtige Inhaltsstoffe des Tabakrauches: Die chemischen Bestandteile der Gas-Dampf-Phase

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 90 - 123

Zusammenfassung

Open Access

Chemical Studies on Tobacco Smoke. III. Primary and Secondary Nitroalkanes in Cigarette Smoke

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 124 - 134

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

An analytical method for the isolation and identification of nitroalkanes in cigarette smoke was developed. The analytical procedure includes water steam-distillation of cigarette smoke condensate and several extraction steps. The final concentrate of the nitroparaffins is separated into individual components by gas chromatography on 5 % Apiezon N and 5 % Armeen SD on fire brick. Utilizing a flame ionization detector system for the final analysis, 200 cigarettes had to be smoked. When an electron detector system was utilized the smoking of 20 cigarettes sufficed for the analysis of six nitroalkanes. These were identified by relative retention times and volumes, and the fragmentation patterns of the individual nitroalkanes. The presence of a seventh nitroalkane was ascertained and it was tentatively identified as a nitropentane. The smoke of one 85 mm blended United States cigarette without filter tip contained 0.53 µg nitromethane, 1.1 µg nitroethane, 1.1 µg 2-nitropropane, 0.73 µg 1-nitropropane, 0.71 µg 1-nitro-n-butane and 0.22 µg 1-nitro-n-pentane. The analysis of the smoke of 10 different cigarettes demonstrated a correlated increased yield of six nitroparaffins with increased nitrate content of the cigarette tobacco. This result supports our working hypothesis that nitrogen oxides formed during the pyrolysis of alkali nitrate in tobaccos react as scavengers with organic radicals in the hot zones of burning cigarettes and tend to inhibit the synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbons, including those with known carcinogenic effects to experimental animals.

Open Access

An Apparatus for Beating Cigarettes Under Controlled Conditions / Erfahrungen mit dem Ausschütteln von Cigaretten unter kontrollierten Bedingungen

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 135 - 138

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

An apparatus is described for beating cigarettes under controlled conditions with the purpose of investigating the effect of manufacturing conditions (moistening, drying temperature, duration of storage, moisture content of tobacco in the cigarette making machine, etc.) on the filling capacity of tobacco

Open Access

A Device for Separating Tobacco from Cigarettes / Vorrichtung zum Entleeren des Tabaks aus Cigaretten

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 139 - 140

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A device is described which allows the separation of tobacco from cigarettes at a rate of 2000 cigts/hour whilst the cigarette paper remains intact

Open Access

Apparatus for Determining the Hardness of Cigarettes as Deduced "Modulus of Hardness" / Ableitung des Härtemoduls als belastungsunabhängiges Mass der Cigarettenhärte

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 141 - 158

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

1. An apparatus designed by the Scientific Department of the company Martin Brinkmann AG is presented for determining the hardness of cigarettes, i.e. their degree of filling. The deformation of test pieces caused by several measuring arms of identical weight is measured in a prism at the rate of 30 pieces per minute.

2. The intensity of the deforming forces is calculated. This calculation does take into account the changes in shape produced by both the arms and the positional support in the measuring prism. A unit of measure termed ''modulus of hardness" (Haerte-Modul) is established by formal analogy with the modulus of elasticity.

3. The relations existing between the deformations caused respectively by the arms (a) and by the support (a'), the measurable value of the total deformation (agem) and the modulus of hardness are deduced from tables correspondingly set up by reckoning. The deduction is based on the cross-sectional area of the power of the arm application (1 mm) to the exclusion of longitudinal forces and, furthermore, on the postulated fact of cigarettes being ideally cylindrical and in themselves homogeneous bodies.

4. The experimentally proved fulfilment of Hooke's Law confirms the truth of the authors' theoretical suppositions. The relative deformation is found to be proportional to the load, if the calculation of the deformation is made according to the chord and not according to the circular arc. The results hitherto obtained show the measured values to depend only to a small extent on the calibre of the test piece.

5. The values determined on the basis of the modulus of hardness thus deduced are found to quantitatively and qualitatively represent the cigarette's physical property in question to an optimum extent. They are shown to be plausible with regard to the modulus of elasticity of other materials commonly used as for example rubber. The hardness values ascertained prove to be inversely proportional to the logarithm of the duration of load application. It is above all the influence exerted by the duration of load application that makes the hardness values of cigarettes differ from the elasticity values of other materials.

6. The particular conditions of the measurement of the hardness of filter cigarettes as well as the influence exercised by longitudinal forces on the measurement of filter rods are pointed out.

Open Access

The Determination of the Static Burning Rate of Cigarettes / Messung der Glimmgeschwindigkeit von Cigaretten

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 159 - 160

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A method is described to determine the static burning rate of cigarettes in weight per unit time

7 Artikel
Open Access

The Water Desorption Curves of Tobacco / Über die Wasserdesorption des Tabaks

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 85 - 89

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The evolution of the desorption curves of different Greek cigarette brands at a relative humidity of air of above 5 % is presented by means of the formula established by Brunauer, Emmet and Teller. The hygroscopic equilibrium attained with determined temperature and relative humidity of air depends on the yield of tobacco smoke condensate. The higher the condensate values are, the lower are the tobacco moisture levels. A quantitative relation could not be demonstrated

Open Access

Volatile Components of Tobacco Smoke. The Chemical Constituents of the Gas Vapour Phase / Flüchtige Inhaltsstoffe des Tabakrauches: Die chemischen Bestandteile der Gas-Dampf-Phase

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 90 - 123

Zusammenfassung

Open Access

Chemical Studies on Tobacco Smoke. III. Primary and Secondary Nitroalkanes in Cigarette Smoke

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 124 - 134

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

An analytical method for the isolation and identification of nitroalkanes in cigarette smoke was developed. The analytical procedure includes water steam-distillation of cigarette smoke condensate and several extraction steps. The final concentrate of the nitroparaffins is separated into individual components by gas chromatography on 5 % Apiezon N and 5 % Armeen SD on fire brick. Utilizing a flame ionization detector system for the final analysis, 200 cigarettes had to be smoked. When an electron detector system was utilized the smoking of 20 cigarettes sufficed for the analysis of six nitroalkanes. These were identified by relative retention times and volumes, and the fragmentation patterns of the individual nitroalkanes. The presence of a seventh nitroalkane was ascertained and it was tentatively identified as a nitropentane. The smoke of one 85 mm blended United States cigarette without filter tip contained 0.53 µg nitromethane, 1.1 µg nitroethane, 1.1 µg 2-nitropropane, 0.73 µg 1-nitropropane, 0.71 µg 1-nitro-n-butane and 0.22 µg 1-nitro-n-pentane. The analysis of the smoke of 10 different cigarettes demonstrated a correlated increased yield of six nitroparaffins with increased nitrate content of the cigarette tobacco. This result supports our working hypothesis that nitrogen oxides formed during the pyrolysis of alkali nitrate in tobaccos react as scavengers with organic radicals in the hot zones of burning cigarettes and tend to inhibit the synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbons, including those with known carcinogenic effects to experimental animals.

Open Access

An Apparatus for Beating Cigarettes Under Controlled Conditions / Erfahrungen mit dem Ausschütteln von Cigaretten unter kontrollierten Bedingungen

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 135 - 138

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

An apparatus is described for beating cigarettes under controlled conditions with the purpose of investigating the effect of manufacturing conditions (moistening, drying temperature, duration of storage, moisture content of tobacco in the cigarette making machine, etc.) on the filling capacity of tobacco

Open Access

A Device for Separating Tobacco from Cigarettes / Vorrichtung zum Entleeren des Tabaks aus Cigaretten

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 139 - 140

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A device is described which allows the separation of tobacco from cigarettes at a rate of 2000 cigts/hour whilst the cigarette paper remains intact

Open Access

Apparatus for Determining the Hardness of Cigarettes as Deduced "Modulus of Hardness" / Ableitung des Härtemoduls als belastungsunabhängiges Mass der Cigarettenhärte

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 141 - 158

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

1. An apparatus designed by the Scientific Department of the company Martin Brinkmann AG is presented for determining the hardness of cigarettes, i.e. their degree of filling. The deformation of test pieces caused by several measuring arms of identical weight is measured in a prism at the rate of 30 pieces per minute.

2. The intensity of the deforming forces is calculated. This calculation does take into account the changes in shape produced by both the arms and the positional support in the measuring prism. A unit of measure termed ''modulus of hardness" (Haerte-Modul) is established by formal analogy with the modulus of elasticity.

3. The relations existing between the deformations caused respectively by the arms (a) and by the support (a'), the measurable value of the total deformation (agem) and the modulus of hardness are deduced from tables correspondingly set up by reckoning. The deduction is based on the cross-sectional area of the power of the arm application (1 mm) to the exclusion of longitudinal forces and, furthermore, on the postulated fact of cigarettes being ideally cylindrical and in themselves homogeneous bodies.

4. The experimentally proved fulfilment of Hooke's Law confirms the truth of the authors' theoretical suppositions. The relative deformation is found to be proportional to the load, if the calculation of the deformation is made according to the chord and not according to the circular arc. The results hitherto obtained show the measured values to depend only to a small extent on the calibre of the test piece.

5. The values determined on the basis of the modulus of hardness thus deduced are found to quantitatively and qualitatively represent the cigarette's physical property in question to an optimum extent. They are shown to be plausible with regard to the modulus of elasticity of other materials commonly used as for example rubber. The hardness values ascertained prove to be inversely proportional to the logarithm of the duration of load application. It is above all the influence exerted by the duration of load application that makes the hardness values of cigarettes differ from the elasticity values of other materials.

6. The particular conditions of the measurement of the hardness of filter cigarettes as well as the influence exercised by longitudinal forces on the measurement of filter rods are pointed out.

Open Access

The Determination of the Static Burning Rate of Cigarettes / Messung der Glimmgeschwindigkeit von Cigaretten

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 159 - 160

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A method is described to determine the static burning rate of cigarettes in weight per unit time

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