Rivista e Edizione

Volume 31 (2022): Edizione 2 (July 2022)

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Volume 29 (2020): Edizione 3 (December 2020)

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Volume 28 (2019): Edizione 7 (December 2019)

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Volume 28 (2018): Edizione 4 (December 2018)

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Volume 27 (2017): Edizione 8 (December 2017)

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Volume 25 (2013): Edizione 8 (December 2013)

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Volume 25 (2012): Edizione 4 (December 2012)

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Volume 24 (2011): Edizione 6 (November 2011)

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Volume 24 (2010): Edizione 3 (November 2010)

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Volume 23 (2009): Edizione 6 (December 2009)

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Volume 15 (1992): Edizione 3 (November 1992)

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Volume 15 (1991): Edizione 1 (August 1991)

Volume 14 (1990): Edizione 6 (June 1990)

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Volume 14 (1988): Edizione 2 (October 1988)

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Volume 13 (1986): Edizione 5 (December 1986)

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Volume 12 (1984): Edizione 5 (November 1984)

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Volume 11 (1982): Edizione 5 (November 1982)

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Volume 10 (1980): Edizione 3 (October 1980)

Volume 10 (1980): Edizione 2 (July 1980)

Volume 10 (1979): Edizione 1 (December 1979)

Volume 9 (1978): Edizione 5 (December 1978)

Volume 9 (1978): Edizione 4 (July 1978)

Volume 9 (1977): Edizione 3 (October 1977)

Volume 9 (1977): Edizione 2 (June 1977)

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Volume 8 (1975): Edizione 2 (May 1975)

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Volume 7 (1974): Edizione 5 (September 1974)

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Volume 6 (1972): Edizione 5 (October 1972)

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Volume 5 (1970): Edizione 6 (December 1970)

Volume 5 (1970): Edizione 5 (November 1970)

Volume 5 (1970): Edizione 4 (August 1970)

Volume 5 (1969): Edizione 3 (December 1969)

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Volume 4 (1968): Edizione 7 (December 1968)

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Volume 4 (1968): Edizione 5 (July 1968)

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Volume 4 (1968): Edizione 3 (February 1968)

Volume 4 (1967): Edizione 2 (October 1967)

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Volume 3 (1966): Edizione 9 (December 1966)

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Volume 3 (1966): Edizione 6 (September 1966)

Volume 3 (1966): Edizione 5 (May 1966)

Volume 3 (1965): Edizione 4 (October 1965)

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Volume 1 (1961): Edizione 2 (May 1961)

Volume 1 (1961): Edizione 1 (January 1961)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2719-9509
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Jan 1992
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 25 (2013): Edizione 8 (December 2013)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2719-9509
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Jan 1992
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

5 Articoli
Accesso libero

Editors’ Note

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 661 - 661

Astratto

Abstract

We would like to inform our readers that early next year our website will be relaunched. BeiträgezurTabakforschung International will subsequently appear on the online platform of the publishing house of De Gruyter as an open access journal. The journal will thus be integrated with a worldwide network of other journals, databases and libraries and its contents will be distributed to a global network of users. Our readers will be able to access it - as before - free of charges but they will be asked to register as a user on this platform before access can be made. Our authors are invited to submit their manuscripts using the online manuscript submission and peer review system.

We would like to wish all of you a blessed Christmas and a prosperous and Happy New Year.

Accesso libero

Comparison of Smoke Yield Data Collected from Different Laboratories

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 662 - 670

Astratto

Abstract

In the context of increasing tobacco product regulations, more requirements are observed for the reporting of smoke constituent yield data and its variability e.g., US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The objective of this work was to evaluate the relevance of the short term standard deviation to describe the variability of measurements using the dataset of the CORESTA 2006 Joint Experiment which included a number of cigarette smoke constituents more recently identified by FDA for reporting. Their testing protocol required the analysis of Kentucky Reference cigarettes 2R4F and 1R5F performing five replicates run over consecutive days, repeated during three different time periods. This dataset provided access to different sources of smoke yield variability across measurements: short term and medium term within-laboratory variability and among-laboratory variability. For each reference cigarette, analysis of variance on one factor (laboratory) combined with the Newman-Keuls multiple range test was performed to compare data generated across laboratories. Results showed that the expression of yield variability as an individual standard deviation (describing repeatability) gives erroneous conclusions due to the major contribution of amonglaboratory variability not being taken into account. The different sources of variability can be taken into account in the comparison using the critical difference, as described in the ISO Standard 5725 part 6. This paper shows the importance of having i) the appropriate statistical methods to compare results from different laboratories in order to avoid erroneous conclusions, and ii) validated and standardized methods with known precision across laboratories. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the number of replicates had only a minor effect on product comparison on the basis of the critical difference as a function of repeatability and reproducibility of the methods.

Accesso libero

Relationship Between Mainstream Cigarette Smoke “Tar” and Nicotine Yields

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 671 - 684

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between mainstream “tar” and nicotine yields and refine the commonly used linear model with a positive intercept to incorporate non-linearity and product-toproduct differences in filler nicotine content. “Tar” and nicotine yields are examined for a wide range of cigarettes (U.S. and international) using the Cambridge filter (CF), ISO, and the more intense MDPH, and HC smoking methods. Particularly at very low machine yields, a nonlinearity is observed that can be more accurately modeled by a power law relationship, and can be further improved by incorporating the concentration of nicotine in the cigarette filler into the equation. The resultant power law relationship is the better statistical fit to the available data, avoids the physical implausibility of positive nicotine yield at zero “tar” yield and lack of dependence on filler nicotine that are inherent in the simple linear model relating nicotine yield to “tar” yield alone, and explains the nonconstancy of the “tar”-to-nicotine ratio. The relationship between “tar” and nicotine can be affected by the use of very long or very short puff intervals, and, with the same tobacco blend and the same “tar” yield, longer cigarettes tend to have a slightly higher nicotine yield than shorter cigarettes.

Accesso libero

Assessing Smoking Behaviour and Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Definitions and Methods

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 685 - 699

Astratto

Abstract

In recent years, the increased availability of tobacco products other than conventional cigarettes, the use of puffing topography devices for smoking behaviour studies and the use of biomarkers to study smoke constituents exposure have generated the need for a more comprehensive set of definitions concerning smoking behaviour and exposure to smoke. The definitions offered in this paper are based on many years of practical experience and on consensus within a broad group of scientists working in these areas. It is intended that, with wider and more consistent usage, these definitions should reduce any misunderstandings and facilitate interpretation of future studies.

Accesso libero

Updates of CORESTA Recommended Methods after Further Collaborative Studies Carried Out under Both ISO and Health Canada Intense Smoking Regimes

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 700 - 707

Astratto

Abstract

During 2012, three CORESTA Recommended Methods (CRMs) (1-3) were updated to include smoke yield and variability data under both ISO (4) and the Canadian Intense (CI) (5) smoking regimes. At that time, repeatability and reproducibility data under the CI regime on smoke analytes other than “tar”, nicotine and carbon monoxide (6) and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) (7) were not available in the public literature. The subsequent work involved the determination of the mainstream smoke yields of benzo[a]-pyrene, selected volatiles (benzene, toluene, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, acrylonitrile), and selected carbonyls (acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, crotonaldehyde, acrolein, acetone and 2-butanone) in ten cigarette products followed by statistical analyses according to the ISO protocol (8). This paper provides some additional perspective on the data variability under the ISO and CI smoking regimes not given in the CRMs.

5 Articoli
Accesso libero

Editors’ Note

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 661 - 661

Astratto

Abstract

We would like to inform our readers that early next year our website will be relaunched. BeiträgezurTabakforschung International will subsequently appear on the online platform of the publishing house of De Gruyter as an open access journal. The journal will thus be integrated with a worldwide network of other journals, databases and libraries and its contents will be distributed to a global network of users. Our readers will be able to access it - as before - free of charges but they will be asked to register as a user on this platform before access can be made. Our authors are invited to submit their manuscripts using the online manuscript submission and peer review system.

We would like to wish all of you a blessed Christmas and a prosperous and Happy New Year.

Accesso libero

Comparison of Smoke Yield Data Collected from Different Laboratories

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 662 - 670

Astratto

Abstract

In the context of increasing tobacco product regulations, more requirements are observed for the reporting of smoke constituent yield data and its variability e.g., US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The objective of this work was to evaluate the relevance of the short term standard deviation to describe the variability of measurements using the dataset of the CORESTA 2006 Joint Experiment which included a number of cigarette smoke constituents more recently identified by FDA for reporting. Their testing protocol required the analysis of Kentucky Reference cigarettes 2R4F and 1R5F performing five replicates run over consecutive days, repeated during three different time periods. This dataset provided access to different sources of smoke yield variability across measurements: short term and medium term within-laboratory variability and among-laboratory variability. For each reference cigarette, analysis of variance on one factor (laboratory) combined with the Newman-Keuls multiple range test was performed to compare data generated across laboratories. Results showed that the expression of yield variability as an individual standard deviation (describing repeatability) gives erroneous conclusions due to the major contribution of amonglaboratory variability not being taken into account. The different sources of variability can be taken into account in the comparison using the critical difference, as described in the ISO Standard 5725 part 6. This paper shows the importance of having i) the appropriate statistical methods to compare results from different laboratories in order to avoid erroneous conclusions, and ii) validated and standardized methods with known precision across laboratories. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the number of replicates had only a minor effect on product comparison on the basis of the critical difference as a function of repeatability and reproducibility of the methods.

Accesso libero

Relationship Between Mainstream Cigarette Smoke “Tar” and Nicotine Yields

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 671 - 684

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between mainstream “tar” and nicotine yields and refine the commonly used linear model with a positive intercept to incorporate non-linearity and product-toproduct differences in filler nicotine content. “Tar” and nicotine yields are examined for a wide range of cigarettes (U.S. and international) using the Cambridge filter (CF), ISO, and the more intense MDPH, and HC smoking methods. Particularly at very low machine yields, a nonlinearity is observed that can be more accurately modeled by a power law relationship, and can be further improved by incorporating the concentration of nicotine in the cigarette filler into the equation. The resultant power law relationship is the better statistical fit to the available data, avoids the physical implausibility of positive nicotine yield at zero “tar” yield and lack of dependence on filler nicotine that are inherent in the simple linear model relating nicotine yield to “tar” yield alone, and explains the nonconstancy of the “tar”-to-nicotine ratio. The relationship between “tar” and nicotine can be affected by the use of very long or very short puff intervals, and, with the same tobacco blend and the same “tar” yield, longer cigarettes tend to have a slightly higher nicotine yield than shorter cigarettes.

Accesso libero

Assessing Smoking Behaviour and Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Definitions and Methods

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 685 - 699

Astratto

Abstract

In recent years, the increased availability of tobacco products other than conventional cigarettes, the use of puffing topography devices for smoking behaviour studies and the use of biomarkers to study smoke constituents exposure have generated the need for a more comprehensive set of definitions concerning smoking behaviour and exposure to smoke. The definitions offered in this paper are based on many years of practical experience and on consensus within a broad group of scientists working in these areas. It is intended that, with wider and more consistent usage, these definitions should reduce any misunderstandings and facilitate interpretation of future studies.

Accesso libero

Updates of CORESTA Recommended Methods after Further Collaborative Studies Carried Out under Both ISO and Health Canada Intense Smoking Regimes

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 700 - 707

Astratto

Abstract

During 2012, three CORESTA Recommended Methods (CRMs) (1-3) were updated to include smoke yield and variability data under both ISO (4) and the Canadian Intense (CI) (5) smoking regimes. At that time, repeatability and reproducibility data under the CI regime on smoke analytes other than “tar”, nicotine and carbon monoxide (6) and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) (7) were not available in the public literature. The subsequent work involved the determination of the mainstream smoke yields of benzo[a]-pyrene, selected volatiles (benzene, toluene, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, acrylonitrile), and selected carbonyls (acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, crotonaldehyde, acrolein, acetone and 2-butanone) in ten cigarette products followed by statistical analyses according to the ISO protocol (8). This paper provides some additional perspective on the data variability under the ISO and CI smoking regimes not given in the CRMs.

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