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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 23 (2008): Heft 3 (December 2008)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

4 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A Diels-Alder Reaction Between A Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Component and Benzoquinone

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 121 - 136

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A notable amount of research has been placed toward understanding the roles of benzoquinone (Q) and hydroquinone (HQ) in the chemistry and toxicity of cigarette smoke. To further understanding of the roles of these compounds in cigarette smoke, a series of reactions were performed wherein the levels and chemistries of Q and HQ were monitored after having been added to selected phases of the mainstream smoke from 2R4F cigarettes. Through the application of both fundamental organic chemistry reaction mechanistic principles and qualitative analysis of smoke chemistry, a new reaction pathway for mainstream smoke components was elucidated. During the course of these investigations, the presence of a product from a Diels-Alder reaction between a 2R4F cigarette mainstream smoke component and Q was discovered. Data from carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR), gas chromatography-atomic emission detection (GC-AED), and gas chromatography-mass selective detection (GC-MSD) revealed a Diels-Alder reaction product resulting from the reaction of benzoquinone (Q), a dienophile, and 1,3-cyclopentadiene, a diene, to yield tricyclo[6.2.1.02,7] undeca-4,9-diene-3,6-dione, more commonly referred to as cyclopentadienebenzoquinone. The reaction between Q and 1,3-cyclopentadiene was observed to have occurred when fresh mainstream vapor phase smoke (MSVP) from a 2R4F cigarette, captured in acetone, was subsequently treated with Q. Other 13C containing species were detected but inadequate signal to noise values prevented structural assignments. Accompanying the Diels-Alder reaction was an additional reaction of Q to form hydroquinone (HQ). These reactions provide additional information on the complexity of cigarette smoke, particularly as it relates to possible reactions involving Q and HQ and other cigarette smoke components.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Transmission and Survival of Ralstoniasolanacearum on Tobacco Machinery

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 137 - 143

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Bacterial wilt (Ralstoniasolanacearum) is an extremely damaging disease of flue-cured tobacco in the southeastern USA. It is generally believed that R. solanacearum infects field-grown tobacco through the roots. Epidemics of bacterial wilt are so common within South Carolina that the organism must be spread in a more rapid and efficient manner than the movement of soil on equipment. Field trials conducted at the Pee Dee Research and Education Center measured the spread of R. solancearum down a row of tobacco from a point inoculation following machine flower removal (topping), leaf harvest or stalk cutting. Machine topping, leaf harvest and stalk cutting increased disease 879%, 1245%, and 800% respectively within a 20 plant row when compared to hand topping, hand harvesting or a non contaminated stalk cutter (cv. K 326, P ≤ 0.001). A survey was conducted to determine if R. solanacearum is a common contaminate on harvesting equipment in South Carolina. Tobacco harvesting equipment was randomly selected within Horry and Marion counties and sampled for R. solanacearum by streaking sterile cotton swabs on the harvester surface, then re-streaking the swab onto an enriched Tetrazolium-based selective media (SM3). R. solanacearum-like colonies that developed on SM3 were inoculated onto cv. Rutgers tomato to confirm pathogenicity. Bacteria from diseased plants were reisolated on SM3 and R. solanacearum identity confirmed with an immuno strip test. Pathogenic populations of R. solanacearum were recovered from steel defoliator knives, rubber defoliators and steel guides (51, 50 and 50% of sampled harvesters respectively). The survival of R. solanacearum on mechanical steel topper blades was determined by running the topper through infected tobacco plants and sequentially sampling the steel knives over time for viable populations of R. solanacearum. Sterile cotton swabs were swept across the blade surface, then streaked onto SM3 media. Confirmed pathogenic populations of R. solanacearum could be recovered on SM3 media for up to 6 h after topping R. solanacearum-infected tobacco. The efficiency of machine transmission of R. solanacearum and it's longevity on tobacco machinery may be responsible for the high frequency of bacterial wilt epidemics in flue-cured tobacco occurring in the Southeastern USA and its movement into previously clean fields.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A Pilot Study to Assess Solanesol Levels in Exhaled Cigarette Smoke

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 144 - 152

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper describes the results obtained during the measurement of the level of solanesol in exhaled cigarette smoke from human subjects. The study was performed with three different cigarettes with U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) ‘tar’ values of 5.0 mg, 10.6 mg, and 16.2 mg. The number of human subjects was ten smokers for each of the evaluated products, each subject smoking three cigarettes within one hour. The exhaled smoke was collected using a vacuum assisted procedure that avoids strain in exhaling, and the solanesol was analyzed using an original high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The cigarette butts from the smokers were collected and also analyzed for solanesol. The results obtained for the cigarette butts from the smokers were used to calculate the level of solanesol delivered to the smoker, based on calibration curves. These curves were generated separately by analyzing the solanesol in smoke and in the cigarette butts obtained by machine smoking under different puffing regimes. Knowing the levels of solanesol delivered to the smoker and the exhaled levels it was possible to calculate the retention and retention % of this compound from mainstream smoke for different cigarettes types. The amount of retained solanesol is the lowest for the 5.0 mg ‘tar’ product, and the highest for the 16.2 mg ‘tar’ product, although there is not much difference between the 10.6 mg ‘tar’ product and the 16.2 mg ‘tar’ product. For the 10.6 mg ‘tar’ cigarettes the retention % was between 60% and 72%, for the 5.0 mg product the retention % was slightly lower ranging between 53% and 70%, while for the 16.2 mg ‘tar’ product, the retention % was slightly higher ranging between 62% and 82%.

A statistical analysis of the retention % data using ANOVA single factor analysis showed that the 10.6 mg ‘tar’ cigarette is not different from the 16.2 mg ‘tar’ product while the retention % for the 5.0 mg ‘tar’ cigarette was statistically different from the other two products. The values for the retention % of solanesol by human smokers as found in this study were in very good agreement with the few reported results in the literature.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Influence of a Humectant on the Retention by Humans of Solanesol from Cigarette Smoke (Part 1, Propylene Glycol)

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 153 - 159

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Propylene glycol (PG) is a common humectant added to the tobacco used in cigarettes, and part of this compound is transferred to smoke. The influence of this additive on the retention of solanesol by smokers has been evaluated in the present study for two cigarettes having the same tobacco blend except for the 3% addition of PG on one of them. The cigarette with no PG was a commercial brand, and the experimental one was made using the same tobacco blend as the commercial cigarette, but adding 3% of PG. The construction of the cigarette with 3% PG allowed to match as close as possible the ‘tar’ [as measured by Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regimen], pressure drop (open and closed), and nicotine level of the commercial cigarette. The number of human subjects taking the test was ten smokers for each of the two evaluated products. The sample collection was performed from three cigarettes smoked within one hour. The same human subject smoked the regular cigarette and then the one with added PG. The exhaled smoke was collected using a vacuum assisted procedure that avoids strain in exhaling, and the solanesol was analyzed using an high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The cigarette butts from the smokers were collected and also analyzed for solanesol. The results obtained for the cigarette butts from the smokers were used to calculate the level of solanesol in the smoke delivered to the human subject, based on calibration curves. These curves were generated separately by analyzing the solanesol in smoke and in the cigarette butts obtained by machine smoking under different puffing regimes. Knowing the delivered amount of solanesol and that in the exhaled smoke it was possible to calculate the retention of this compound from mainstream smoke for the two cigarette types. The levels of solanesol delivered to the smoker from Cigarette A was in the range between 350.4 ìg/cig and 504.8 ìg/cig for the cigarette with no PG, and between 401.5 ìg/cig and 614.1 ìg/cig for the cigarette with 3% PG added. The amount of solanesol retained by the smoker (per cigarette) was on an average 309 ìg/cig with 15.8% relative standard deviation for the cigarette with no PG, and an average of 348 ìg/cig with 20.4% relative standard deviation for the 3% PG cigarette. An ANOVA single factor analysis showed that the results between the two cigarettes were not statistically different for 95% confidence. The retention of solanesol from the commercial cigarette showed an average of 72.5% with 11.7% relative standard deviation, and the cigarette with 3% added PG showed an average retention of 70.8% with 14.5% relative standard deviation. ANOVA single factor analysis indicated no significant differences in the retention % of solanesol for the two cigarettes at 95% confidence. No correlation was found between the amount of solanesol delivered from the cigarette to the smoker and the solanesol retained %.

4 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A Diels-Alder Reaction Between A Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Component and Benzoquinone

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 121 - 136

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A notable amount of research has been placed toward understanding the roles of benzoquinone (Q) and hydroquinone (HQ) in the chemistry and toxicity of cigarette smoke. To further understanding of the roles of these compounds in cigarette smoke, a series of reactions were performed wherein the levels and chemistries of Q and HQ were monitored after having been added to selected phases of the mainstream smoke from 2R4F cigarettes. Through the application of both fundamental organic chemistry reaction mechanistic principles and qualitative analysis of smoke chemistry, a new reaction pathway for mainstream smoke components was elucidated. During the course of these investigations, the presence of a product from a Diels-Alder reaction between a 2R4F cigarette mainstream smoke component and Q was discovered. Data from carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR), gas chromatography-atomic emission detection (GC-AED), and gas chromatography-mass selective detection (GC-MSD) revealed a Diels-Alder reaction product resulting from the reaction of benzoquinone (Q), a dienophile, and 1,3-cyclopentadiene, a diene, to yield tricyclo[6.2.1.02,7] undeca-4,9-diene-3,6-dione, more commonly referred to as cyclopentadienebenzoquinone. The reaction between Q and 1,3-cyclopentadiene was observed to have occurred when fresh mainstream vapor phase smoke (MSVP) from a 2R4F cigarette, captured in acetone, was subsequently treated with Q. Other 13C containing species were detected but inadequate signal to noise values prevented structural assignments. Accompanying the Diels-Alder reaction was an additional reaction of Q to form hydroquinone (HQ). These reactions provide additional information on the complexity of cigarette smoke, particularly as it relates to possible reactions involving Q and HQ and other cigarette smoke components.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Transmission and Survival of Ralstoniasolanacearum on Tobacco Machinery

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 137 - 143

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Bacterial wilt (Ralstoniasolanacearum) is an extremely damaging disease of flue-cured tobacco in the southeastern USA. It is generally believed that R. solanacearum infects field-grown tobacco through the roots. Epidemics of bacterial wilt are so common within South Carolina that the organism must be spread in a more rapid and efficient manner than the movement of soil on equipment. Field trials conducted at the Pee Dee Research and Education Center measured the spread of R. solancearum down a row of tobacco from a point inoculation following machine flower removal (topping), leaf harvest or stalk cutting. Machine topping, leaf harvest and stalk cutting increased disease 879%, 1245%, and 800% respectively within a 20 plant row when compared to hand topping, hand harvesting or a non contaminated stalk cutter (cv. K 326, P ≤ 0.001). A survey was conducted to determine if R. solanacearum is a common contaminate on harvesting equipment in South Carolina. Tobacco harvesting equipment was randomly selected within Horry and Marion counties and sampled for R. solanacearum by streaking sterile cotton swabs on the harvester surface, then re-streaking the swab onto an enriched Tetrazolium-based selective media (SM3). R. solanacearum-like colonies that developed on SM3 were inoculated onto cv. Rutgers tomato to confirm pathogenicity. Bacteria from diseased plants were reisolated on SM3 and R. solanacearum identity confirmed with an immuno strip test. Pathogenic populations of R. solanacearum were recovered from steel defoliator knives, rubber defoliators and steel guides (51, 50 and 50% of sampled harvesters respectively). The survival of R. solanacearum on mechanical steel topper blades was determined by running the topper through infected tobacco plants and sequentially sampling the steel knives over time for viable populations of R. solanacearum. Sterile cotton swabs were swept across the blade surface, then streaked onto SM3 media. Confirmed pathogenic populations of R. solanacearum could be recovered on SM3 media for up to 6 h after topping R. solanacearum-infected tobacco. The efficiency of machine transmission of R. solanacearum and it's longevity on tobacco machinery may be responsible for the high frequency of bacterial wilt epidemics in flue-cured tobacco occurring in the Southeastern USA and its movement into previously clean fields.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A Pilot Study to Assess Solanesol Levels in Exhaled Cigarette Smoke

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 144 - 152

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper describes the results obtained during the measurement of the level of solanesol in exhaled cigarette smoke from human subjects. The study was performed with three different cigarettes with U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) ‘tar’ values of 5.0 mg, 10.6 mg, and 16.2 mg. The number of human subjects was ten smokers for each of the evaluated products, each subject smoking three cigarettes within one hour. The exhaled smoke was collected using a vacuum assisted procedure that avoids strain in exhaling, and the solanesol was analyzed using an original high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The cigarette butts from the smokers were collected and also analyzed for solanesol. The results obtained for the cigarette butts from the smokers were used to calculate the level of solanesol delivered to the smoker, based on calibration curves. These curves were generated separately by analyzing the solanesol in smoke and in the cigarette butts obtained by machine smoking under different puffing regimes. Knowing the levels of solanesol delivered to the smoker and the exhaled levels it was possible to calculate the retention and retention % of this compound from mainstream smoke for different cigarettes types. The amount of retained solanesol is the lowest for the 5.0 mg ‘tar’ product, and the highest for the 16.2 mg ‘tar’ product, although there is not much difference between the 10.6 mg ‘tar’ product and the 16.2 mg ‘tar’ product. For the 10.6 mg ‘tar’ cigarettes the retention % was between 60% and 72%, for the 5.0 mg product the retention % was slightly lower ranging between 53% and 70%, while for the 16.2 mg ‘tar’ product, the retention % was slightly higher ranging between 62% and 82%.

A statistical analysis of the retention % data using ANOVA single factor analysis showed that the 10.6 mg ‘tar’ cigarette is not different from the 16.2 mg ‘tar’ product while the retention % for the 5.0 mg ‘tar’ cigarette was statistically different from the other two products. The values for the retention % of solanesol by human smokers as found in this study were in very good agreement with the few reported results in the literature.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Influence of a Humectant on the Retention by Humans of Solanesol from Cigarette Smoke (Part 1, Propylene Glycol)

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2014
Seitenbereich: 153 - 159

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Propylene glycol (PG) is a common humectant added to the tobacco used in cigarettes, and part of this compound is transferred to smoke. The influence of this additive on the retention of solanesol by smokers has been evaluated in the present study for two cigarettes having the same tobacco blend except for the 3% addition of PG on one of them. The cigarette with no PG was a commercial brand, and the experimental one was made using the same tobacco blend as the commercial cigarette, but adding 3% of PG. The construction of the cigarette with 3% PG allowed to match as close as possible the ‘tar’ [as measured by Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regimen], pressure drop (open and closed), and nicotine level of the commercial cigarette. The number of human subjects taking the test was ten smokers for each of the two evaluated products. The sample collection was performed from three cigarettes smoked within one hour. The same human subject smoked the regular cigarette and then the one with added PG. The exhaled smoke was collected using a vacuum assisted procedure that avoids strain in exhaling, and the solanesol was analyzed using an high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The cigarette butts from the smokers were collected and also analyzed for solanesol. The results obtained for the cigarette butts from the smokers were used to calculate the level of solanesol in the smoke delivered to the human subject, based on calibration curves. These curves were generated separately by analyzing the solanesol in smoke and in the cigarette butts obtained by machine smoking under different puffing regimes. Knowing the delivered amount of solanesol and that in the exhaled smoke it was possible to calculate the retention of this compound from mainstream smoke for the two cigarette types. The levels of solanesol delivered to the smoker from Cigarette A was in the range between 350.4 ìg/cig and 504.8 ìg/cig for the cigarette with no PG, and between 401.5 ìg/cig and 614.1 ìg/cig for the cigarette with 3% PG added. The amount of solanesol retained by the smoker (per cigarette) was on an average 309 ìg/cig with 15.8% relative standard deviation for the cigarette with no PG, and an average of 348 ìg/cig with 20.4% relative standard deviation for the 3% PG cigarette. An ANOVA single factor analysis showed that the results between the two cigarettes were not statistically different for 95% confidence. The retention of solanesol from the commercial cigarette showed an average of 72.5% with 11.7% relative standard deviation, and the cigarette with 3% added PG showed an average retention of 70.8% with 14.5% relative standard deviation. ANOVA single factor analysis indicated no significant differences in the retention % of solanesol for the two cigarettes at 95% confidence. No correlation was found between the amount of solanesol delivered from the cigarette to the smoker and the solanesol retained %.

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