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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 13 (1986): Heft 4 (August 1986)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

6 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Predicting the Pressure Drops across Cellulose Acetate Filters

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 157 - 168

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A theoretical model of the pressure drop across a fibrous cigarette filter is derived. The pressure drop is expressed as a function of the filter dimensions, the fiber tow characteristics, the filter weight, the fluid flow rate, and a filter fiber factor. The fiber factor is affected by the distribution of the fibers within the filter, the relative orientations of the fibers, and their cross-sectional shapes. The model allows one to accurately calculate the influences of these variables on the filter pressure drop. Additionally, it can be used to predict capability curves and select an optimum cellulose acetate tow for a given filter pressure drop.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Simultaneous Monitoring of Filter Ventilation and a Gaseous Component in Whole Cigarette Smoke Using Tunable Diode Laser Infra-red Spectroscopy

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 169 - 181

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A computer-controlled high-resolution infra-red tunable diode laser (TDL) system has been developed to determine simultaneously the concentration of a gaseous smoke component (carbon monoxide) and the filter ventilation of a cigarette during smoking. The simultaneous monitoring of these two parameters provided information which can lead to enhancing the successful development of new cigarette products. The approach selected was to place a cigarette with the ventilation holes of the filter in a chamber filled with a gas not normally detected in cigarette smoke, such as nitrous oxide (N2O), and to mix this gas with the smoke under actual smoking conditions. The N2O provided information concerning the ventilation level and the representative smoke component provided information about the mainstream smoke delivery. This is the first study of which we are aware where the concentration of a smoke component was obtained simultaneously with the dynamic ventilation level within seconds after each puff was taken. Experiments were conducted with cigarettes having different filter ventilation levels (0 %, 13 %, 30 %, 40 %, 60 %, 75 % and 90 %). Each cigarette was measured for the static ventilation prior to smoking using the CORESTA standard ventilation method. These values were in good agreement with those obtained using the TDL. The data collected during this study confirmed that the concentration of the mainstream component investigated increased as the filter ventilation decreased from 90 % to 0 %. With respect to puff number, the ventilation increased slightly during the first puffs then decreased for the later puffs, while the delivery of the smoke component monitored increased with increasing puff number. The 40 % ventilation cigarette showed the largest change in ventilation during smoking compared with the value for the unlit puff.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A Study on Precursors of Nitric Oxide in Sidestream Smoke

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 183 - 190

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

By a method of thermal analysis and smoke analysis of cellulose cigarettes treated with various nitrogenous compounds, it was found that nitric oxide in sidestream smoke is formed not only from nitrates but also from amino acids and water-insoluble protein, while little of the nitric oxide in mainstream smoke is formed from these organic nitrogenous compounds.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Residues of Fluvalinate and Permethrin on Flue-cured Tobacco

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 191 - 203

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with C18 reverse-phase columns was used to determine residues of fluvalinate and permethrin applied in the field to flue-cured tobacco in 1980 and 1981. Methods were developed to determine residue levels in both green and cured samples. In 1980 field tests, residues of fluvalinate applied at rates of 0.1 and 0.2 kg/ha averaged 3.3 and 7.2 ppm, respectively, on green tobacco harvested immediately after application, and declined to 0.3 and 2.7 ppm by 12 days after application. In 1981, with the same application rates, residues averaged 1.7 and 3.0 ppm (0 time) and declined to 0.4 and 0.5 ppm after 16 days, respectively. A new formulation of fluvalinate, applied at 0.06 and 0.01 kg/ha, averaged 0.9 and 1.3 ppm on day 0 and declined to 0.3 and 0.6 ppm after 16 days, respectively. Flue curing reduced fluvalinate residues approximately by 61 % both years. Immediately after application, residues of permethrin, applied at 0.2 kg/ha, averaged 9.6 ppm in 1980 and at application rates of 0.1 and 0.2 kg/ha averaged 3.5 and 3.8 ppm, respectively, in 1981. Residues declined to 7.0 ppm after 12 days in 1980 and to 3.2 and 3.5 ppm after 16 days in 1981. Losses of permethrin due to curing averaged 67 %.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Shredding - A Novel Technology for the Processing of Tobacco Stems which Alters Cigarette Properties

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 205 - 214

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Shredding is a novel process for the utilization of tobacco stems. Stem pieces are forced between large, counter-rotating toothed blades where they are stripped lengthwise into thin, fibrous particles. When compared to the process of rolling and cutting, shredding produces particles having superior bulk filling capacity, cigarette filling index and end stability. The thin, fibrous structure of shredded stem modifies the burn characteristics of the cigarette. Pressure drop and burn rate are reduced, nicotine delivery is enhanced, and, most importantly, carbon monoxide delivery is significantly reduced. These changes provide a significant potential for product improvement. The use of shredded stem has no effect on “tar” delivery. Replacing cut rolled stem with shredded stem has no detectable effect on the chemical composition of the tobacco or on the flavour characteristics of the cigarettes.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Effect of the Increase of Tobacco Tax on 1st of June 1982 on the Length of Cigarette Butts in the Federal Republic of Germany - Die Auswirkung der Tabaksteuererhöhung vom 1. Juni 1982 auf die Länge der Zigarettenstummel in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 215 - 218

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The butts of cigarettes of different origins and product categories (35 383 in all) were examined. Evaluation of the results according to filter and plain cigarettes shows that because of the tax increase in 1982 the butts were shorter than those of previous years. A similar reaction on the part of the smoker to higher tobacco tax had already been established in a previous investigation. The actual length of the butt in the Düsseldorf and Ruhr area was 33.24 mm and 26.70 mm in the case of filter and plain cigarettes respectively. Since 1978/1979 the butts were on average 0.4 mm and 1.3 mm shorter for filter and plain cigarettes respectively.

6 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Predicting the Pressure Drops across Cellulose Acetate Filters

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 157 - 168

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A theoretical model of the pressure drop across a fibrous cigarette filter is derived. The pressure drop is expressed as a function of the filter dimensions, the fiber tow characteristics, the filter weight, the fluid flow rate, and a filter fiber factor. The fiber factor is affected by the distribution of the fibers within the filter, the relative orientations of the fibers, and their cross-sectional shapes. The model allows one to accurately calculate the influences of these variables on the filter pressure drop. Additionally, it can be used to predict capability curves and select an optimum cellulose acetate tow for a given filter pressure drop.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Simultaneous Monitoring of Filter Ventilation and a Gaseous Component in Whole Cigarette Smoke Using Tunable Diode Laser Infra-red Spectroscopy

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 169 - 181

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A computer-controlled high-resolution infra-red tunable diode laser (TDL) system has been developed to determine simultaneously the concentration of a gaseous smoke component (carbon monoxide) and the filter ventilation of a cigarette during smoking. The simultaneous monitoring of these two parameters provided information which can lead to enhancing the successful development of new cigarette products. The approach selected was to place a cigarette with the ventilation holes of the filter in a chamber filled with a gas not normally detected in cigarette smoke, such as nitrous oxide (N2O), and to mix this gas with the smoke under actual smoking conditions. The N2O provided information concerning the ventilation level and the representative smoke component provided information about the mainstream smoke delivery. This is the first study of which we are aware where the concentration of a smoke component was obtained simultaneously with the dynamic ventilation level within seconds after each puff was taken. Experiments were conducted with cigarettes having different filter ventilation levels (0 %, 13 %, 30 %, 40 %, 60 %, 75 % and 90 %). Each cigarette was measured for the static ventilation prior to smoking using the CORESTA standard ventilation method. These values were in good agreement with those obtained using the TDL. The data collected during this study confirmed that the concentration of the mainstream component investigated increased as the filter ventilation decreased from 90 % to 0 %. With respect to puff number, the ventilation increased slightly during the first puffs then decreased for the later puffs, while the delivery of the smoke component monitored increased with increasing puff number. The 40 % ventilation cigarette showed the largest change in ventilation during smoking compared with the value for the unlit puff.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A Study on Precursors of Nitric Oxide in Sidestream Smoke

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 183 - 190

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

By a method of thermal analysis and smoke analysis of cellulose cigarettes treated with various nitrogenous compounds, it was found that nitric oxide in sidestream smoke is formed not only from nitrates but also from amino acids and water-insoluble protein, while little of the nitric oxide in mainstream smoke is formed from these organic nitrogenous compounds.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Residues of Fluvalinate and Permethrin on Flue-cured Tobacco

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 191 - 203

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with C18 reverse-phase columns was used to determine residues of fluvalinate and permethrin applied in the field to flue-cured tobacco in 1980 and 1981. Methods were developed to determine residue levels in both green and cured samples. In 1980 field tests, residues of fluvalinate applied at rates of 0.1 and 0.2 kg/ha averaged 3.3 and 7.2 ppm, respectively, on green tobacco harvested immediately after application, and declined to 0.3 and 2.7 ppm by 12 days after application. In 1981, with the same application rates, residues averaged 1.7 and 3.0 ppm (0 time) and declined to 0.4 and 0.5 ppm after 16 days, respectively. A new formulation of fluvalinate, applied at 0.06 and 0.01 kg/ha, averaged 0.9 and 1.3 ppm on day 0 and declined to 0.3 and 0.6 ppm after 16 days, respectively. Flue curing reduced fluvalinate residues approximately by 61 % both years. Immediately after application, residues of permethrin, applied at 0.2 kg/ha, averaged 9.6 ppm in 1980 and at application rates of 0.1 and 0.2 kg/ha averaged 3.5 and 3.8 ppm, respectively, in 1981. Residues declined to 7.0 ppm after 12 days in 1980 and to 3.2 and 3.5 ppm after 16 days in 1981. Losses of permethrin due to curing averaged 67 %.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Shredding - A Novel Technology for the Processing of Tobacco Stems which Alters Cigarette Properties

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 205 - 214

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Shredding is a novel process for the utilization of tobacco stems. Stem pieces are forced between large, counter-rotating toothed blades where they are stripped lengthwise into thin, fibrous particles. When compared to the process of rolling and cutting, shredding produces particles having superior bulk filling capacity, cigarette filling index and end stability. The thin, fibrous structure of shredded stem modifies the burn characteristics of the cigarette. Pressure drop and burn rate are reduced, nicotine delivery is enhanced, and, most importantly, carbon monoxide delivery is significantly reduced. These changes provide a significant potential for product improvement. The use of shredded stem has no effect on “tar” delivery. Replacing cut rolled stem with shredded stem has no detectable effect on the chemical composition of the tobacco or on the flavour characteristics of the cigarettes.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Effect of the Increase of Tobacco Tax on 1st of June 1982 on the Length of Cigarette Butts in the Federal Republic of Germany - Die Auswirkung der Tabaksteuererhöhung vom 1. Juni 1982 auf die Länge der Zigarettenstummel in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Jan 2015
Seitenbereich: 215 - 218

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The butts of cigarettes of different origins and product categories (35 383 in all) were examined. Evaluation of the results according to filter and plain cigarettes shows that because of the tax increase in 1982 the butts were shorter than those of previous years. A similar reaction on the part of the smoker to higher tobacco tax had already been established in a previous investigation. The actual length of the butt in the Düsseldorf and Ruhr area was 33.24 mm and 26.70 mm in the case of filter and plain cigarettes respectively. Since 1978/1979 the butts were on average 0.4 mm and 1.3 mm shorter for filter and plain cigarettes respectively.

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