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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 5 (1969): Heft 1 (June 1969)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-9509
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jan 1992
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

10 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Isolation of Weak Heteroaromatic Bases in Tobacco Smoke/Isolierung schwach basischer Heteroaromaten aus dem Tabakrauch

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 1 - 4

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

From the smoke of normal blend cigarettes the weak heteroaromatic bases with pKa values below 5 have been isolated by steam distillation followed by precipitation of the bases with hydrochloric acid from ethereal solution. 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine, 2-methyl-6ethylpyrazine, 2,6-diethylpyrazine, a dimethyl-ethylpyrazine, tetramethylpyrazine, and a methyl-furylpyrazine, 2-phenylpyridine, 3-phenylpyridine, two methylquinolines, and three dimethylquinolines have been identified in tobacco smoke, for the first time. Furthermore, 3-vinylpyridine, 3-cyanopyridine, quinoline, 2,3'-dipyridyl, skatol, 2-methyl-5-formylfuran, and a methylbenzofuran have been found.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Pyrogenesis of Aromatic Hydrocarbons Present in Cigarette Smoke II: Pyrolytic Products of some Representative Constituents of the Hexane Soluble Fraction of Tobacco

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 5 - 8

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In continued studies to reevaluate the contribution of the hexane-soluble fraction of flue-cured tobacco to the formation of aromatic compounds, especially polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, present in cigarette smoke, some compounds representative of that fraction have been pyrolyzed (860°C, N2). The straight chain saturated compounds, n-hexane, stearic acid, and dotriacontane, produced pyrolysates distinguished by relatively low yields of total neutrals and the absence of any significant quantities of aromatic products with alkyl side chains. Compounds containing double bonds, such as the unsaturated fatty acid, linolenic acid and its methyl ester, and the polyene squalene, which like phytol is also characterized by methyl groups on the chain, produced relatively higher yields of neutral products, including alkyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons. Phytol, of course, also exhibited this tendency. Pyrolysis of the plant sterol, b-sitosterol, produced the greatest amounts of phenanthrene and BaP. Estimates of BaP levels in pyrolysates indicate that phytol, in addition to the above mentioned sterol, is a relatively effective high temperature precursor of this important carcinogen. The hexane solubles of flue-cured tobacco were shown to produce BaP in levels intermediate to the least effective (stearic acid) and most effective (b-sitosterol) precursor examined.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Quantitative Determination of Carbon Monoxide in Cigarette Smoke/Die quantitative Bestimmung von Kohlenmonoxid im Tabakrauch

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 9 - 12

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Carbon monoxide is found in the gas phase of cigarette smoke in relatively high quantities. In the present study a quantitative method for the determination of carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke by gas chromatography was used. The construction of a calibration line by means of carbon monoxide produced in the laboratory is indicated and the experimental procedure is described. Furthermore the relation between the carbon monoxide content in smoke and different parameters of the test cigarettes is evaluated. The carbon monoxide content in the smoke of various tobacco blends is determined. An increase of the carbon monoxide content in the smoke is observed after the extraction of sugars from the tobacco. The carbon monoxide content increased from puff to puff when the cigarettes were smoked. Cigarette weight had no influence on carbon monoxide in the smoke. This applies also to the humidity of the tobacco, the acetate filters and the carbon filters. Puff volume and the perforation of cigarette paper, however, influenced the carbon monoxide yield considerably.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Composition Studies on Tobacco XXXIII Changes in Smoke Composition and Filtration by Artificial Alteration of Smoke pH: Pyridine and Nicotine

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 13 - 17

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Using selected additives, the pH of smoke from U.S. commercial cigarettes (5.6) can be altered over a wide range (4.1-8.2). The volatility of the additive is of greater importance in changing smoke pH than the acidic or basic strength of the additive. The activated carbon in multiple carbon-cellulose acetate filters is highly effective in removing pyridine selectively from the smoke of blended commercial cigarettes. The degree of this selectivity is markedly reduced on lowering the smoke pH to 4.1 by adding formic acid to cigarettes. On raising the pH of smoke to 8.2 by adding dipropylamine to cigarettes, the selectivity for pyridine is less than in smoke of unaltered pH and more than in smoke of pH 4.1. Some selectivity of nicotine removal is observed in the alkaline smoke using cellulose acetate filters with or without carbon. The use of formic acid to depress pH appears to alter the kinetics of nicotine pyrolysis, resulting in a changed nicotine : pyridine ratio.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Use of Some Organic Salts as Humectants/Einige organische Salze als Feuchthaltemittel in Cigaretten

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 18 - 19

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Sorbitol and diethylenglycol were compared with the respective effects of potassiumacetate, potassiumlactate, magnesiumacetate and potassiummalate as humectants for a Turkish tobacco blend. Potassiumlactate and magnesiumacetate resulted in a slight improvement of taste while Sorbitol was a little unfavourable in this respect. In the cigarettes with Sorbitol and diethyleneglycol the yield of condensate per cigarette was slightly increased. The salts of potassium caused an increase in burning rate. Potassiumacetate, potassiumlactate, magnesiumacetate, potassiummalate and Sorbitol increased the filling power. There was no evidence that the organic salts, which were investigated should not be used as humectants in the industrial production of tobacco goods.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Detection and Evaluation of Burning Additives in Cigarette Paper/Über den Nachweis und die Bestimmung von Glimmsalzen in Cigarettenpapieren

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 20 - 21

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The possibilities of determining various anions of the burning additives in cigarette paper are described. The use of the flame-photometric method is recommended for the determination of the quantity of the burning agents and for deciding whether these are present as sodium and/or as potassium compounds.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Influence of Burning Additives of the Cigarette Paper on the Smoke Yields of Cigarettes/Über den Einfluss der Glimmsalze des Cigarettenpapiers auf die Abrauchergebnisse von Cigaretten

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 22 - 24

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The burning rate of a defined cigarette blend - same kind and composition of the cut tobacco assumed - depends upon the porosity of the paper as well as upon the type and quantity of the burning additives of the paper. If the same burning agent is added in comparable amounts the burning rate varies according to the porosity of the paper. In the smoke total condensate and nicotine decrease with an increasing burning rate.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

An Automatic Smoking Machine. 2nd Report: The Automatic Control of Butt Lengths and its Use as Control Device/Eine vollautomatische Rauchmaschine: II. Mitteilung: Automatische Kontrolle der Stummellänge und ihre Verwendung als Steuerprinzip

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 25 - 27

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A device for the automatic control of butt lengths which can be attached to the automatic smoking machine is described. The system controls the length of butts by measuring the infra-red radiation of the glowing zone of the burning cigarette and releases the automatic ejector of butts when the required length has been reached. The system is adjustable for any length of butts. It is shown that the precision of the smoking procedure of the fully automatic smoking machine is considerably improved by the described control system. Even with cigarettes of inhomogeneous quality and with difference in burning rates it should be possible to smoke these automatically and according to CORESTA standards, if this new device for the control of butt length is used.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Determination of Pressure Drop of Filter Rods and Nozzles under Different Atmospheric Pressure Conditions/Messung des Zugwiderstandes von Filterstäben und Düsen unter verschiedenen Luftdruckbedingungen

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 28 - 33

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The relations between the pressure drop values of filter rods and nozzles obtained by customary gauges and the atmospheric pressure are investigated. Measurements are carried out between 500 and 1.000 mm Hg external pressure. This range was produced artificially. In case of filter rods it is shown, that a variation of 4 % only is received on the full measuring range by operating at constant air circulation (cm3/s) independent of atmospheric pressure. This shift is negligible in view of normally occurring local variations of atmospheric pressure. By operating at constant air circulation (cm3/s) the value of the nozzles' pressure drop varies in considerable degree over the full measuring range. Using reference nozzles for devices of pressure drop determination at different altitudes therefore, either a correction of the reference mark fixed at a standard pressure is necessary, or the values for filter pressure drop are to be corrected. The corrections are indicated.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Determination of the Temperature in the Interior of Vending Machines/Zur Temperaturbestimmung in Cigaretten-Verkaufsautomaten

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 34 - 37

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The highest temperature in the interior of vending machines measured so far was 55°C. The experiments have shown that the packs of cigarettes are prevented from blocking even under extreme conditions if special cellophane with the quality described is used.

10 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Isolation of Weak Heteroaromatic Bases in Tobacco Smoke/Isolierung schwach basischer Heteroaromaten aus dem Tabakrauch

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 1 - 4

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

From the smoke of normal blend cigarettes the weak heteroaromatic bases with pKa values below 5 have been isolated by steam distillation followed by precipitation of the bases with hydrochloric acid from ethereal solution. 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine, 2-methyl-6ethylpyrazine, 2,6-diethylpyrazine, a dimethyl-ethylpyrazine, tetramethylpyrazine, and a methyl-furylpyrazine, 2-phenylpyridine, 3-phenylpyridine, two methylquinolines, and three dimethylquinolines have been identified in tobacco smoke, for the first time. Furthermore, 3-vinylpyridine, 3-cyanopyridine, quinoline, 2,3'-dipyridyl, skatol, 2-methyl-5-formylfuran, and a methylbenzofuran have been found.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Pyrogenesis of Aromatic Hydrocarbons Present in Cigarette Smoke II: Pyrolytic Products of some Representative Constituents of the Hexane Soluble Fraction of Tobacco

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 5 - 8

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In continued studies to reevaluate the contribution of the hexane-soluble fraction of flue-cured tobacco to the formation of aromatic compounds, especially polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, present in cigarette smoke, some compounds representative of that fraction have been pyrolyzed (860°C, N2). The straight chain saturated compounds, n-hexane, stearic acid, and dotriacontane, produced pyrolysates distinguished by relatively low yields of total neutrals and the absence of any significant quantities of aromatic products with alkyl side chains. Compounds containing double bonds, such as the unsaturated fatty acid, linolenic acid and its methyl ester, and the polyene squalene, which like phytol is also characterized by methyl groups on the chain, produced relatively higher yields of neutral products, including alkyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons. Phytol, of course, also exhibited this tendency. Pyrolysis of the plant sterol, b-sitosterol, produced the greatest amounts of phenanthrene and BaP. Estimates of BaP levels in pyrolysates indicate that phytol, in addition to the above mentioned sterol, is a relatively effective high temperature precursor of this important carcinogen. The hexane solubles of flue-cured tobacco were shown to produce BaP in levels intermediate to the least effective (stearic acid) and most effective (b-sitosterol) precursor examined.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Quantitative Determination of Carbon Monoxide in Cigarette Smoke/Die quantitative Bestimmung von Kohlenmonoxid im Tabakrauch

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 9 - 12

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Carbon monoxide is found in the gas phase of cigarette smoke in relatively high quantities. In the present study a quantitative method for the determination of carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke by gas chromatography was used. The construction of a calibration line by means of carbon monoxide produced in the laboratory is indicated and the experimental procedure is described. Furthermore the relation between the carbon monoxide content in smoke and different parameters of the test cigarettes is evaluated. The carbon monoxide content in the smoke of various tobacco blends is determined. An increase of the carbon monoxide content in the smoke is observed after the extraction of sugars from the tobacco. The carbon monoxide content increased from puff to puff when the cigarettes were smoked. Cigarette weight had no influence on carbon monoxide in the smoke. This applies also to the humidity of the tobacco, the acetate filters and the carbon filters. Puff volume and the perforation of cigarette paper, however, influenced the carbon monoxide yield considerably.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Composition Studies on Tobacco XXXIII Changes in Smoke Composition and Filtration by Artificial Alteration of Smoke pH: Pyridine and Nicotine

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 13 - 17

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Using selected additives, the pH of smoke from U.S. commercial cigarettes (5.6) can be altered over a wide range (4.1-8.2). The volatility of the additive is of greater importance in changing smoke pH than the acidic or basic strength of the additive. The activated carbon in multiple carbon-cellulose acetate filters is highly effective in removing pyridine selectively from the smoke of blended commercial cigarettes. The degree of this selectivity is markedly reduced on lowering the smoke pH to 4.1 by adding formic acid to cigarettes. On raising the pH of smoke to 8.2 by adding dipropylamine to cigarettes, the selectivity for pyridine is less than in smoke of unaltered pH and more than in smoke of pH 4.1. Some selectivity of nicotine removal is observed in the alkaline smoke using cellulose acetate filters with or without carbon. The use of formic acid to depress pH appears to alter the kinetics of nicotine pyrolysis, resulting in a changed nicotine : pyridine ratio.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Use of Some Organic Salts as Humectants/Einige organische Salze als Feuchthaltemittel in Cigaretten

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 18 - 19

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Sorbitol and diethylenglycol were compared with the respective effects of potassiumacetate, potassiumlactate, magnesiumacetate and potassiummalate as humectants for a Turkish tobacco blend. Potassiumlactate and magnesiumacetate resulted in a slight improvement of taste while Sorbitol was a little unfavourable in this respect. In the cigarettes with Sorbitol and diethyleneglycol the yield of condensate per cigarette was slightly increased. The salts of potassium caused an increase in burning rate. Potassiumacetate, potassiumlactate, magnesiumacetate, potassiummalate and Sorbitol increased the filling power. There was no evidence that the organic salts, which were investigated should not be used as humectants in the industrial production of tobacco goods.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Detection and Evaluation of Burning Additives in Cigarette Paper/Über den Nachweis und die Bestimmung von Glimmsalzen in Cigarettenpapieren

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 20 - 21

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The possibilities of determining various anions of the burning additives in cigarette paper are described. The use of the flame-photometric method is recommended for the determination of the quantity of the burning agents and for deciding whether these are present as sodium and/or as potassium compounds.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Influence of Burning Additives of the Cigarette Paper on the Smoke Yields of Cigarettes/Über den Einfluss der Glimmsalze des Cigarettenpapiers auf die Abrauchergebnisse von Cigaretten

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 22 - 24

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The burning rate of a defined cigarette blend - same kind and composition of the cut tobacco assumed - depends upon the porosity of the paper as well as upon the type and quantity of the burning additives of the paper. If the same burning agent is added in comparable amounts the burning rate varies according to the porosity of the paper. In the smoke total condensate and nicotine decrease with an increasing burning rate.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

An Automatic Smoking Machine. 2nd Report: The Automatic Control of Butt Lengths and its Use as Control Device/Eine vollautomatische Rauchmaschine: II. Mitteilung: Automatische Kontrolle der Stummellänge und ihre Verwendung als Steuerprinzip

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 25 - 27

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A device for the automatic control of butt lengths which can be attached to the automatic smoking machine is described. The system controls the length of butts by measuring the infra-red radiation of the glowing zone of the burning cigarette and releases the automatic ejector of butts when the required length has been reached. The system is adjustable for any length of butts. It is shown that the precision of the smoking procedure of the fully automatic smoking machine is considerably improved by the described control system. Even with cigarettes of inhomogeneous quality and with difference in burning rates it should be possible to smoke these automatically and according to CORESTA standards, if this new device for the control of butt length is used.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Determination of Pressure Drop of Filter Rods and Nozzles under Different Atmospheric Pressure Conditions/Messung des Zugwiderstandes von Filterstäben und Düsen unter verschiedenen Luftdruckbedingungen

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 28 - 33

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The relations between the pressure drop values of filter rods and nozzles obtained by customary gauges and the atmospheric pressure are investigated. Measurements are carried out between 500 and 1.000 mm Hg external pressure. This range was produced artificially. In case of filter rods it is shown, that a variation of 4 % only is received on the full measuring range by operating at constant air circulation (cm3/s) independent of atmospheric pressure. This shift is negligible in view of normally occurring local variations of atmospheric pressure. By operating at constant air circulation (cm3/s) the value of the nozzles' pressure drop varies in considerable degree over the full measuring range. Using reference nozzles for devices of pressure drop determination at different altitudes therefore, either a correction of the reference mark fixed at a standard pressure is necessary, or the values for filter pressure drop are to be corrected. The corrections are indicated.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Determination of the Temperature in the Interior of Vending Machines/Zur Temperaturbestimmung in Cigaretten-Verkaufsautomaten

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jul 2014
Seitenbereich: 34 - 37

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The highest temperature in the interior of vending machines measured so far was 55°C. The experiments have shown that the packs of cigarettes are prevented from blocking even under extreme conditions if special cellophane with the quality described is used.

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