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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 6 (2013): Zeszyt 5 (January 2013)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

26 Artykułów
access type Otwarty dostęp

A New Unequal Clustering Algorithm using Energy-Balanced Area Partitioning for Wireless Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 1808 - 1829

Abstrakt

Abstract

Multi-hop Clustering is more preferred than the single-hop one because the transmission range of the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) nodes is not determined by the size of the network area. However, the multi-hop method brings a new problem related to the workload imbalance between the cluster-heads (CHs). Unequal Clustering becomes the most proposed solution of the unbalance load, but the calculation of the radius clusters still become a big challenge to achieve a maximum balancing degree. In this paper, we propose a new unequal clustering algorithm based on the partitioned circles network model, having better accuracy in the energy consumption analysis than the rectangular one. The superiority of the algorithm we propose is cluster parameters, by which the region width and cluster-head probability, are obtained with a complete energy consumption analysis. Through the simulation evaluation, the algorithm brings the better performance than the equal clustering.

Index terms

  • WSN
  • Unequal Clustering
  • Energy Balancing
  • Circular Partitioning
access type Otwarty dostęp

Virtual Detection Zone in smart phone, with CCTV, and Twitter as part of an Integrated ITS

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 1830 - 1868

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this proposed integrated Intelligent Transport System, GPS enabled smart phones, and video cameras are used as traffic sensors, while Twitter is used as verifier. They are attractive because they are non intrusive, and consequently more practical and cheaper to implement. Our novel Virtual Detection Zone (VDZ) method has been able to map match by using pre-determined check points. VDZ speed accuracy ranges from 93.4 to 99.9% in higher speeds and it only needs one longitude and latitude coordinate, to form a detection aware zone. Also by using ANFIS we show that a more accurate traffic condition can be obtained using our three sources of data.

Index terms

  • Closed-circuit Television (CCTV)
  • integrated Intelligent Transport System (ITS)
  • Traffic data
  • vehicle detection
  • Virtual Detection Zone (VDZ)
  • Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS).
access type Otwarty dostęp

Pedestrian Detection Algorithm Based on Local Color Parallel Similarity Features

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 1869 - 1890

Abstrakt

Abstract

HOG Feature is the mainstream feature applied in the field of pedestrian detection .HOG combined with CSS has good effects on pedestrian detection. Because of the large amount calculation of HOG and CSS, HOG and CSS has poor real-time performance, we propose LCSSF (Local Color Self Similarity Feature) avoiding calculating the global color similarity distribution of CSS. The tested results of the Inria and the street pedestrian database show that the accuracy of the HOG with LCSSF has better detection performance and better real-time performance than HOG and CSS.

Index terms

  • Pedestrian detection
  • Local Color Self-Similarity Feature
  • SVM
  • HOG
access type Otwarty dostęp

Electrocardiogram for Biometrics by using Adaptive Multilayer Generalized Learning Vector Quantization (AMGLVQ): Integrating Feature Extraction and Classification

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 1891 - 1917

Abstrakt

Abstract

Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal for human identity recognition is a new area on biometrics research. The ECG is a vital signal of human body, unique, robustness to attack, universality and permanence, difference to others traditional biometrics technic. This study also proposes Adaptive Multilayer Generalized Learning Vector Quantization (AMGLVQ), that integrating feature extraction and classification method. The experiments shown that AMGLVQ can improve the accuracy of classification better than SVM or back-propagation NN and also able to handle some problems of heartbeat classification: imbalanced data set, inconsistency between feature extraction and classification and detecting unknown data on testing phase.

Index terms

  • ECG biometrics
  • AMGLVQ
  • SVM
  • back-propagation-NN
  • feature extraction
  • classification
  • vector quantization.
access type Otwarty dostęp

Applying Merging Convetional Marker and Backpropagation Neural Network in QR Code Augmented Reality Tracking

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 1918 - 1948

Abstrakt

Abstract

Usability of QR Code in Augmented Reality system has been used for digital content accessible publicly. However, QR Code in AR system still has imprecision tracking. In this article we propose merging QR Code within conventional marker and backpropagation neural network (BPNN) algorithm to recognizing QR Code Finder Pattern. The method which our chosen to approaching conventional marker. The result of BPNN testing, QRFP detected in perspective distortion with ID-encoded character length 78, 53 and 32. The result has accuracy of 6DOF ±10.65° pitching, ±15.03° yawing and ±408.07 surging, marker stability has 97.625% and computation time runs at 35.41 fps.

Index terms

  • Augmented Reality
  • QR Code
  • QR Code Finder Pattern Detection
  • Tracking
  • 6 DOF
  • Backpropagation
  • Neural Network
access type Otwarty dostęp

State of the Art on Secure and Low Cost RFID Authentication Protocols for RFID Based Vehicle License Plate

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 1949 - 1969

Abstrakt

Abstract

RFID technology has many potential applications that would ease object identification seamlessly. One of its potential benefits to government is the adoption of RFID tag as embedded smart material within vehicle license plate. However, adoption of RFID in vehicle license plate is fragile from various RFID attacks while efforts to improve its security will lead to additional cost. Enhancing RFID security without extra cost poses new challenges to researchers in the area. This study aims to provide a state of the art on RFID authentication protocols under low cost restriction as a foundation for decision maker for further development stage of RFID based vehicle license plate. In depth analysis is performed by assessing the protocols according to three features namely data protection, tracking prevention, and forward security. Finally, it is concluded that the protocols are vary in satisfying three aspects of security features.

Index terms

  • RFID
  • vehicle plate license
  • smart identification
  • security and privacy
  • low cost
  • data protection
  • tracking prevention and forward security
access type Otwarty dostęp

Capacity Enhancement of Messages Concealment in Image and Audio Steganography

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 1970 - 1985

Abstrakt

Abstract

Basically, a steganography indicates two of the principal requirements such the messages and the carrier file. Besides, it should have three aspects: capacity, imperceptibility, and robustness. This paper will show how to enhance the capacity of two types of carrier files for embedding message. By using Least Significant Bit method and modifying the four last bits of carrier files, bitmap and wav files could show the increasing of message size to be inserted to the carrier than only modifying the last 1 bit of carrier files. Particularly bitmap file which still had good quality visual showed PSNR value in 31.5460 dB, but wav file was only 3.8929 dB.

Index terms

  • Capacity Steganography Enhancement
  • Image and Audio Steganography
  • LSB Method
  • Least Significant Bit
  • Steganography
access type Otwarty dostęp

Weighted Hybrid Localization Scheme for Improved Node Positioning in Wireless Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 1986 - 2010

Abstrakt

Abstract

Localization schemes have a significant role in wireless sensor networks. During random deployment in an untouched area, the nodes have to be capable of self-management to determine their position. Received Signal Strength (RSS) and DV-Hop, are two different schemes that each have environment or hop dependency problem. Hybrid localization scheme, called H-Loc, is a combination of RSS and DV-Hop method. This scheme is proposed to make the selection of distance determination process based on the proximity of nodes position. The weighted least square is proposed as a refining of DV-Hop scheme’s position calculated process. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has the capability of improving the accuracy of node positioning up to 3.4 %.

Index terms

  • DV-Hop
  • H-Loc Scheme
  • localization
  • weighted least square
access type Otwarty dostęp

Performance Analysis of ECG Signal Compression using SPIHT

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2011 - 2039

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper, we analyze the performance of electrocardiogram (ECG) signal compression by comparing original and reconstructed signal on two problems. First, automatic sleep stage classification based on ECG signal; second, arrhythmia classification. An effective ECG signal compression method based on two-dimensional wavelet transform which employs set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) and beat reordering technique used to compress the ECG signal. This method utilizes the redundancy between adjacent samples and adjacent beats. Beat reordering rearranges beat order in 2D (2 dimension) ECG array based on the similarity between adjacent beats. The experimental results show that the proposed method yields relatively low distortion at high compression rate. The experimental results also show that the accuracy of sleep stage classification and arrhythmia classification using reconstructed ECG signal from proposed method is comparable to the original signal. The proposed method preserved signal characteristics for the automatic sleep stage and arrhythmia classification problems.

Index terms

  • ECG compression
  • set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT)
  • wavelet transform
  • multirate signal processing.
access type Otwarty dostęp

Human Identification Based on Walking Detection with Acceleration Sensor and Networked Laser Range Sensors in Intelligent Space

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2040 - 2054

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study aimed to identify a specific human with the accurate position measurements by integrating the networked laser range finders in the intelligent space and an wearable acceleration sensor with the human. A human identification method based on associating detections of walking behaviors from both sensors is proposed. Parameter optimization was also performed for improvement of identification. System configurations and implementations using RT component are also described. Some experimental results showed a feasibility of the proposed method. In the proposed system, only walking detection results are communicated among sensors. The proposed system with small data communication is effective for networked sensor systems like intelligent spaces.

Index terms

  • Acceleration sensors
  • Human identification
  • Human tracking
  • Intelligent Space
  • Laser range finders
access type Otwarty dostęp

Real Time Steam Temperature Regulation using Self-Tuning Fuzzy PID Controller on Hydrodiffusion Essential Oil Extraction System

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2055 - 2074

Abstrakt

Abstract

The essential oil is mostly depends on the temperature. The temperature will influence the final product of the extraction process. The existing steam distillation processes are giving less intention on this issue. This work implemented the robust self-tuning fuzzy PID (STFPID) controller to monitor the steam temperature in the hydro-diffusion essential oil extraction system. The hydrodiffusion system is built to overcome some weakness of existing systems. The effectiveness of the STFPID using 25 rules and PID controller is measured by using performance indices of settling time, rise time, percentage overshoot (%OS) and root mean square error. The step responses analysis and robustness test show that STFPID and PID controller are able to drive the steam temperature to the desired set point However, the analysis shows that STFPID produces better performances based on set point tracking and adoption of load disturbance.

Index terms

  • distillation
  • essential oil
  • hydro-diffusion system
  • self-tuning fuzzy PID
access type Otwarty dostęp

System Identification Modelling and IMC based PID Control of Impressed Current Cathodic Protection Systems

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2055 - 2074

Abstrakt

Abstract

Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) system is the most practical method of cathodic protection systems. This system is widely used to prevent the external corrosion of carbon steel structures; especially those are used in underground oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, the theoretical background, principles and concepts of ICCP systems have been discussed. An effective laboratory scale for ICCP systems was built according to specific concepts has been clarified. Consequently,the parametric model of this system was obtained using System Identification (SI) approach.Furthermore,an Internal Model Control based Proportional Integral Derivative (IMC-PID) controller has been designed for enhancingthe performance of ICCP systems.Additionally, simulation and onlineimplementation works have been carried out to control ICCP systems at different operating conditions. Nevertheless, the IMC-PID controller leads todecrease both the Integral of the Absolute Error (IAE) and the Steady State Error (SSE) which are lower values compared to the open loop system.

Index terms

  • Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) system
  • System Identification (SI)
  • Internal Model Control (IMC)
  • Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Control
access type Otwarty dostęp

Mobility of IP based Wireless Sensor Nodes in Sensor-Grid infrastructure

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2075 - 2102

Abstrakt

Abstract

As the world is moving towards the “Internet of Things” [1], Internet Protocol enabled wireless sensor network is becoming an important research area. In order to make it possible and to facilitate transmission of IPv6 packets over low powered networks, 6Lowpan [2,3] has been introduced. Since the IP- WSN application domain is expanded to real-time applications such as health-care [17] and surveillance systems, a fast and seamless handover becomes an important criterion for supporting mobility in 6LoWPAN [21]. In this paper, we have studied mobility characteristics along with design issues under different mobility scenarios. We propose a scheme to manage the mobility of nodes. The 6LoWPAN based wireless sensor network will be integrated with grid computing establishing a Sensor-grid which may also be used widely in various applications.

Index terms

  • WSN
  • Internet of Things
  • 6LoWPAN
  • Mobility
  • Sensor-grid
access type Otwarty dostęp

Cluster-based Routing Performance Optimization Constraint of Energy, Delay and Connectivity Metrics in Wireless Sensor Network

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2103 - 2118

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper aims to propose a framework for optimizing performance in cluster-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with constrains of energy consumption, delay and connectivity. For the limitation of energy storage being discussed a lot, many researches try to find more solutions to improve it. But, the other index of wireless sensor networks may be deteriorated by many routings which are dedicated to optimizing energy consumption. Thereby, multi-objectives optimization is one of significant issues in WSNs. The model of isolation nodes probability for connectivity in the clusterbased networks is adopted for the issue. Not only will the performance of Leach and existing multiobjectives optimization methods be compared under the proposed framework, but also will the performance of networks in different size of scenarios be analyzed. Simulation results show that the proposed framework combining NSGA can provide an effective sensing in terms of energy consumption, delay and connectivity in the cluster-based networks.

Index terms

  • Isolation nodes probability
  • energy consumption
  • delay
  • cluster
  • WSN
  • optimization framework
access type Otwarty dostęp

Target Classification Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors in Unattended Wild Ground Environment

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2119 - 2135

Abstrakt

Abstract

Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors are widely used as a simple presence trigger for alarms and a reliable counter for people in security home and smart office. Most paper have focused on the design and application of such systems, however, few research has be done on the detecting of targets in an outdoor environment using PIR sensors. In this paper, we realize a detecting system by means of PIR nodes to monitor outdoor targets more than 20 meters away from the PIR detectors. Furthermore, because of velocity difference, by extracting time domain amplitude, signal length, maximum frequency and corresponding frequency amplitude as features, we successfully classify people, wheeled vehicle and tracked vehicle in the unattended wild ground environment. Our detecting and classifying results confirm the average accuracy is 85.67% and 82.67% when PIR detectors are deployed 20 meters and 30 meters away from the area of interest (AoI), respectively.

Index terms

  • Target Classification
  • Pyroelectric Infrared
  • Wheeled Vehicle
  • Tracked Vehicle
  • Support Vector Machine
access type Otwarty dostęp

Spectrum Sensing Algorithm Based on ATSC DTV Signal Structure

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2136 - 2154

Abstrakt

Abstract

In order to improve spectrum utilization rate, people need a method to sense the spectrum hole. This article puts forward a spectrum sensing algorithm, which uses ATSC DTV signal structural characteristics. First, we should sample the input signal based on structural characteristics. Second, these signal samples should be separated into different sets and accumulate these samples. Third, we execute the correlation operation to accumulation result and synchronization. Finally, decision can be got by comparing the test statistics with threshold. According to the simulation result, we can get the conclusion that signal structural characteristics based on spectrum sensing method can realize spectrum sensing well enough.

Index terms

  • Cognitive radio
  • spectrum sensing
  • ATSC DTV
  • signal structure
  • energy detection
access type Otwarty dostęp

Research on Longitudinal Control Algorithm for Flying Wing UAV Based on LQR Technology

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2155 - 2181

Abstrakt

Abstract

Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) is widely used in many practical engineering fields due to good stability margin and strong robustness. But there is little literature reports the technology that has been used to control the flying wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). In this paper, aiming at the longitudinal static and dynamic characteristics of the flying wing UAV, LQR technology will be introduced to the flying wing UAV flight control. The longitudinal stability augmentation control law and longitudinal attitude control law are designed. The stability augmentation control law is designed by using output feedback linear quadratic method. It can not only increase the longitudinal static stability, but also improve the dynamic characteristics. The longitudinal attitude control law of the flying wing UAV is designed by using command tracking augmented LQR method. The controller can realize the control and maintain the flight attitude and velocity under the condition without breaking robustness of LQR. It solves the command tracking problems that conventional LQR beyond reach. Considering that some state variables of the system are difficult to obtain directly, a control method that called quasi-command tracking augmented LQR is designed by combing with the reduced order observer, it retains all the features of command tracking augmented LQR and more suitable for the application of practice engineering. Finally, the control laws are simulated under the environment of Matlab/Simulink. The results show that the longitudinal control laws of the flying wing UAV which are designed based on LQR can make the flying wing UAV achieve satisfactory longitudinal flying quality.

Index terms

  • Flying wing UAV
  • UAV modeling
  • augmented LQR method
  • longitudinal stability augmentation
  • longitudinal attitude control
  • dimension reduction observer
access type Otwarty dostęp

Parameters Optimization of Passive Vehicle Suspension based on Invariant Points Theory

Data publikacji: 25 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2182 - 2199

Abstrakt

Abstract

Two methods for parameters optimization of traditional passive suspension based on the invariant point theory are presented in this paper. Firstly, the two degree-of-freedom dynamical model for a quarter vehicle suspension is established. Then all the invariant points for the acceleration of vehicle body, suspension deformation, and tire displacement are obtained through the invariant equation associated with Laplace transform. Secondly, two optimization methods for the system parameters of passive suspension are presented, and the design objectives are to designate the invariant points as the local maximum points of the amplitude-frequency curves so as to improve the control performance of vibration isolation. At last, the control performances of the two improved passive suspension systems are compared with those of the original passive suspension, the active suspension, and the semi-active suspension by some performance indexes. The results show that the two optimization methods could greatly improve the control performance of passive suspension systems.

Index terms

  • Vehicle suspension
  • invariant points
  • parameters optimization
  • passive control
access type Otwarty dostęp

Sensor-Based Wireless Wearable Systems for Healthcare and Falls Monitoring

Data publikacji: 23 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2200 - 2216

Abstrakt

Abstract

The rapid aging of the world’s population, along with an increase in the prevalence of chronic illnesses, requires adaption and modification of current healthcare models. New trends on healthcare technologies fall into the use of autonomous systems that allows the capturing and monitoring of physiological parameters anytime and anywhere. One approach involves tele-health applications, many of which are based on sensor technologies for unobtrusive monitoring. Recent technological advances, in particular, involving micro-electromechanical systems, have resulted in miniaturized wearable devices that can be used. In this paper, based-on our algorithms research, a ubiquitous personal health monitoring and system is designed, which integrates health-related sensory devices with the healthcare center cost-effectively. It can aid senior citizens and patients, especially elderly, who need long-term attention to their physical condition, like chronic diseases and falls, with ubiquitous surveillance and remote management of the recorded health data, and timely help.

Index terms

  • Health Management
  • Daily Activity Monitoring
  • Physiological Parameters
  • Zigbee
  • Android
  • Fall Detection
access type Otwarty dostęp

Automatic Control Process of Solenoid Valve Production line based on PLC and Touch Screen

Data publikacji: 23 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2217 - 2234

Abstrakt

Abstract

This article introduces the automatic control process of solenoid valve production line with PLC control and touch screen user interface. The production line can produce four types of solenoid valves. There are numerous steps in the production process to ensure the quality of the products, e.g. image error detection and Helium leak detection. The control process uses the Siemens S7-300 as the control core, in conjunction with the Siemens touch screen TP 177B as the human machine interface to achieve the real-time control for the production line. The system control structure, hardware components, software design, as well as the process of automatic control are articulated in this article. The production line runs with consistent stability, the man-machine interface is user friendly, and all the processes have a high level of automation.

Index terms

  • Solenoid valve
  • production line
  • distributed control
  • PLC
  • touch screen
  • PROFIBUS-DP
  • magnetic levitation
access type Otwarty dostęp

Design of Linear-Phase Filter Banks with Multiplier-Less Lattice Structures

Data publikacji: 23 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2234 - 2253

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper, a new multiplier-less algorithm is proposed for the design of perfectreconstruction linear-phase (PR LP) filter banks by using multiplier-less lattice structures. The coefficients in the multiplication operations have been replaced with limited number of additions and the computational complexity is reduced significantly. The property of perfection reconstruction, however, is preserved regardless the multiplier-less approximation of lattice structures in the factorization of polyphase matrix. The coefficients in the 2x2 rotation matrices of the lattice structures are expressed as sum-of-powers-of-two (SOPOT) coefficients in the parameterization processes. By using the multiplier-less rotation matrices, the unitary matrices are constructed for the lattice factorization of perfect-reconstruction linear-phase filter banks. Design examples of 5-channel and 8-channel multiplier-less linear-phase filter banks are included to validate the algorithm and implementation.

Index terms

  • Non-multiplier realization
  • perfect reconstruction
  • linear phase
  • filter bank
  • lattice realization
  • SOPOT coefficient
  • lattice structure
access type Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of Key Fuel Properties Inside Combination Electronic unit Pump Fuel Pipeline

Data publikacji: 23 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2254 - 2276

Abstrakt

Abstract

Because of high pressure fluctuations in Combination Electronic Unit Pump (CEUP) system during fuel injection cycles, physical properties of diesel fuel including density, acoustic wave speed and bulk modulus also vary. These physical properties of fuel have significant importance in predicting the fuel injection behavior and its optimization. A 1D viscous damped mathematical model of wave equation has been developed in MATLAB not only to simulate the pressure fluctuations in fuel pipeline at various operating conditions of diesel engine but also to determine and analyze the variations in these physical properties of diesel fuel.

Index terms

  • Mathematical model
  • Fuel pipeline
  • Wave equation
  • Density
  • Acoustic wave speed
  • Bulk modulus
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Rotating Cantilever Beam for Dynamic Strain Measurement and Vibration Analysis Based on Fbg Sensor

Data publikacji: 23 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2277 - 2295

Abstrakt

Abstract

Strain measurement and vibration analysis of a rotating blade are critical for the progress in improvements of the performance of machines. Since traditional sensors and measurement methods have difficulty measuring the rotor blade’s dynamic strain and vibration, the search for new measurement methods has become an urgent task in rotor machine monitoring and diagnosis. This paper presents a new method based on Fiber Briggs Gratings (FBG) for the measurement of strain and estimation of vibrations in a rotating cantilever. The method is based on the fact that the vibration displacement can be expressed in terms of an infinite number of vibration modes and be related to the dynamic strains through strain-displacement relationship. By placing multiple sets of FBG and utilizing an optic coupler, the rotating cantilever beam’s dynamic strain can be measured and vibration can be estimated at the same time. From the results, it can be concluded that this new monitoring method is applicable to the rotating blade.

Index terms

  • Measurement
  • vibration
  • strain
  • FBG
  • rotating cantilever beam
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Climbing Hold With an Integrated Three Dimensional Force Measurement and Wireless Data Acquisition

Data publikacji: 23 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2296 - 2307

Abstrakt

Abstract

A three dimensional force measurement system was integrated in a climbing hold. The force measurement system consisted of three orthogonally mounted platform load cells. Data acquisition and power supply of the load cells was performed by a wireless data acquisition system ViFDAQ. Data was transferred by ViFDAQ to a nearby laptop by a wireless Bluetooth connection. Measurements were done during a regional climbing competition. The instrumented climbing hold was mounted in one of the climbing routes. The forces the athletes exerted on the climbing hold to reach the top were measured. Force data was analyzed and compared to the actual ranking of the athlete in this competition.

Index terms

  • Instrumented climbing hold
  • force measurement
  • rock climbing
  • integrated climbing hold
  • climbing efficiency
  • Hausdorff dimension
  • wireless data acquisition
  • ViFDAQ
access type Otwarty dostęp

Evaluation of Finger Direction Recognition Method for Behavior Control of Robot

Data publikacji: 31 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2308 - 2333

Abstrakt

Abstract

When a human gives an order to a robot, the robot must often use its vision to ascertain the human’s indication. In our previous paper, to develop a system where robots precisely receive and obey human orders in daily work spaces, we proposed an experimental system for finger direction recognition (FDR) in 3D space using stereo matching by mounting two cameras on the robot. In this paper, we evaluate this system for FDR in 3D space by performing a series of evaluation experiments using a turntable capable of fixing a hand in a specific finger direction. We estimated various finger directions and distances for two major pointing hand forms (Forms 1 and 2) and evaluated the precision of θ and Φ. We conclude that the θ and Φ estimations are valid because the estimation error is almost within 10 ° when the distance between the camera and object is less than 110 and 80 cm for θ and Φ for Forms 1 and 2, respectively. Finally, we applied our FDR system to the communication between a robot and a person by visual and tactile sensations. In the application test, the robot recognized the object at which the person pointed and put it in the person’s palm.

Index terms

  • Robot vision
  • Human indication
  • Finger direction recognition
  • Two hand forms
  • Handing over
access type Otwarty dostęp

Investigation of Human Tactile Stochastic Resonance Depending on Frequency Effect

Data publikacji: 31 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2334 - 2349

Abstrakt

Abstract

Stochastic Resonance (SR) is a significant concern for design of robotic tactile sensors because of its considerable enhancement of sensitivity of human tactile sensation. In the last few decades, researchers have found that noise previously considered detrimental in fact provides the benefit of SR phenomena. However, there are no experimental results for dependence on vibrotactile frequency, which issued as basic data for robotic tactile sensors. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the SR phenomena on human tactile sensation in the context of frequency-dependence of absolute thresholds (AT). We developed a system composed of an experimental apparatus and a computer program based on psychophysics in order to measure the AT of human vibrotactile sensation. We performed three series of psychophysical experiments using normal vibration, 8-mm-sized stimulus point and the continuous sinusoidal signals of 32, 50 and 75 Hz to obtain the AT variation in frequency. The results show that since normal ATs decrease with appropriate noise, SR is observed in normal stimuli tests in the frequency range from 32 to 70 Hz. Since the inclination of the curve of AT in a double logarithmic graph is around -1 in both with-noise and without-noise conditions, SR is caused by the FA-I mechanoreceptive unit in the range of frequency.

Index terms

  • Tactile sensation and sensors
  • Stochastic resonance
  • Psychophysical experiment
  • Continuous sinusoidal signal
  • Mechanoreceptive units
26 Artykułów
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A New Unequal Clustering Algorithm using Energy-Balanced Area Partitioning for Wireless Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 1808 - 1829

Abstrakt

Abstract

Multi-hop Clustering is more preferred than the single-hop one because the transmission range of the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) nodes is not determined by the size of the network area. However, the multi-hop method brings a new problem related to the workload imbalance between the cluster-heads (CHs). Unequal Clustering becomes the most proposed solution of the unbalance load, but the calculation of the radius clusters still become a big challenge to achieve a maximum balancing degree. In this paper, we propose a new unequal clustering algorithm based on the partitioned circles network model, having better accuracy in the energy consumption analysis than the rectangular one. The superiority of the algorithm we propose is cluster parameters, by which the region width and cluster-head probability, are obtained with a complete energy consumption analysis. Through the simulation evaluation, the algorithm brings the better performance than the equal clustering.

Index terms

  • WSN
  • Unequal Clustering
  • Energy Balancing
  • Circular Partitioning
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Virtual Detection Zone in smart phone, with CCTV, and Twitter as part of an Integrated ITS

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 1830 - 1868

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this proposed integrated Intelligent Transport System, GPS enabled smart phones, and video cameras are used as traffic sensors, while Twitter is used as verifier. They are attractive because they are non intrusive, and consequently more practical and cheaper to implement. Our novel Virtual Detection Zone (VDZ) method has been able to map match by using pre-determined check points. VDZ speed accuracy ranges from 93.4 to 99.9% in higher speeds and it only needs one longitude and latitude coordinate, to form a detection aware zone. Also by using ANFIS we show that a more accurate traffic condition can be obtained using our three sources of data.

Index terms

  • Closed-circuit Television (CCTV)
  • integrated Intelligent Transport System (ITS)
  • Traffic data
  • vehicle detection
  • Virtual Detection Zone (VDZ)
  • Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS).
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Pedestrian Detection Algorithm Based on Local Color Parallel Similarity Features

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 1869 - 1890

Abstrakt

Abstract

HOG Feature is the mainstream feature applied in the field of pedestrian detection .HOG combined with CSS has good effects on pedestrian detection. Because of the large amount calculation of HOG and CSS, HOG and CSS has poor real-time performance, we propose LCSSF (Local Color Self Similarity Feature) avoiding calculating the global color similarity distribution of CSS. The tested results of the Inria and the street pedestrian database show that the accuracy of the HOG with LCSSF has better detection performance and better real-time performance than HOG and CSS.

Index terms

  • Pedestrian detection
  • Local Color Self-Similarity Feature
  • SVM
  • HOG
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Electrocardiogram for Biometrics by using Adaptive Multilayer Generalized Learning Vector Quantization (AMGLVQ): Integrating Feature Extraction and Classification

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 1891 - 1917

Abstrakt

Abstract

Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal for human identity recognition is a new area on biometrics research. The ECG is a vital signal of human body, unique, robustness to attack, universality and permanence, difference to others traditional biometrics technic. This study also proposes Adaptive Multilayer Generalized Learning Vector Quantization (AMGLVQ), that integrating feature extraction and classification method. The experiments shown that AMGLVQ can improve the accuracy of classification better than SVM or back-propagation NN and also able to handle some problems of heartbeat classification: imbalanced data set, inconsistency between feature extraction and classification and detecting unknown data on testing phase.

Index terms

  • ECG biometrics
  • AMGLVQ
  • SVM
  • back-propagation-NN
  • feature extraction
  • classification
  • vector quantization.
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Applying Merging Convetional Marker and Backpropagation Neural Network in QR Code Augmented Reality Tracking

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 1918 - 1948

Abstrakt

Abstract

Usability of QR Code in Augmented Reality system has been used for digital content accessible publicly. However, QR Code in AR system still has imprecision tracking. In this article we propose merging QR Code within conventional marker and backpropagation neural network (BPNN) algorithm to recognizing QR Code Finder Pattern. The method which our chosen to approaching conventional marker. The result of BPNN testing, QRFP detected in perspective distortion with ID-encoded character length 78, 53 and 32. The result has accuracy of 6DOF ±10.65° pitching, ±15.03° yawing and ±408.07 surging, marker stability has 97.625% and computation time runs at 35.41 fps.

Index terms

  • Augmented Reality
  • QR Code
  • QR Code Finder Pattern Detection
  • Tracking
  • 6 DOF
  • Backpropagation
  • Neural Network
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State of the Art on Secure and Low Cost RFID Authentication Protocols for RFID Based Vehicle License Plate

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 1949 - 1969

Abstrakt

Abstract

RFID technology has many potential applications that would ease object identification seamlessly. One of its potential benefits to government is the adoption of RFID tag as embedded smart material within vehicle license plate. However, adoption of RFID in vehicle license plate is fragile from various RFID attacks while efforts to improve its security will lead to additional cost. Enhancing RFID security without extra cost poses new challenges to researchers in the area. This study aims to provide a state of the art on RFID authentication protocols under low cost restriction as a foundation for decision maker for further development stage of RFID based vehicle license plate. In depth analysis is performed by assessing the protocols according to three features namely data protection, tracking prevention, and forward security. Finally, it is concluded that the protocols are vary in satisfying three aspects of security features.

Index terms

  • RFID
  • vehicle plate license
  • smart identification
  • security and privacy
  • low cost
  • data protection
  • tracking prevention and forward security
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Capacity Enhancement of Messages Concealment in Image and Audio Steganography

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 1970 - 1985

Abstrakt

Abstract

Basically, a steganography indicates two of the principal requirements such the messages and the carrier file. Besides, it should have three aspects: capacity, imperceptibility, and robustness. This paper will show how to enhance the capacity of two types of carrier files for embedding message. By using Least Significant Bit method and modifying the four last bits of carrier files, bitmap and wav files could show the increasing of message size to be inserted to the carrier than only modifying the last 1 bit of carrier files. Particularly bitmap file which still had good quality visual showed PSNR value in 31.5460 dB, but wav file was only 3.8929 dB.

Index terms

  • Capacity Steganography Enhancement
  • Image and Audio Steganography
  • LSB Method
  • Least Significant Bit
  • Steganography
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Weighted Hybrid Localization Scheme for Improved Node Positioning in Wireless Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 1986 - 2010

Abstrakt

Abstract

Localization schemes have a significant role in wireless sensor networks. During random deployment in an untouched area, the nodes have to be capable of self-management to determine their position. Received Signal Strength (RSS) and DV-Hop, are two different schemes that each have environment or hop dependency problem. Hybrid localization scheme, called H-Loc, is a combination of RSS and DV-Hop method. This scheme is proposed to make the selection of distance determination process based on the proximity of nodes position. The weighted least square is proposed as a refining of DV-Hop scheme’s position calculated process. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has the capability of improving the accuracy of node positioning up to 3.4 %.

Index terms

  • DV-Hop
  • H-Loc Scheme
  • localization
  • weighted least square
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Performance Analysis of ECG Signal Compression using SPIHT

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2011 - 2039

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper, we analyze the performance of electrocardiogram (ECG) signal compression by comparing original and reconstructed signal on two problems. First, automatic sleep stage classification based on ECG signal; second, arrhythmia classification. An effective ECG signal compression method based on two-dimensional wavelet transform which employs set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) and beat reordering technique used to compress the ECG signal. This method utilizes the redundancy between adjacent samples and adjacent beats. Beat reordering rearranges beat order in 2D (2 dimension) ECG array based on the similarity between adjacent beats. The experimental results show that the proposed method yields relatively low distortion at high compression rate. The experimental results also show that the accuracy of sleep stage classification and arrhythmia classification using reconstructed ECG signal from proposed method is comparable to the original signal. The proposed method preserved signal characteristics for the automatic sleep stage and arrhythmia classification problems.

Index terms

  • ECG compression
  • set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT)
  • wavelet transform
  • multirate signal processing.
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Human Identification Based on Walking Detection with Acceleration Sensor and Networked Laser Range Sensors in Intelligent Space

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2040 - 2054

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study aimed to identify a specific human with the accurate position measurements by integrating the networked laser range finders in the intelligent space and an wearable acceleration sensor with the human. A human identification method based on associating detections of walking behaviors from both sensors is proposed. Parameter optimization was also performed for improvement of identification. System configurations and implementations using RT component are also described. Some experimental results showed a feasibility of the proposed method. In the proposed system, only walking detection results are communicated among sensors. The proposed system with small data communication is effective for networked sensor systems like intelligent spaces.

Index terms

  • Acceleration sensors
  • Human identification
  • Human tracking
  • Intelligent Space
  • Laser range finders
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Real Time Steam Temperature Regulation using Self-Tuning Fuzzy PID Controller on Hydrodiffusion Essential Oil Extraction System

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2055 - 2074

Abstrakt

Abstract

The essential oil is mostly depends on the temperature. The temperature will influence the final product of the extraction process. The existing steam distillation processes are giving less intention on this issue. This work implemented the robust self-tuning fuzzy PID (STFPID) controller to monitor the steam temperature in the hydro-diffusion essential oil extraction system. The hydrodiffusion system is built to overcome some weakness of existing systems. The effectiveness of the STFPID using 25 rules and PID controller is measured by using performance indices of settling time, rise time, percentage overshoot (%OS) and root mean square error. The step responses analysis and robustness test show that STFPID and PID controller are able to drive the steam temperature to the desired set point However, the analysis shows that STFPID produces better performances based on set point tracking and adoption of load disturbance.

Index terms

  • distillation
  • essential oil
  • hydro-diffusion system
  • self-tuning fuzzy PID
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System Identification Modelling and IMC based PID Control of Impressed Current Cathodic Protection Systems

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2055 - 2074

Abstrakt

Abstract

Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) system is the most practical method of cathodic protection systems. This system is widely used to prevent the external corrosion of carbon steel structures; especially those are used in underground oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, the theoretical background, principles and concepts of ICCP systems have been discussed. An effective laboratory scale for ICCP systems was built according to specific concepts has been clarified. Consequently,the parametric model of this system was obtained using System Identification (SI) approach.Furthermore,an Internal Model Control based Proportional Integral Derivative (IMC-PID) controller has been designed for enhancingthe performance of ICCP systems.Additionally, simulation and onlineimplementation works have been carried out to control ICCP systems at different operating conditions. Nevertheless, the IMC-PID controller leads todecrease both the Integral of the Absolute Error (IAE) and the Steady State Error (SSE) which are lower values compared to the open loop system.

Index terms

  • Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) system
  • System Identification (SI)
  • Internal Model Control (IMC)
  • Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Control
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Mobility of IP based Wireless Sensor Nodes in Sensor-Grid infrastructure

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2075 - 2102

Abstrakt

Abstract

As the world is moving towards the “Internet of Things” [1], Internet Protocol enabled wireless sensor network is becoming an important research area. In order to make it possible and to facilitate transmission of IPv6 packets over low powered networks, 6Lowpan [2,3] has been introduced. Since the IP- WSN application domain is expanded to real-time applications such as health-care [17] and surveillance systems, a fast and seamless handover becomes an important criterion for supporting mobility in 6LoWPAN [21]. In this paper, we have studied mobility characteristics along with design issues under different mobility scenarios. We propose a scheme to manage the mobility of nodes. The 6LoWPAN based wireless sensor network will be integrated with grid computing establishing a Sensor-grid which may also be used widely in various applications.

Index terms

  • WSN
  • Internet of Things
  • 6LoWPAN
  • Mobility
  • Sensor-grid
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Cluster-based Routing Performance Optimization Constraint of Energy, Delay and Connectivity Metrics in Wireless Sensor Network

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2103 - 2118

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper aims to propose a framework for optimizing performance in cluster-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with constrains of energy consumption, delay and connectivity. For the limitation of energy storage being discussed a lot, many researches try to find more solutions to improve it. But, the other index of wireless sensor networks may be deteriorated by many routings which are dedicated to optimizing energy consumption. Thereby, multi-objectives optimization is one of significant issues in WSNs. The model of isolation nodes probability for connectivity in the clusterbased networks is adopted for the issue. Not only will the performance of Leach and existing multiobjectives optimization methods be compared under the proposed framework, but also will the performance of networks in different size of scenarios be analyzed. Simulation results show that the proposed framework combining NSGA can provide an effective sensing in terms of energy consumption, delay and connectivity in the cluster-based networks.

Index terms

  • Isolation nodes probability
  • energy consumption
  • delay
  • cluster
  • WSN
  • optimization framework
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Target Classification Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors in Unattended Wild Ground Environment

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2119 - 2135

Abstrakt

Abstract

Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors are widely used as a simple presence trigger for alarms and a reliable counter for people in security home and smart office. Most paper have focused on the design and application of such systems, however, few research has be done on the detecting of targets in an outdoor environment using PIR sensors. In this paper, we realize a detecting system by means of PIR nodes to monitor outdoor targets more than 20 meters away from the PIR detectors. Furthermore, because of velocity difference, by extracting time domain amplitude, signal length, maximum frequency and corresponding frequency amplitude as features, we successfully classify people, wheeled vehicle and tracked vehicle in the unattended wild ground environment. Our detecting and classifying results confirm the average accuracy is 85.67% and 82.67% when PIR detectors are deployed 20 meters and 30 meters away from the area of interest (AoI), respectively.

Index terms

  • Target Classification
  • Pyroelectric Infrared
  • Wheeled Vehicle
  • Tracked Vehicle
  • Support Vector Machine
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Spectrum Sensing Algorithm Based on ATSC DTV Signal Structure

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2136 - 2154

Abstrakt

Abstract

In order to improve spectrum utilization rate, people need a method to sense the spectrum hole. This article puts forward a spectrum sensing algorithm, which uses ATSC DTV signal structural characteristics. First, we should sample the input signal based on structural characteristics. Second, these signal samples should be separated into different sets and accumulate these samples. Third, we execute the correlation operation to accumulation result and synchronization. Finally, decision can be got by comparing the test statistics with threshold. According to the simulation result, we can get the conclusion that signal structural characteristics based on spectrum sensing method can realize spectrum sensing well enough.

Index terms

  • Cognitive radio
  • spectrum sensing
  • ATSC DTV
  • signal structure
  • energy detection
access type Otwarty dostęp

Research on Longitudinal Control Algorithm for Flying Wing UAV Based on LQR Technology

Data publikacji: 16 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2155 - 2181

Abstrakt

Abstract

Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) is widely used in many practical engineering fields due to good stability margin and strong robustness. But there is little literature reports the technology that has been used to control the flying wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). In this paper, aiming at the longitudinal static and dynamic characteristics of the flying wing UAV, LQR technology will be introduced to the flying wing UAV flight control. The longitudinal stability augmentation control law and longitudinal attitude control law are designed. The stability augmentation control law is designed by using output feedback linear quadratic method. It can not only increase the longitudinal static stability, but also improve the dynamic characteristics. The longitudinal attitude control law of the flying wing UAV is designed by using command tracking augmented LQR method. The controller can realize the control and maintain the flight attitude and velocity under the condition without breaking robustness of LQR. It solves the command tracking problems that conventional LQR beyond reach. Considering that some state variables of the system are difficult to obtain directly, a control method that called quasi-command tracking augmented LQR is designed by combing with the reduced order observer, it retains all the features of command tracking augmented LQR and more suitable for the application of practice engineering. Finally, the control laws are simulated under the environment of Matlab/Simulink. The results show that the longitudinal control laws of the flying wing UAV which are designed based on LQR can make the flying wing UAV achieve satisfactory longitudinal flying quality.

Index terms

  • Flying wing UAV
  • UAV modeling
  • augmented LQR method
  • longitudinal stability augmentation
  • longitudinal attitude control
  • dimension reduction observer
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Parameters Optimization of Passive Vehicle Suspension based on Invariant Points Theory

Data publikacji: 25 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2182 - 2199

Abstrakt

Abstract

Two methods for parameters optimization of traditional passive suspension based on the invariant point theory are presented in this paper. Firstly, the two degree-of-freedom dynamical model for a quarter vehicle suspension is established. Then all the invariant points for the acceleration of vehicle body, suspension deformation, and tire displacement are obtained through the invariant equation associated with Laplace transform. Secondly, two optimization methods for the system parameters of passive suspension are presented, and the design objectives are to designate the invariant points as the local maximum points of the amplitude-frequency curves so as to improve the control performance of vibration isolation. At last, the control performances of the two improved passive suspension systems are compared with those of the original passive suspension, the active suspension, and the semi-active suspension by some performance indexes. The results show that the two optimization methods could greatly improve the control performance of passive suspension systems.

Index terms

  • Vehicle suspension
  • invariant points
  • parameters optimization
  • passive control
access type Otwarty dostęp

Sensor-Based Wireless Wearable Systems for Healthcare and Falls Monitoring

Data publikacji: 23 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2200 - 2216

Abstrakt

Abstract

The rapid aging of the world’s population, along with an increase in the prevalence of chronic illnesses, requires adaption and modification of current healthcare models. New trends on healthcare technologies fall into the use of autonomous systems that allows the capturing and monitoring of physiological parameters anytime and anywhere. One approach involves tele-health applications, many of which are based on sensor technologies for unobtrusive monitoring. Recent technological advances, in particular, involving micro-electromechanical systems, have resulted in miniaturized wearable devices that can be used. In this paper, based-on our algorithms research, a ubiquitous personal health monitoring and system is designed, which integrates health-related sensory devices with the healthcare center cost-effectively. It can aid senior citizens and patients, especially elderly, who need long-term attention to their physical condition, like chronic diseases and falls, with ubiquitous surveillance and remote management of the recorded health data, and timely help.

Index terms

  • Health Management
  • Daily Activity Monitoring
  • Physiological Parameters
  • Zigbee
  • Android
  • Fall Detection
access type Otwarty dostęp

Automatic Control Process of Solenoid Valve Production line based on PLC and Touch Screen

Data publikacji: 23 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2217 - 2234

Abstrakt

Abstract

This article introduces the automatic control process of solenoid valve production line with PLC control and touch screen user interface. The production line can produce four types of solenoid valves. There are numerous steps in the production process to ensure the quality of the products, e.g. image error detection and Helium leak detection. The control process uses the Siemens S7-300 as the control core, in conjunction with the Siemens touch screen TP 177B as the human machine interface to achieve the real-time control for the production line. The system control structure, hardware components, software design, as well as the process of automatic control are articulated in this article. The production line runs with consistent stability, the man-machine interface is user friendly, and all the processes have a high level of automation.

Index terms

  • Solenoid valve
  • production line
  • distributed control
  • PLC
  • touch screen
  • PROFIBUS-DP
  • magnetic levitation
access type Otwarty dostęp

Design of Linear-Phase Filter Banks with Multiplier-Less Lattice Structures

Data publikacji: 23 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2234 - 2253

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper, a new multiplier-less algorithm is proposed for the design of perfectreconstruction linear-phase (PR LP) filter banks by using multiplier-less lattice structures. The coefficients in the multiplication operations have been replaced with limited number of additions and the computational complexity is reduced significantly. The property of perfection reconstruction, however, is preserved regardless the multiplier-less approximation of lattice structures in the factorization of polyphase matrix. The coefficients in the 2x2 rotation matrices of the lattice structures are expressed as sum-of-powers-of-two (SOPOT) coefficients in the parameterization processes. By using the multiplier-less rotation matrices, the unitary matrices are constructed for the lattice factorization of perfect-reconstruction linear-phase filter banks. Design examples of 5-channel and 8-channel multiplier-less linear-phase filter banks are included to validate the algorithm and implementation.

Index terms

  • Non-multiplier realization
  • perfect reconstruction
  • linear phase
  • filter bank
  • lattice realization
  • SOPOT coefficient
  • lattice structure
access type Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of Key Fuel Properties Inside Combination Electronic unit Pump Fuel Pipeline

Data publikacji: 23 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2254 - 2276

Abstrakt

Abstract

Because of high pressure fluctuations in Combination Electronic Unit Pump (CEUP) system during fuel injection cycles, physical properties of diesel fuel including density, acoustic wave speed and bulk modulus also vary. These physical properties of fuel have significant importance in predicting the fuel injection behavior and its optimization. A 1D viscous damped mathematical model of wave equation has been developed in MATLAB not only to simulate the pressure fluctuations in fuel pipeline at various operating conditions of diesel engine but also to determine and analyze the variations in these physical properties of diesel fuel.

Index terms

  • Mathematical model
  • Fuel pipeline
  • Wave equation
  • Density
  • Acoustic wave speed
  • Bulk modulus
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Rotating Cantilever Beam for Dynamic Strain Measurement and Vibration Analysis Based on Fbg Sensor

Data publikacji: 23 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2277 - 2295

Abstrakt

Abstract

Strain measurement and vibration analysis of a rotating blade are critical for the progress in improvements of the performance of machines. Since traditional sensors and measurement methods have difficulty measuring the rotor blade’s dynamic strain and vibration, the search for new measurement methods has become an urgent task in rotor machine monitoring and diagnosis. This paper presents a new method based on Fiber Briggs Gratings (FBG) for the measurement of strain and estimation of vibrations in a rotating cantilever. The method is based on the fact that the vibration displacement can be expressed in terms of an infinite number of vibration modes and be related to the dynamic strains through strain-displacement relationship. By placing multiple sets of FBG and utilizing an optic coupler, the rotating cantilever beam’s dynamic strain can be measured and vibration can be estimated at the same time. From the results, it can be concluded that this new monitoring method is applicable to the rotating blade.

Index terms

  • Measurement
  • vibration
  • strain
  • FBG
  • rotating cantilever beam
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Climbing Hold With an Integrated Three Dimensional Force Measurement and Wireless Data Acquisition

Data publikacji: 23 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2296 - 2307

Abstrakt

Abstract

A three dimensional force measurement system was integrated in a climbing hold. The force measurement system consisted of three orthogonally mounted platform load cells. Data acquisition and power supply of the load cells was performed by a wireless data acquisition system ViFDAQ. Data was transferred by ViFDAQ to a nearby laptop by a wireless Bluetooth connection. Measurements were done during a regional climbing competition. The instrumented climbing hold was mounted in one of the climbing routes. The forces the athletes exerted on the climbing hold to reach the top were measured. Force data was analyzed and compared to the actual ranking of the athlete in this competition.

Index terms

  • Instrumented climbing hold
  • force measurement
  • rock climbing
  • integrated climbing hold
  • climbing efficiency
  • Hausdorff dimension
  • wireless data acquisition
  • ViFDAQ
access type Otwarty dostęp

Evaluation of Finger Direction Recognition Method for Behavior Control of Robot

Data publikacji: 31 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2308 - 2333

Abstrakt

Abstract

When a human gives an order to a robot, the robot must often use its vision to ascertain the human’s indication. In our previous paper, to develop a system where robots precisely receive and obey human orders in daily work spaces, we proposed an experimental system for finger direction recognition (FDR) in 3D space using stereo matching by mounting two cameras on the robot. In this paper, we evaluate this system for FDR in 3D space by performing a series of evaluation experiments using a turntable capable of fixing a hand in a specific finger direction. We estimated various finger directions and distances for two major pointing hand forms (Forms 1 and 2) and evaluated the precision of θ and Φ. We conclude that the θ and Φ estimations are valid because the estimation error is almost within 10 ° when the distance between the camera and object is less than 110 and 80 cm for θ and Φ for Forms 1 and 2, respectively. Finally, we applied our FDR system to the communication between a robot and a person by visual and tactile sensations. In the application test, the robot recognized the object at which the person pointed and put it in the person’s palm.

Index terms

  • Robot vision
  • Human indication
  • Finger direction recognition
  • Two hand forms
  • Handing over
access type Otwarty dostęp

Investigation of Human Tactile Stochastic Resonance Depending on Frequency Effect

Data publikacji: 31 Dec 2013
Zakres stron: 2334 - 2349

Abstrakt

Abstract

Stochastic Resonance (SR) is a significant concern for design of robotic tactile sensors because of its considerable enhancement of sensitivity of human tactile sensation. In the last few decades, researchers have found that noise previously considered detrimental in fact provides the benefit of SR phenomena. However, there are no experimental results for dependence on vibrotactile frequency, which issued as basic data for robotic tactile sensors. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the SR phenomena on human tactile sensation in the context of frequency-dependence of absolute thresholds (AT). We developed a system composed of an experimental apparatus and a computer program based on psychophysics in order to measure the AT of human vibrotactile sensation. We performed three series of psychophysical experiments using normal vibration, 8-mm-sized stimulus point and the continuous sinusoidal signals of 32, 50 and 75 Hz to obtain the AT variation in frequency. The results show that since normal ATs decrease with appropriate noise, SR is observed in normal stimuli tests in the frequency range from 32 to 70 Hz. Since the inclination of the curve of AT in a double logarithmic graph is around -1 in both with-noise and without-noise conditions, SR is caused by the FA-I mechanoreceptive unit in the range of frequency.

Index terms

  • Tactile sensation and sensors
  • Stochastic resonance
  • Psychophysical experiment
  • Continuous sinusoidal signal
  • Mechanoreceptive units

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