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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 4 (2011): Zeszyt 2 (January 2011)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

10 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

A Novel Biased Energy Distribution (BED) Technique for Cluster-Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 161 - 173

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents the impact of utilizing a biased energy distribution (BED) scheme for clustering sensor networks. In clustering sensor networks, some of the nodes are elected as aggregators and they compress the data from their cluster members before sending the aggregated data to the sink. Existing clustering routing protocols assume that all the nodes are provided with equal amount of energy but this shortens the network lifetime and makes the network unstable. This paper proposes a solution prioritizing the network into higher and lower energy nodes. The aim of this approach is to ensure well balanced energy consumption in order to maximize network lifetime. It is shown by simulation that the proposed technique exhibits better performance when compared to existing clustering routing techniques in terms of throughput, network lifetime and energy consumption.

Index terms

  • Sensor network
  • clustering routing techniques
  • biased energy distribution
  • network prioritization
Otwarty dostęp

Diesel Particulate Analysis using Sem-Edx and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 174 - 188

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper, composition analysis using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X- ray spectroscopy analysis (SEM-EDX) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for particulate matter in diesel exhaust is presented. Conventionally, scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) has been widely used to obtain particle size distribution of the suspended particles. However, real-time analysis of the composition of diesel particulate matter is difficult because of the small sized particles and rapidly exhausted. The particulates are less than a few micrometers in diameter. Realtime chemical analysis of the very small sized particles emitted from diesel fuels is facilitated with LIBS technique.

Index terms

  • LIBS
  • particulate matter
  • aerosol
Otwarty dostęp

Self-Tuning Control of an Electro-Hydraulic Actuator System

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 189 - 204

Abstrakt

Abstract

Due to time-varying effects in electro-hydraulic actuator (EHA) system parameters, a selftuning control algorithm using pole placement and recursive identification is presented. A discrete-time model is developed using system identification method to represent the EHA system and residual analysis is used for model validation. A recursive least square (RLS) method with covariance resetting technique is proposed to estimate parameters of the discrete-time model. The results show the proposed control algorithm can adapt the changes occur in model parameters compared with the fixed controller.

In conclusion, a self-tuning control is required in improving the EHS system performance in industrial positioning applications.

Index terms

  • System identification
  • pole placement
  • recursive least square
  • electro hydraulic actuator system
  • self tuning control
Otwarty dostęp

Increasing the Efficiency of Ultrasonic Dispersion System with use of Control Loop to Automatic Frequency Adjusting

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 205 - 223

Abstrakt

Abstract

A novel ultrasonic dispersion system for the dispersing of particles which are mixed in liquid has been proposed in this paper. The frequency of produced ultrasonic wave varies from 30 kHz to 60 kHz with 100 Hz steps. It means that the operating frequency band of designed system is 30 kHz. The maximum and optimum energy of ultrasonic wave can be transfer inside the liquid container with the high efficiency in majority of operating time by the use of some facilities which are implemented in our novel system, so it causes one of the superiority of manufactured system in compare with the other similar systems which are available in markets. Ultrasonic transducers which are used in this system as the generator of ultrasonic wave is the type of air coupled ceramic ultrasonic piezoelectric with the nominal maximum power 50 watt. By the considering of frequency diagram of applied piezoelectric, it can be find out that the piezoelectrics produce the maximum amplitude of ultrasonic wave on their resonance frequency, so this system is designed to work on resonance frequency of piezoelectric, continuously. This is done by the use of control system which is consisted of two major parts, sensing part and controlling part. A Hall Effect current sensor is used as the sensing part and the controlling program is implemented on AVR microcontrollers. In addition, the control algorithm of program is presented in this paper. The manufactured ultrasonic dispersion system has been consisted of 9 piezoelectrics so that it can produce 450 watt ultrasonic energy, totally.

Index terms

  • Ultrasonic dispersion
  • frequency adjusting
  • Transducer
  • high power ultrasonic
  • nano-particles
Otwarty dostęp

Design an Intelligent Controller for Full Vehicle Nonlinear Active Suspension Systems

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 224 - 243

Abstrakt

Abstract

The main objective of designed the controller for a vehicle suspension system is to reduce the discomfort sensed by passengers which arises from road roughness and to increase the ride handling associated with the pitching and rolling movements. This necessitates a very fast and accurate controller to meet as much control objectives, as possible. Therefore, this paper deals with an artificial intelligence Neuro-Fuzzy (NF) technique to design a robust controller to meet the control objectives. The advantage of this controller is that it can handle the nonlinearities faster than other conventional controllers. The approach of the proposed controller is to minimize the vibrations on each corner of vehicle by supplying control forces to suspension system when travelling on rough road. The other purpose for using the NF controller for vehicle model is to reduce the body inclinations that are made during intensive manoeuvres including braking and cornering. A full vehicle nonlinear active suspension system is introduced and tested. The robustness of the proposed controller is being assessed by comparing with an optimal Fractional Order PIλDu (FOPID) controller. The results show that the intelligent NF controller has improved the dynamic response measured by decreasing the cost function.

Index terms

  • Full vehicle
  • nonlinear active suspension system
  • intelligent system
  • neuro-fuzzy system
  • control design
Otwarty dostęp

Temperature Control of a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor by Means of two Different Intelligent Strategies

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 149 - 153

Abstrakt

Abstract

Continues Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) is an important subject in chemical process and offering a diverse range of researches in the area of the chemical and control engineering. Various control approaches have been applied on CSTR to control its parameters. This paper presents two different control strategies based on the combination of a novel socio-political optimization algorithm, called Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA), and concept of the gain scheduling performed by means of the least square and fuzzy logic approaches. The goal is to control the temperature of the

CSTR in presence of the set point changes. The works followed with designing those controllers and simulating in MATLAB software. The performance of the proposed controllers have been consider based on the Sum of the Square Error (SSE) and Integral Absolute Error(IAE) Criteria. The results clearly indicate that both suggested control strategies offer an acceptable performance with respect to the functional changes of the process. In other word, robustness of the proposed methods in dealing uncertainties throughout the tracking of the reference signal take the highlighted point into account. Furthermore, fuzzy based structure strategy gives the more flexibility and precise behavior in control action in comparison to the least square based approach.

Index terms

  • CSTR
  • modeling
  • ICA
  • PI controller
  • gain scheduling
  • fuzzy controller
Otwarty dostęp

Vedic Mathematics Based 32-Bit Multiplier Design for High Speed Low Power Processors

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 268 - 284

Abstrakt

Abstract

Vedic Mathematics is the ancient methodology of Indian mathematics which has a unique technique for arithmetic computations based on 16 Sutras (Formulae). Transistor level implementation (ASIC) of Vedic Mathematics based 32-bit multiplier for high speed low power processor is reported in this paper. Simple Boolean logic is combined with ‘Vedic’ formulas, which reduces the partial products and sums generated in one step, reduces the carry propagation from LSB to MSB. The implementation methodology ensure substantial reduction of propagation delay in comparison with Wallace Tree (WTM), modified Booth Algorithm (MBA), Baugh Wooley (BWM) and Row Bypassing and Parallel Architecture (RBPA) based implementation which are most commonly used architectures. The functionality of these circuits was checked and performance parameters like propagation delay and dynamic power consumption were calculated by spice spectre using standard 90nm CMOS technology. The propagation delay of the resulting 32×32 multiplier was only ~1.06 us and consumes ~132 uW power. The implementation offered significant improvement in terms of delay and power from earlier reported ones.

Index terms

  • Vedic Formulae
  • Multiplication
  • High Speed
  • Low Power
  • Latency
Otwarty dostęp

Bayesian Multiple Person Tracking using Probability Hypothesis Density Smoothing

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 285 - 312

Abstrakt

Abstract

We presents a PHD filtering approach to estimate the state of an unknown number of persons in a video sequence. Persons are represented by moving blobs, which are tracked across different frames using a first-order moment approximation to the posterior density. The PHD filter is a good alternative to standard multi-target tracking algorithms, since overrides making explicit associations between measurements and persons locations. The recursive method has linear complexity in the number of targets, so it also has the potential benefit of scaling well with a large number of persons being tracked. The PHD filter achieves interesting results for the multiple persons tracking problem, albeit discarding useful information from higher order interactions. Nevertheless, a backward statespace representation using PHD smoothing can be used to refine the filtered estimates. In this paper, we present two smoothing strategies for improving PHD filter estimates in multiple persons tracking. Results from using PHD smoothing techniques in a video sequence shows a slight gain in the cardinality estimates (meaning the number of persons in a particular video frame), but good performance in the individual location estimates.

Index terms

  • Power system
  • fault current
  • current limiter
  • permanent magnet
  • saturable core
  • magnetic current limiter
  • high temperature superconducting fault current limiter
Otwarty dostęp

Particles Mass Flow Rate and Concentration Measurement using Electrostatic Sensor

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 313 - 324

Abstrakt

Abstract

In many industries where flow parameters measurement is essential to control manufacturing process, the use of a reliable, cost effective and high accuracy instrument is an important issue. Appropriate measurement method and design leads to improvement of pneumatic conveyors operation and process efficiency. This paper present an instrumentation design based on passive charge detection using a single electrostatic sensor. Two different sensor electrodes are applied to show the flexibility of electrostatic sensor application. A time domain signal processing algorithm is developed to measurement of mass flow rate and concentration profile from acquired electrical charge signal. The findings is led to a low cost and high accuracy design, the experimental test results of the design shows less than ±5% error between measured parameters and reference reading acquired from the manual weighing.

Index terms

  • pneumatic conveyors
  • passive charge
  • electrostatic sensor
  • mass indicator
Otwarty dostęp

A wireless inductive-capacitive (L-C) sensor for rotating component temperature monitoring

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 325 - 337

Abstrakt

Abstract

Temperature monitoring is critical in almost every type of machinery and application, especially in rotating components such as jet turbines, engines, and power plants, etc. These components involve harsh environments and where the physical connections for monitoring systems are impossible. This paper presents a resonant inductive-capacitive (L-C) circuit based wireless temperature sensor suitable for working in these harsh environments to monitor the temperature of rotating components. Design and performance analysis of the wireless temperature sensor has been conducted and the sensor prototype was successfully fabricated and calibrated up to 200°C with sensitivity of 30 kHz/°C. As a result it is confirmed that temperature monitoring of a rotating component can be carried out without requiring physical connection, power supplies or active elements in the sensor circuit.

Index terms

  • Wireless
  • resonant inductive-capacitive (L-C) circuit
  • temperature sensor
  • rotating components
10 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

A Novel Biased Energy Distribution (BED) Technique for Cluster-Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 161 - 173

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents the impact of utilizing a biased energy distribution (BED) scheme for clustering sensor networks. In clustering sensor networks, some of the nodes are elected as aggregators and they compress the data from their cluster members before sending the aggregated data to the sink. Existing clustering routing protocols assume that all the nodes are provided with equal amount of energy but this shortens the network lifetime and makes the network unstable. This paper proposes a solution prioritizing the network into higher and lower energy nodes. The aim of this approach is to ensure well balanced energy consumption in order to maximize network lifetime. It is shown by simulation that the proposed technique exhibits better performance when compared to existing clustering routing techniques in terms of throughput, network lifetime and energy consumption.

Index terms

  • Sensor network
  • clustering routing techniques
  • biased energy distribution
  • network prioritization
Otwarty dostęp

Diesel Particulate Analysis using Sem-Edx and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 174 - 188

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper, composition analysis using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X- ray spectroscopy analysis (SEM-EDX) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for particulate matter in diesel exhaust is presented. Conventionally, scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) has been widely used to obtain particle size distribution of the suspended particles. However, real-time analysis of the composition of diesel particulate matter is difficult because of the small sized particles and rapidly exhausted. The particulates are less than a few micrometers in diameter. Realtime chemical analysis of the very small sized particles emitted from diesel fuels is facilitated with LIBS technique.

Index terms

  • LIBS
  • particulate matter
  • aerosol
Otwarty dostęp

Self-Tuning Control of an Electro-Hydraulic Actuator System

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 189 - 204

Abstrakt

Abstract

Due to time-varying effects in electro-hydraulic actuator (EHA) system parameters, a selftuning control algorithm using pole placement and recursive identification is presented. A discrete-time model is developed using system identification method to represent the EHA system and residual analysis is used for model validation. A recursive least square (RLS) method with covariance resetting technique is proposed to estimate parameters of the discrete-time model. The results show the proposed control algorithm can adapt the changes occur in model parameters compared with the fixed controller.

In conclusion, a self-tuning control is required in improving the EHS system performance in industrial positioning applications.

Index terms

  • System identification
  • pole placement
  • recursive least square
  • electro hydraulic actuator system
  • self tuning control
Otwarty dostęp

Increasing the Efficiency of Ultrasonic Dispersion System with use of Control Loop to Automatic Frequency Adjusting

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 205 - 223

Abstrakt

Abstract

A novel ultrasonic dispersion system for the dispersing of particles which are mixed in liquid has been proposed in this paper. The frequency of produced ultrasonic wave varies from 30 kHz to 60 kHz with 100 Hz steps. It means that the operating frequency band of designed system is 30 kHz. The maximum and optimum energy of ultrasonic wave can be transfer inside the liquid container with the high efficiency in majority of operating time by the use of some facilities which are implemented in our novel system, so it causes one of the superiority of manufactured system in compare with the other similar systems which are available in markets. Ultrasonic transducers which are used in this system as the generator of ultrasonic wave is the type of air coupled ceramic ultrasonic piezoelectric with the nominal maximum power 50 watt. By the considering of frequency diagram of applied piezoelectric, it can be find out that the piezoelectrics produce the maximum amplitude of ultrasonic wave on their resonance frequency, so this system is designed to work on resonance frequency of piezoelectric, continuously. This is done by the use of control system which is consisted of two major parts, sensing part and controlling part. A Hall Effect current sensor is used as the sensing part and the controlling program is implemented on AVR microcontrollers. In addition, the control algorithm of program is presented in this paper. The manufactured ultrasonic dispersion system has been consisted of 9 piezoelectrics so that it can produce 450 watt ultrasonic energy, totally.

Index terms

  • Ultrasonic dispersion
  • frequency adjusting
  • Transducer
  • high power ultrasonic
  • nano-particles
Otwarty dostęp

Design an Intelligent Controller for Full Vehicle Nonlinear Active Suspension Systems

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 224 - 243

Abstrakt

Abstract

The main objective of designed the controller for a vehicle suspension system is to reduce the discomfort sensed by passengers which arises from road roughness and to increase the ride handling associated with the pitching and rolling movements. This necessitates a very fast and accurate controller to meet as much control objectives, as possible. Therefore, this paper deals with an artificial intelligence Neuro-Fuzzy (NF) technique to design a robust controller to meet the control objectives. The advantage of this controller is that it can handle the nonlinearities faster than other conventional controllers. The approach of the proposed controller is to minimize the vibrations on each corner of vehicle by supplying control forces to suspension system when travelling on rough road. The other purpose for using the NF controller for vehicle model is to reduce the body inclinations that are made during intensive manoeuvres including braking and cornering. A full vehicle nonlinear active suspension system is introduced and tested. The robustness of the proposed controller is being assessed by comparing with an optimal Fractional Order PIλDu (FOPID) controller. The results show that the intelligent NF controller has improved the dynamic response measured by decreasing the cost function.

Index terms

  • Full vehicle
  • nonlinear active suspension system
  • intelligent system
  • neuro-fuzzy system
  • control design
Otwarty dostęp

Temperature Control of a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor by Means of two Different Intelligent Strategies

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 149 - 153

Abstrakt

Abstract

Continues Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) is an important subject in chemical process and offering a diverse range of researches in the area of the chemical and control engineering. Various control approaches have been applied on CSTR to control its parameters. This paper presents two different control strategies based on the combination of a novel socio-political optimization algorithm, called Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA), and concept of the gain scheduling performed by means of the least square and fuzzy logic approaches. The goal is to control the temperature of the

CSTR in presence of the set point changes. The works followed with designing those controllers and simulating in MATLAB software. The performance of the proposed controllers have been consider based on the Sum of the Square Error (SSE) and Integral Absolute Error(IAE) Criteria. The results clearly indicate that both suggested control strategies offer an acceptable performance with respect to the functional changes of the process. In other word, robustness of the proposed methods in dealing uncertainties throughout the tracking of the reference signal take the highlighted point into account. Furthermore, fuzzy based structure strategy gives the more flexibility and precise behavior in control action in comparison to the least square based approach.

Index terms

  • CSTR
  • modeling
  • ICA
  • PI controller
  • gain scheduling
  • fuzzy controller
Otwarty dostęp

Vedic Mathematics Based 32-Bit Multiplier Design for High Speed Low Power Processors

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 268 - 284

Abstrakt

Abstract

Vedic Mathematics is the ancient methodology of Indian mathematics which has a unique technique for arithmetic computations based on 16 Sutras (Formulae). Transistor level implementation (ASIC) of Vedic Mathematics based 32-bit multiplier for high speed low power processor is reported in this paper. Simple Boolean logic is combined with ‘Vedic’ formulas, which reduces the partial products and sums generated in one step, reduces the carry propagation from LSB to MSB. The implementation methodology ensure substantial reduction of propagation delay in comparison with Wallace Tree (WTM), modified Booth Algorithm (MBA), Baugh Wooley (BWM) and Row Bypassing and Parallel Architecture (RBPA) based implementation which are most commonly used architectures. The functionality of these circuits was checked and performance parameters like propagation delay and dynamic power consumption were calculated by spice spectre using standard 90nm CMOS technology. The propagation delay of the resulting 32×32 multiplier was only ~1.06 us and consumes ~132 uW power. The implementation offered significant improvement in terms of delay and power from earlier reported ones.

Index terms

  • Vedic Formulae
  • Multiplication
  • High Speed
  • Low Power
  • Latency
Otwarty dostęp

Bayesian Multiple Person Tracking using Probability Hypothesis Density Smoothing

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 285 - 312

Abstrakt

Abstract

We presents a PHD filtering approach to estimate the state of an unknown number of persons in a video sequence. Persons are represented by moving blobs, which are tracked across different frames using a first-order moment approximation to the posterior density. The PHD filter is a good alternative to standard multi-target tracking algorithms, since overrides making explicit associations between measurements and persons locations. The recursive method has linear complexity in the number of targets, so it also has the potential benefit of scaling well with a large number of persons being tracked. The PHD filter achieves interesting results for the multiple persons tracking problem, albeit discarding useful information from higher order interactions. Nevertheless, a backward statespace representation using PHD smoothing can be used to refine the filtered estimates. In this paper, we present two smoothing strategies for improving PHD filter estimates in multiple persons tracking. Results from using PHD smoothing techniques in a video sequence shows a slight gain in the cardinality estimates (meaning the number of persons in a particular video frame), but good performance in the individual location estimates.

Index terms

  • Power system
  • fault current
  • current limiter
  • permanent magnet
  • saturable core
  • magnetic current limiter
  • high temperature superconducting fault current limiter
Otwarty dostęp

Particles Mass Flow Rate and Concentration Measurement using Electrostatic Sensor

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 313 - 324

Abstrakt

Abstract

In many industries where flow parameters measurement is essential to control manufacturing process, the use of a reliable, cost effective and high accuracy instrument is an important issue. Appropriate measurement method and design leads to improvement of pneumatic conveyors operation and process efficiency. This paper present an instrumentation design based on passive charge detection using a single electrostatic sensor. Two different sensor electrodes are applied to show the flexibility of electrostatic sensor application. A time domain signal processing algorithm is developed to measurement of mass flow rate and concentration profile from acquired electrical charge signal. The findings is led to a low cost and high accuracy design, the experimental test results of the design shows less than ±5% error between measured parameters and reference reading acquired from the manual weighing.

Index terms

  • pneumatic conveyors
  • passive charge
  • electrostatic sensor
  • mass indicator
Otwarty dostęp

A wireless inductive-capacitive (L-C) sensor for rotating component temperature monitoring

Data publikacji: 01 Jun 2011
Zakres stron: 325 - 337

Abstrakt

Abstract

Temperature monitoring is critical in almost every type of machinery and application, especially in rotating components such as jet turbines, engines, and power plants, etc. These components involve harsh environments and where the physical connections for monitoring systems are impossible. This paper presents a resonant inductive-capacitive (L-C) circuit based wireless temperature sensor suitable for working in these harsh environments to monitor the temperature of rotating components. Design and performance analysis of the wireless temperature sensor has been conducted and the sensor prototype was successfully fabricated and calibrated up to 200°C with sensitivity of 30 kHz/°C. As a result it is confirmed that temperature monitoring of a rotating component can be carried out without requiring physical connection, power supplies or active elements in the sensor circuit.

Index terms

  • Wireless
  • resonant inductive-capacitive (L-C) circuit
  • temperature sensor
  • rotating components

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