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Tom 1 (2008): Zeszyt 1 (January 2008)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 1 (2008): Zeszyt 1 (January 2008)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

18 Artykułów
access type Otwarty dostęp

Sensor Technology at Submillimeter Wavelengths for Space Applications

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 20

Abstrakt

Abstract

Our universe is most luminous at far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths (100 GHz – 10 THz) after the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. This region of the electromagnetic spectrum provides critical tracers for the study of a wide range of astrophysical and planetary phenomena. This spectral range contains information on the origin of the planets, stars, galaxies, and clusters; the geometry and matter/energy content of the Universe, atmospheric constituents and dynamics of the planets and comets and tracers for global monitoring and the ultimate health of the Earth. Sensors at far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths provide unprecedented sensitivity for astrophysical, planetary, and earth observing instruments. Very often, for a spaced based platform where the instruments are not limited by atmospheric losses and absorption, the overall instrument sensitivity is dictated by the sensitivity of the sensors themselves. Moreover, some of the cryogenic sensors at submillimeter wavelengths provide almost quantum-limited sensitivity. This paper provides an overview of the submillimeter-wave sensors and their performance and capabilities for space applications.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Submillimeter
  • terahertz
  • sensors
  • mixers
  • detectors
  • space applications
access type Otwarty dostęp

Embedded system design and implementation of standard auto-calibrated measurement chain

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 21 - 33

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents the design and the implementation of a standard auto-calibration system, to correct measurement chain and ensure its accuracy. The adopted solution consists in designing a reconfigurable instrumentation based on the use of a programmable analog circuit (FPAA), allowing the automation of various test and adjustment operations. The measurement chain transfer curve is periodically corrected using the progressive polynomial calibration method, ensuring systematic correction of each taken measurement. The hardware/software implementation of the system was carried out in an embedded configuration based on a FPGA platform. The obtained results highlight adaptability of the proposed calibration method at various sensors kinds as well as the implementation simplicity, and shows how the measuring accuracy can be considerably improved.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Calibration
  • Reconfigurable systems
  • FPAA/FPGA
  • Linearization
access type Otwarty dostęp

Porous Silicon Sensors- Elusive and Erudite

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 34 - 56

Abstrakt

Abstract

Porous Silicon Sensors have been fabricated and tested successfully over the last few years as humidity sensors, vapour sensors, gas sensors, piezoresistive pressure sensors and bio- sensors. In each case it has displayed remarkably sensitivity, relatively low temperature operation and ease of fabrication. Brief description of fabrication and properties of all these types of different sensors is reported in this paper. The barriers of porous silicon like contact, non- uniformity, instability etc. are also discussed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Porous Silicon
  • Sensing application
  • Barriers of porous silicon
access type Otwarty dostęp

Human-Based Sensing – Sensor Systems to Complement Human Perception

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 57 - 69

Abstrakt

Abstract

The approach of human-based sensing is based on the assumption that sensor systems for individual use have optimal performance if coherent with the human perception system. The benefits of complementing the human sensing with sensor systems that strengthen the information and make the human able to perform more adequate and optimized decisions based on the sensor information, will improve the human capability. The arguments for designing sensor systems that increase the human ability in order to enhance the information from its surroundings are obvious. In this paper, an example of this approach, related to human-based sensing, will be demonstrated. The ability to strengthen the human capability, and complementing human perception with additional sensing, by the use of artificial sensor systems, will increase the human performance.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Human-based sensing
  • artificial perception
  • artificial nose
  • artificial tongue
access type Otwarty dostęp

Adaptive Security Modules in Incrementally Deployed Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 70 - 86

Abstrakt

Abstract

Distributed wireless sensor networks often suffer problems on detecting malicious nodes, which always bring destructive threats. Thus, sensor networks have to supply authentication services for sensor identity and data communication. As matter of fact, intrusion detection and prevention schemes are always integrated in sensor security appliances so that they can enhance network security by discovering malicious or compromised nodes. This paper provides adaptive security modules to improve secure communication in distributed sensor networks. The primary security module provides online identity authentication services to new incoming sensor nodes which being distributed after initial deployment. The advanced security module addresses compromised node detection issues to exclude internal compromised nodes. The proposed schemes can accomplish secure communications in the sensor networks when the network lifetime is divided into multiple time intervals. The network security and network performance are evaluated with the adaptive security modules, which shows efficient protection and sensible overheads to sensor nodes can be achieved.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sensor network
  • authentication
  • security
  • incremental deployment
  • hierarchical architecture
access type Otwarty dostęp

Nanorobot Movement: Challenges and Biologically inspired solutions

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 87 - 109

Abstrakt

Abstract

Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots of the size of few hundred nanometres and below consisting of components of nanoscale or molecular size. There is an all around development in nanotechnology towards realization of nanorobots in the last two decades. In the present work, the compilation of advancement in nanotechnology in context to nanorobots is done. The challenges and issues in movement of a nanorobot and innovations present in nature to overcome the difficulties in moving at nano-size regimes are discussed. The efficiency aspect in context to artificial nanorobot is also presented.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Nanorobots
  • Nano-Swimmers
  • Diffusion
  • nanoparticle
  • Brownian motion
  • System Modelling
access type Otwarty dostęp

Investigation of Advanced Data Processing Technique in Magnetic Anomaly Detection Systems

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 110 - 122

Abstrakt

Abstract

Advanced methods of data processing in magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) systems are investigated. Raw signals of MAD based on component magnetic sensors are transformed into energy signals in the space of specially constructed orthonormalized functions. This procedure provides a considerable improvement of the SNR thus enabling reliable target detection. Estimation of the target parameters is implemented with the help of Genetic Algorithm. Numerous computer simulations show good algorithm convergence and acceptable accuracy in estimation of both target location and its magnetic moment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Magnetometer
  • Magnetic Anomaly Detection
  • Orthonormal basis
  • Genetic algorithm
access type Otwarty dostęp

Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds Based on Optical Fibre using Nanostructured Films

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 123 - 136

Abstrakt

Abstract

An optical fibre sensor for detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been implemented. This device is based on a vapochromic material presented in the form of bright red powders, which suffers reversible changes in its optical properties when exposed to some organic vapours. The sensor head consists of a nano interferometer doped with the vapochromic material, built onto a cleaved ended multimode optical fibre by using the Layer by Layer Electrostatic Self Assembly Method (LbL). A reflection scheme was used, so the intensity modulated reflected signal is registered in order to study its response. Changes up to 3 dB in the reflected optical power were measured.

Słowa kluczowe

  • optical fibre sensor
  • gas sensor
  • vapochromic material
  • Layer by Layer
access type Otwarty dostęp

Human-Computer Interaction: Overview on State of the Art

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 137 - 159

Abstrakt

Abstract

The intention of this paper is to provide an overview on the subject of Human-Computer Interaction. The overview includes the basic definitions and terminology, a survey of existing technologies and recent advances in the field, common architectures used in the design of HCI systems which includes unimodal and multimodal configurations, and finally the applications of HCI. This paper also offers a comprehensive number references for each concept, method, and application in the HCI.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Multimodal HCI
  • Ubiquitous Computing
access type Otwarty dostęp

High-Spatial-Resolution Magnetic-Field Measurement by Giant Magnetoresistance Sensor – Applications to Nondestructive Evaluation and Biomedical Engineering

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 160 - 175

Abstrakt

Abstract

Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor has been developed and widely applied to use as magnetic read head in data storage industry. This paper describes new applications of magnetic-field measurement with high spatial-resolution and high sensitivity to nondestructive evaluation and biomedical engineering. For nondestructive evaluation, the GMR sensor, used as magnetic sensor based on eddy-current testing technique, was applied to the detection of micro-crack on micro-conductor for the purpose of printed circuit board inspection and the detection of micro-solder-ball grid array. For biomedical engineering, the weight density of magnetic fluid for cancer treatment was measured by the GMR sensor. In addition, the GMR sensor was applied to measure micro-current and these can lead to the direct detection of nervous action.

Słowa kluczowe

  • giant magnetoresistance
  • nondestructive evaluation
  • eddy-current testing
  • printed circuit board
  • conductive microbead
  • low-invasion
  • hyperthermia
  • magnetic fluid
  • weight density
  • nerve
  • action current
access type Otwarty dostęp

On Board Exhaust Emission Monitoring of Road Vehicles - A High Tech Solution to Pollution from Traffic?

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 176 - 186

Abstrakt

Abstract

A significant proportion of the atmospheric pollution that exists particularly in urban areas arises from road vehicles and primarily cars. The European Commission (EC) have introduced a series of regulations, the so called EURO Emission directives from Euro I in 1991 to the present day Euro IV. This legislation and similar ones in other global regions have helped to greatly reduce emission levels from road transport. However, a massive increase in the number of cars on the road have meant that pollution due to a number of gases and particulate species remains to be a problem. This paper describes an approach based on optical fibre sensors which has shown to be an effective means of measuring the gases and particulates in question by using sensing technologies which are both robust and potentially cost effective such that they may be included as part of an on board monitoring system for the car of the future.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mid-infrared gas detection
  • UV gas detection
  • optical fibre sensor
  • vehicle emission detection
access type Otwarty dostęp

Biped Locomotion: Stability, Analysis and Control

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 187 - 207

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper, researches and advances in biped locomotion are reviewed. A detailed survey is presented describing the various research problems and the approaches reported in the literature to analyze and control biped locomotion. A method of Zero-Moment-Point (ZMP) compensation is discussed to improve the stability of locomotion of a biped which is subjected to disturbances. A compensating torque, computed from the force sensor reading, is injected into the ankle-joint of the foot of the robot to improve stability. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on a humanoid robot, MaNUS-I, to reject disturbances of various form.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Zero-Moment-Point
  • Foot-Rotation-Indicator
  • Periodicity in Biped Locomotion
  • online ZMP compensation
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Design of Gain-scheduled Congestion Controllers using State Predictive Observers

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 208 - 219

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper, a design problem of congestion controllers is discussed for TCP/AQM(Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management) networks. The proposed method consists of two control techniques. First one is based on a gain-scheduling technique considering nonlinearities of TCP/AQM networks. But the designed congestion controller is a state feedback controller and it is impossible to embed the congestion controller in real computer networks. To avoid this problem, second one is based on a design technique of state predictive observer for linear time-delay systems. Thus it can be possible to embed the congestion controller in real networks by combining these methods. Firstly dynamical models of TCP/AQM are described as linear systems with self-scheduling parameters, which also depend on information delay. Here it is distinguishing to focus on constraints on the maximum queue length and TCP window-size, which are the network resources in TCP/AQM networks. And a design method of memoryless state feedback controllers is shown for linear system with a self-scheduling parameter and an information delay. But the designed gain- scheduled congestion controller is a state feedback controller and it is impossible to apply this controller to computer networks directly. Thus observers are also designed and the observer-based congestion controllers are derived.

Słowa kluczowe

  • congestion control systems
  • networking
  • TCP/AQM networks
  • gain-scheduling
  • state predictive control-
access type Otwarty dostęp

Audiovisual Sensing of Human Movements for Home-Care and Security in a Smart Environment

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 220 - 245

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents the necessity and possibility of smart sensing using a multitude of sensors such as audio and visual sensors for human movement detection for home-care and home security applications in a smart environment. We define an event and spatial relationship based approach to the problem. Use of multisensory information to even detection is proposed and its prototype implementation to detect events like falling, walking, standing, shouting etc. are presented. Use of audio sensor based event detection and video sensor based event detection helped to increase the number of different types of actions that can be detected within a smart environment. Video sensors detected the actions at 94.44% accuracy while the audio sensors detected the actions at 83.35%. In addition to that the video based fall detection accuracy was 93.3%. Currently we are working in real life data capture and analysis using multi-sensor integration

Słowa kluczowe

  • video sensor based detection
  • audio sensor based detection
  • human movements
  • homecare
  • security
  • smart environments
  • background segmentation
access type Otwarty dostęp

Optical Flow Algorithm for Velocity Estimation of Ground Vehicles: A Feasibility Study

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 245 - 267

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents a novel velocity estimation method for all terrain ground vehicles. The technique is based on a camera that scans the ground and estimates the velocity by using an optical flow algorithm. The method is tested and validated for different types of terrains such as fine sand, coarse sand, gravel as well as a mixture of coarse sand and gravel. Measured velocities from precise encoders are compared with the velocities predicted by the optical flow algorithm, showing promising potential for implementation of the suggested approach in ground vehicles. Investigations have been carried out to determine the optimal feature window size and the influence of camera height on optical flow velocity estimates. Detailed laboratory experiments were carried out to validate the velocity estimation technique and results indicate the usefulness of the proposed method for velocity estimation of ground vehicles.

Słowa kluczowe

  • optical flow
  • velocity estimation
  • visual odometry
  • optimization
access type Otwarty dostęp

Iterative Feedback Tuning (IFT) of Head Positioning Servomechanism in Hard Disk Drive

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 268 - 283

Abstrakt

Abstract

Actuators used in hard disk drives (HDD) are produced en mass and therefore their dynamic properties vary within a given tolerance bound. A nominal model representing the batch of actuators is used to design the head positioning servomechanism. Equal performance can not be expected for all actuators when such controller is used. Disk drive servomechanism is expected to provide performance with increasingly tighter tolerance as the demand for higher storage capacity continues. Moreover, physical properties of any actuator may change over time causing the degradation of performance. All these issues demand for good on-line tuning of controller. This paper explores the usage of Iterative Feedback Tuning (IFT) in HDD servomechanism. Improved performance of the tuned controller is demonstrated using simulation and experimental results.

Słowa kluczowe

  • HDD Servomechanism
  • Iterative Feedback Tuning
  • PID controller
  • Voice Coil Motor
access type Otwarty dostęp

Scaling Issues in Large Networks of Small Sensors: Energy and Communication Management

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 284 - 298

Abstrakt

Abstract

We discuss five scaling-related issues in robotics and robotic systems. They are unified by an understanding of the fundamental engineering constraints imposed by the essentially fixed fundamental strength of materials and the essentially fixed practical density at which energy can be stored. These constraints have profound effects on when big bodies are in danger of collapsing under their own weight and when small bodies are in danger of running out of fuel. The section on strength provides a review of the lesson that small is strong, big is weak. The section on speed relates design and scale to inherent speed capability, including a discussion of why humanoid robots walk in unnaturallooking ways. The section on energy reinforces the realization that stored energy scales as the cube of a body’s characteristic linear dimension, whereas its baseline power requirement usually scales as a lower power, e.g., the square of that dimension, so running time and range usually decrease cripplingly rapidly with size. The section on power shows how baseline power – and its dependence on speed – in combination with stored energy determines a body’s running time and range. The section on communication discusses scale-related communication quality and duration, especially in systems that are simultaneously large and small, e.g., in networks composed of a very large number of very small robot-like nodes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • scaling
  • robotics
  • strength
  • speed
  • energy
  • power
  • communication
access type Otwarty dostęp

New Horizon in Bioimaging and Biomagnetics

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 299 - 313

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper reviews the recently developed techniques in biomagnetics and bioimaging such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cancer therapy based on magnetic stimulation. A technique of localized and vectorial TMS has enabled us to obtain non-invasive functional mapping of the human brain. The development of new bioimaging technologies such as current distribution MRI and conductivity MRI potentially enables us to understand the dynamics of brain functions, which include millisecond-level changes in functional regions and dynamic relations between brain neuronal networks. These techniques are leading medicine and biology into a new horizon through the novel applications of magnetism. A lecture on current limiter intended specifically for engineering students pursuing specialization with Electrical and Electronics engineering is proposed in this paper. The important information which doesn’t appear in text books are presented to the students. A general overview of different techniques of limiting fault current in electric power systems with special emphasis on two types of current limiters based on passive magnetic materials and high temperature superconducting materials have been presented. Simple laboratory experiments are also proposed to validate the theoretical knowledge.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Biomagnetics
  • bioimaging
  • transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • brain Function
18 Artykułów
access type Otwarty dostęp

Sensor Technology at Submillimeter Wavelengths for Space Applications

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 20

Abstrakt

Abstract

Our universe is most luminous at far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths (100 GHz – 10 THz) after the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. This region of the electromagnetic spectrum provides critical tracers for the study of a wide range of astrophysical and planetary phenomena. This spectral range contains information on the origin of the planets, stars, galaxies, and clusters; the geometry and matter/energy content of the Universe, atmospheric constituents and dynamics of the planets and comets and tracers for global monitoring and the ultimate health of the Earth. Sensors at far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths provide unprecedented sensitivity for astrophysical, planetary, and earth observing instruments. Very often, for a spaced based platform where the instruments are not limited by atmospheric losses and absorption, the overall instrument sensitivity is dictated by the sensitivity of the sensors themselves. Moreover, some of the cryogenic sensors at submillimeter wavelengths provide almost quantum-limited sensitivity. This paper provides an overview of the submillimeter-wave sensors and their performance and capabilities for space applications.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Submillimeter
  • terahertz
  • sensors
  • mixers
  • detectors
  • space applications
access type Otwarty dostęp

Embedded system design and implementation of standard auto-calibrated measurement chain

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 21 - 33

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents the design and the implementation of a standard auto-calibration system, to correct measurement chain and ensure its accuracy. The adopted solution consists in designing a reconfigurable instrumentation based on the use of a programmable analog circuit (FPAA), allowing the automation of various test and adjustment operations. The measurement chain transfer curve is periodically corrected using the progressive polynomial calibration method, ensuring systematic correction of each taken measurement. The hardware/software implementation of the system was carried out in an embedded configuration based on a FPGA platform. The obtained results highlight adaptability of the proposed calibration method at various sensors kinds as well as the implementation simplicity, and shows how the measuring accuracy can be considerably improved.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Calibration
  • Reconfigurable systems
  • FPAA/FPGA
  • Linearization
access type Otwarty dostęp

Porous Silicon Sensors- Elusive and Erudite

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 34 - 56

Abstrakt

Abstract

Porous Silicon Sensors have been fabricated and tested successfully over the last few years as humidity sensors, vapour sensors, gas sensors, piezoresistive pressure sensors and bio- sensors. In each case it has displayed remarkably sensitivity, relatively low temperature operation and ease of fabrication. Brief description of fabrication and properties of all these types of different sensors is reported in this paper. The barriers of porous silicon like contact, non- uniformity, instability etc. are also discussed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Porous Silicon
  • Sensing application
  • Barriers of porous silicon
access type Otwarty dostęp

Human-Based Sensing – Sensor Systems to Complement Human Perception

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 57 - 69

Abstrakt

Abstract

The approach of human-based sensing is based on the assumption that sensor systems for individual use have optimal performance if coherent with the human perception system. The benefits of complementing the human sensing with sensor systems that strengthen the information and make the human able to perform more adequate and optimized decisions based on the sensor information, will improve the human capability. The arguments for designing sensor systems that increase the human ability in order to enhance the information from its surroundings are obvious. In this paper, an example of this approach, related to human-based sensing, will be demonstrated. The ability to strengthen the human capability, and complementing human perception with additional sensing, by the use of artificial sensor systems, will increase the human performance.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Human-based sensing
  • artificial perception
  • artificial nose
  • artificial tongue
access type Otwarty dostęp

Adaptive Security Modules in Incrementally Deployed Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 70 - 86

Abstrakt

Abstract

Distributed wireless sensor networks often suffer problems on detecting malicious nodes, which always bring destructive threats. Thus, sensor networks have to supply authentication services for sensor identity and data communication. As matter of fact, intrusion detection and prevention schemes are always integrated in sensor security appliances so that they can enhance network security by discovering malicious or compromised nodes. This paper provides adaptive security modules to improve secure communication in distributed sensor networks. The primary security module provides online identity authentication services to new incoming sensor nodes which being distributed after initial deployment. The advanced security module addresses compromised node detection issues to exclude internal compromised nodes. The proposed schemes can accomplish secure communications in the sensor networks when the network lifetime is divided into multiple time intervals. The network security and network performance are evaluated with the adaptive security modules, which shows efficient protection and sensible overheads to sensor nodes can be achieved.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sensor network
  • authentication
  • security
  • incremental deployment
  • hierarchical architecture
access type Otwarty dostęp

Nanorobot Movement: Challenges and Biologically inspired solutions

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 87 - 109

Abstrakt

Abstract

Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots of the size of few hundred nanometres and below consisting of components of nanoscale or molecular size. There is an all around development in nanotechnology towards realization of nanorobots in the last two decades. In the present work, the compilation of advancement in nanotechnology in context to nanorobots is done. The challenges and issues in movement of a nanorobot and innovations present in nature to overcome the difficulties in moving at nano-size regimes are discussed. The efficiency aspect in context to artificial nanorobot is also presented.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Nanorobots
  • Nano-Swimmers
  • Diffusion
  • nanoparticle
  • Brownian motion
  • System Modelling
access type Otwarty dostęp

Investigation of Advanced Data Processing Technique in Magnetic Anomaly Detection Systems

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 110 - 122

Abstrakt

Abstract

Advanced methods of data processing in magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) systems are investigated. Raw signals of MAD based on component magnetic sensors are transformed into energy signals in the space of specially constructed orthonormalized functions. This procedure provides a considerable improvement of the SNR thus enabling reliable target detection. Estimation of the target parameters is implemented with the help of Genetic Algorithm. Numerous computer simulations show good algorithm convergence and acceptable accuracy in estimation of both target location and its magnetic moment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Magnetometer
  • Magnetic Anomaly Detection
  • Orthonormal basis
  • Genetic algorithm
access type Otwarty dostęp

Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds Based on Optical Fibre using Nanostructured Films

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 123 - 136

Abstrakt

Abstract

An optical fibre sensor for detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been implemented. This device is based on a vapochromic material presented in the form of bright red powders, which suffers reversible changes in its optical properties when exposed to some organic vapours. The sensor head consists of a nano interferometer doped with the vapochromic material, built onto a cleaved ended multimode optical fibre by using the Layer by Layer Electrostatic Self Assembly Method (LbL). A reflection scheme was used, so the intensity modulated reflected signal is registered in order to study its response. Changes up to 3 dB in the reflected optical power were measured.

Słowa kluczowe

  • optical fibre sensor
  • gas sensor
  • vapochromic material
  • Layer by Layer
access type Otwarty dostęp

Human-Computer Interaction: Overview on State of the Art

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 137 - 159

Abstrakt

Abstract

The intention of this paper is to provide an overview on the subject of Human-Computer Interaction. The overview includes the basic definitions and terminology, a survey of existing technologies and recent advances in the field, common architectures used in the design of HCI systems which includes unimodal and multimodal configurations, and finally the applications of HCI. This paper also offers a comprehensive number references for each concept, method, and application in the HCI.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Multimodal HCI
  • Ubiquitous Computing
access type Otwarty dostęp

High-Spatial-Resolution Magnetic-Field Measurement by Giant Magnetoresistance Sensor – Applications to Nondestructive Evaluation and Biomedical Engineering

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 160 - 175

Abstrakt

Abstract

Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor has been developed and widely applied to use as magnetic read head in data storage industry. This paper describes new applications of magnetic-field measurement with high spatial-resolution and high sensitivity to nondestructive evaluation and biomedical engineering. For nondestructive evaluation, the GMR sensor, used as magnetic sensor based on eddy-current testing technique, was applied to the detection of micro-crack on micro-conductor for the purpose of printed circuit board inspection and the detection of micro-solder-ball grid array. For biomedical engineering, the weight density of magnetic fluid for cancer treatment was measured by the GMR sensor. In addition, the GMR sensor was applied to measure micro-current and these can lead to the direct detection of nervous action.

Słowa kluczowe

  • giant magnetoresistance
  • nondestructive evaluation
  • eddy-current testing
  • printed circuit board
  • conductive microbead
  • low-invasion
  • hyperthermia
  • magnetic fluid
  • weight density
  • nerve
  • action current
access type Otwarty dostęp

On Board Exhaust Emission Monitoring of Road Vehicles - A High Tech Solution to Pollution from Traffic?

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 176 - 186

Abstrakt

Abstract

A significant proportion of the atmospheric pollution that exists particularly in urban areas arises from road vehicles and primarily cars. The European Commission (EC) have introduced a series of regulations, the so called EURO Emission directives from Euro I in 1991 to the present day Euro IV. This legislation and similar ones in other global regions have helped to greatly reduce emission levels from road transport. However, a massive increase in the number of cars on the road have meant that pollution due to a number of gases and particulate species remains to be a problem. This paper describes an approach based on optical fibre sensors which has shown to be an effective means of measuring the gases and particulates in question by using sensing technologies which are both robust and potentially cost effective such that they may be included as part of an on board monitoring system for the car of the future.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mid-infrared gas detection
  • UV gas detection
  • optical fibre sensor
  • vehicle emission detection
access type Otwarty dostęp

Biped Locomotion: Stability, Analysis and Control

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 187 - 207

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper, researches and advances in biped locomotion are reviewed. A detailed survey is presented describing the various research problems and the approaches reported in the literature to analyze and control biped locomotion. A method of Zero-Moment-Point (ZMP) compensation is discussed to improve the stability of locomotion of a biped which is subjected to disturbances. A compensating torque, computed from the force sensor reading, is injected into the ankle-joint of the foot of the robot to improve stability. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on a humanoid robot, MaNUS-I, to reject disturbances of various form.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Zero-Moment-Point
  • Foot-Rotation-Indicator
  • Periodicity in Biped Locomotion
  • online ZMP compensation
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Design of Gain-scheduled Congestion Controllers using State Predictive Observers

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 208 - 219

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper, a design problem of congestion controllers is discussed for TCP/AQM(Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management) networks. The proposed method consists of two control techniques. First one is based on a gain-scheduling technique considering nonlinearities of TCP/AQM networks. But the designed congestion controller is a state feedback controller and it is impossible to embed the congestion controller in real computer networks. To avoid this problem, second one is based on a design technique of state predictive observer for linear time-delay systems. Thus it can be possible to embed the congestion controller in real networks by combining these methods. Firstly dynamical models of TCP/AQM are described as linear systems with self-scheduling parameters, which also depend on information delay. Here it is distinguishing to focus on constraints on the maximum queue length and TCP window-size, which are the network resources in TCP/AQM networks. And a design method of memoryless state feedback controllers is shown for linear system with a self-scheduling parameter and an information delay. But the designed gain- scheduled congestion controller is a state feedback controller and it is impossible to apply this controller to computer networks directly. Thus observers are also designed and the observer-based congestion controllers are derived.

Słowa kluczowe

  • congestion control systems
  • networking
  • TCP/AQM networks
  • gain-scheduling
  • state predictive control-
access type Otwarty dostęp

Audiovisual Sensing of Human Movements for Home-Care and Security in a Smart Environment

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 220 - 245

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents the necessity and possibility of smart sensing using a multitude of sensors such as audio and visual sensors for human movement detection for home-care and home security applications in a smart environment. We define an event and spatial relationship based approach to the problem. Use of multisensory information to even detection is proposed and its prototype implementation to detect events like falling, walking, standing, shouting etc. are presented. Use of audio sensor based event detection and video sensor based event detection helped to increase the number of different types of actions that can be detected within a smart environment. Video sensors detected the actions at 94.44% accuracy while the audio sensors detected the actions at 83.35%. In addition to that the video based fall detection accuracy was 93.3%. Currently we are working in real life data capture and analysis using multi-sensor integration

Słowa kluczowe

  • video sensor based detection
  • audio sensor based detection
  • human movements
  • homecare
  • security
  • smart environments
  • background segmentation
access type Otwarty dostęp

Optical Flow Algorithm for Velocity Estimation of Ground Vehicles: A Feasibility Study

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 245 - 267

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents a novel velocity estimation method for all terrain ground vehicles. The technique is based on a camera that scans the ground and estimates the velocity by using an optical flow algorithm. The method is tested and validated for different types of terrains such as fine sand, coarse sand, gravel as well as a mixture of coarse sand and gravel. Measured velocities from precise encoders are compared with the velocities predicted by the optical flow algorithm, showing promising potential for implementation of the suggested approach in ground vehicles. Investigations have been carried out to determine the optimal feature window size and the influence of camera height on optical flow velocity estimates. Detailed laboratory experiments were carried out to validate the velocity estimation technique and results indicate the usefulness of the proposed method for velocity estimation of ground vehicles.

Słowa kluczowe

  • optical flow
  • velocity estimation
  • visual odometry
  • optimization
access type Otwarty dostęp

Iterative Feedback Tuning (IFT) of Head Positioning Servomechanism in Hard Disk Drive

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 268 - 283

Abstrakt

Abstract

Actuators used in hard disk drives (HDD) are produced en mass and therefore their dynamic properties vary within a given tolerance bound. A nominal model representing the batch of actuators is used to design the head positioning servomechanism. Equal performance can not be expected for all actuators when such controller is used. Disk drive servomechanism is expected to provide performance with increasingly tighter tolerance as the demand for higher storage capacity continues. Moreover, physical properties of any actuator may change over time causing the degradation of performance. All these issues demand for good on-line tuning of controller. This paper explores the usage of Iterative Feedback Tuning (IFT) in HDD servomechanism. Improved performance of the tuned controller is demonstrated using simulation and experimental results.

Słowa kluczowe

  • HDD Servomechanism
  • Iterative Feedback Tuning
  • PID controller
  • Voice Coil Motor
access type Otwarty dostęp

Scaling Issues in Large Networks of Small Sensors: Energy and Communication Management

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 284 - 298

Abstrakt

Abstract

We discuss five scaling-related issues in robotics and robotic systems. They are unified by an understanding of the fundamental engineering constraints imposed by the essentially fixed fundamental strength of materials and the essentially fixed practical density at which energy can be stored. These constraints have profound effects on when big bodies are in danger of collapsing under their own weight and when small bodies are in danger of running out of fuel. The section on strength provides a review of the lesson that small is strong, big is weak. The section on speed relates design and scale to inherent speed capability, including a discussion of why humanoid robots walk in unnaturallooking ways. The section on energy reinforces the realization that stored energy scales as the cube of a body’s characteristic linear dimension, whereas its baseline power requirement usually scales as a lower power, e.g., the square of that dimension, so running time and range usually decrease cripplingly rapidly with size. The section on power shows how baseline power – and its dependence on speed – in combination with stored energy determines a body’s running time and range. The section on communication discusses scale-related communication quality and duration, especially in systems that are simultaneously large and small, e.g., in networks composed of a very large number of very small robot-like nodes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • scaling
  • robotics
  • strength
  • speed
  • energy
  • power
  • communication
access type Otwarty dostęp

New Horizon in Bioimaging and Biomagnetics

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 299 - 313

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper reviews the recently developed techniques in biomagnetics and bioimaging such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cancer therapy based on magnetic stimulation. A technique of localized and vectorial TMS has enabled us to obtain non-invasive functional mapping of the human brain. The development of new bioimaging technologies such as current distribution MRI and conductivity MRI potentially enables us to understand the dynamics of brain functions, which include millisecond-level changes in functional regions and dynamic relations between brain neuronal networks. These techniques are leading medicine and biology into a new horizon through the novel applications of magnetism. A lecture on current limiter intended specifically for engineering students pursuing specialization with Electrical and Electronics engineering is proposed in this paper. The important information which doesn’t appear in text books are presented to the students. A general overview of different techniques of limiting fault current in electric power systems with special emphasis on two types of current limiters based on passive magnetic materials and high temperature superconducting materials have been presented. Simple laboratory experiments are also proposed to validate the theoretical knowledge.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Biomagnetics
  • bioimaging
  • transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • brain Function

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