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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 3 (2010): Zeszyt 3 (January 2010)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

14 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Hepa Filter Material Load Detection Using a Microwave Cavity Sensor

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 322 - 337

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents a novel microwave cavity sensor application for the detection of HEPA filter particulate loading. The sensor resonates at 3.435GHz and 8.570GHz when empty, where the TM010 and TM020 modes dominate respectively. Experimental results show that the resonant frequency of the sensor shifts significantly when filters of different particulate loadings are presented to it. This is a significant finding, and means that the sensor could present an effective solution for determining the loading of periodic use HEPA filters (e.g. those used in personal respirators), which are often disposed of unnecessarily.

Słowa kluczowe

  • HEPA filter
  • filter load
  • filter ageing
  • filter sensor
  • microwave cavity
  • microwave sensor
Otwarty dostęp

A Cooperative Object Tracking System with Fuzzy-Based Adaptive Camera Selection

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 338 - 358

Abstrakt

Abstract

The intelligent environments, built upon many distributed sensors, are promising technology for ubiquitous interaction between robots and human beings. Especially, it is important to track target objects and get the positional information of them in such environments. This paper focuses on adapting camera selection for target tracking in multi-camera system. In this paper, a fuzzy automaton based camera selection method is introduced. In the proposed method, the camera selection decision is driven by fuzzy automaton based on the previously selected camera (previous camera state) and the tracking level of the object in each available camera. Simulations for evaluation of the proposed method and comparison with the previous method are presented. The results show that the proposed method is efficient for adaptive camera selection in multi-camera environment and helps easy construction of multi-camera placement. An actual multi-camera system with the proposed camera selection method was developed for checking tracking performance in the real environment. Experiments in the constructed system show that the proposed method suits well the camera selection task for tracking a moving object in the real intelligent environment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • intelligent environment
  • object tracking
  • camera selection
  • fuzzy automaton
Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of Tactile Slippage Control Algorithm for Robotic Hand Performing Grasp-Move-Twist Motions

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 359 - 375

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents an analysis result of grasp-move-and-twist motions of robotic hands equipped with optical three-axis tactile sensor to evaluate performance of a new control algorithm based on tactile slippage sensation. The optical three-axis tactile sensor is capable of defining normal and shear forces simultaneously. The proposed algorithm consists of robot arm and hand controls based on parameters of normal and shear force, and slippage detection. To improve performance during grasp, move and twist motions, we present analysis of slippage direction and classify the control algorithm in two phases: grasp-move-release and grasp-twist. We present detailed explanation of the control algorithm based on the existing robot arm control system. The experiment is conducted using a bottle cap, and the analysis results show that the slippage control parameters enhanced performance of grasp control in simultaneous robot tasks. Experimental results revealed good performance of the proposed control algorithm to accomplish the proposed grasp-move-and-twist motions.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Tactile sensor
  • robot hand
  • tactile slippage sensation
  • slippage detection
  • control algorithm
  • grasp-move-twist motion
  • normal and shear force
  • slippage measurement
Otwarty dostęp

A Spherical Haptic Interface with Unlimited Workspace

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 376 - 388

Abstrakt

Abstract

Over the last two decades, various haptic interfaces have been developed. However, their workspace has been mechanically restricted. This limited workspace reduces operationality, because operation should be suspended at the boundary. In this paper, to tackle this problem, a spherical haptic interface is developed, which utilizes a ball as an interface with the human. The ball is driven by three DC motors through omni wheels. Consequently, unlimited workspace is achieved for orientation. Furthermore, a novel artificial sensation is implemented by rolling the ball with the palm.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Haptic interface
  • virtual reality
  • human interface
  • joystick
  • teleoperation
Otwarty dostęp

Dual Modality Tomography System Using Optical and Electrodynamic Sensors for Tomographic Imaging Solid Flow

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 389 - 399

Abstrakt

Abstract

Process tomography is a technique to realize flow imaging in a process vessel or pipeline by using the sensor system. This technique involves the use of tomographic imaging methods to manipulate data from sensors in order to collect sufficient information about the flow in the pipeline. The overall aim of this paper is to investigate the benefits of dual modality (optical and electrodynamic) tomography system for the measurement of tomographic images of solids flow. This research will investigate the distribution of conveying plastic beads in a conveying pipe by placing optical and electrodynamic sensors around the pipe without interrupting the flow inside the pipe.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Dual modality
  • tomography
  • solid flow
  • optical sensors
  • electrodynamic sensors
Otwarty dostęp

Using Lego Mindstorms Nxt™ Robotics Kits as a Spectrophotometric Instrument

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 400 - 410

Abstrakt

Abstract

High-end spectrophotometric analytical instruments are typically employed in academic institutions and industrial research laboratories and are rarely available for experimenters or younger students. An affordable high-tech robotic product manufactured by Lego may be employed as a single-beam monochromatic light source, detector and display to demonstrate and investigate the Beer-Lambert law using solutions containing chromophores that absorb light in the 600 nm - 660 nm range. Using the materials shown in this work, users will gain an understanding of the measurement of optical properties of solutions, and basic properties of semiconductor photonic devices. Some semiconductor theory is essential to understand the photonic devices employed in this work in addition to an understanding of basic analytical chemistry The majority of this work addresses the relationship between concentration and absorbance.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Absorbance
  • Chromophores
  • Microcontroller
  • Reflectance
  • Robotics
  • Solution
  • Spectroscopy
  • Spectrophotometric Instrumentation
Otwarty dostęp

Ranged Subgroup Particle Swarm Optimization for Localizing Multiple Odor Sources

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 411 - 442

Abstrakt

Abstract

A new algorithm based on Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) that follows is a local gradient of a chemical concentration within a plume and follows the direction of the wind velocity is investigated. Moreover, the niche or parallel search characteristic is adopted on MPSO to solve the multi-peak and multi-source problem. When using parallel MPSO, subgroup of robot is introduced then each subgroup can locate the odor source. Unfortunately, there is a possibility that more that one subgroup locates one odor sources. This is inefficient because other subgroups locate other source, then we proposed a ranged subgroup method for coping for that problem, then the searching performance will increase. Finally ODE (Open Dynamics Engine) library is used for physical modeling of the robot like friction, balancing moment and others so that the simulation adequate to accurately address the real life scenario.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Modified Particle Swarm Optimization
  • Multiple Odor Sources Localization
  • Parallel Search
  • Subgroup
  • Open Dynamic Engine
  • Real Life Scenario
Otwarty dostęp

Self-Organizing Urban Traffic Control Architecture With Swarm-Self Organizing Map in Jakarta: Signal Control System and Simulator

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 443 - 465

Abstrakt

Abstract

Urban traffic control is the main factor that contributes to traffic jam. Approach in distributed Urban traffic control has been developed in several research, but the coordinating controller factor is basically a quite complicated task to tackle, because between intersection have dependency, so required a method of distributed control system capable for synchronizing between intersections. In this paper we present architecture of decentralized self-organizing traffic control with swarm-self organizing map in real situation even on non-structure intersections like in Jakarta (Indonesia). Based on the proposed architecture we have been implemented Traffic Signal Control System for controlling traffic lights in which the coordination between the intersections is implemented using distributed swarm self-organizing map. Traffic Signal Control System were tested in a simulated real-road scenario of Jakarta. By means of the computer simulation, the application of distributed swarm signal self-organizing control is proved effective in urban traffic.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Traffic Control
  • Swarm-self Organizing Map
  • Distributed Traffic Control
Otwarty dostęp

Two Methodologies Toward Artificial Tactile Affordance System in Robotics

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 466 - 487

Abstrakt

Abstract

If the theory of affordance is applied to a robot, performing the whole process of recognition and planning is not always required in its computer. Since the tactile sensing of a robot is important to perform any task, we focus on tactile sensing and introduce a new concept called the artificial tactile affordance system (ATAS). Its basic idea is the implementation of a recurrent mechanism in which information obtained from the object and the behavior performed by the robot's inducing the next behavior. We intend to implement ATAS based on the following two methodologies: (1) after each rule is transformed into an algorithm, a program module is coded based on the algorithm; ATAS is composed of several program modules, and a module is selected from the set of modules based on sensor information; (2) a set of rules is expressed as a table composed of sensor input columns and behavior output columns, and the table rows correspond to rules; since each rule is transformed to a string of 0 and 1, we treat a long string composed of rule strings as a gene to obtain an optimum gene that adapts to its environment using a genetic algorithm (GA). For methodology 1, we established an ATAS composed of 3 to 5 modules to accomplish such tasks as object grasping, pick and place, cap screwing, and assembling. Using methodology 1, a two-hand-arm robot equipped with an optical three- axis tactile sensor performed the above tasks. For methodology 2, we propose the Evolutionary Behavior Table System (EBTS) that uses a GA to acquire the autonomous cooperation behavior of multiple mobile robots. In validation experiments, three agents equipped with behavior tables conveyed an object to a specified goal with higher scores than the four-agent condition. Since the redundant agent does not interrupt the other agents, the agent acquires the collective behavior of not interrupting other agents based on its environment information. Methodology 1 is very effective for such fine control as handling tasks of humanoid robots, and methodology 2 is very useful to obtain general robotic behavior that is suitable for the environment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Affordance
  • Tactile sensor
  • Three-axis
  • Collective robot
  • Evolution
  • Behavior
  • Genetic algorithm
Otwarty dostęp

Investigation on Velvet Hand Illusion Using Psychophysics and Fem Analysis

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 488 - 503

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the velvet hand illusion (VHI), a person rubs his/her hands together on either side of wires strung through a frame, producing the sensation of rubbing a very smooth and soft surface like velvet. We investigate the VHI mechanism to obtain an effective hint for a new tactile display because such tactile illusions play a good role in deceiving the brain so that operators believe that a virtual sensation is real. To elucidate the VHI mechanism, we propose two approaches: one uses psychophysics to obtain human mental models; the other is a finite element method (FEM) to evaluate the tactile stimulus that causes VHI. Based on psychophysical experiments using Thurstone's Paired Comparison, VHI strength depends on the distance between two adjacent wires, and VHI caused by wide spacing of wires is considerably stronger than that caused by narrow spacing. In FEM analysis, a mesh model of fingertips is produced to mimic an actual finger to evaluate the strain energy density (SED) because one mechanoreceptive unit is a slowly adaptive mechanoreceptive type I unit (SAI) that well responds to SED. There is a considerable difference between the SEDs of the one-finger case and the two-finger case (VHI case): the peak SED value for the VHI case is around half of that for the one-finger case. The VHI mechanism is assumed as follows: although the area bounded by two wires moves relative to the hands, tangential force does not occur on the hand surface except for the wire-passing portion, causing operators to experience the illusion of touching a smooth virtual film with a zero coefficient of friction. Since VHI decreases with a decrease of wire spacing and an increase of the peak value of SED, excessive temporal stimulus generated by wire prevents VHI from increasing.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Tactile display and sensor
  • Illusion
  • Psychophysics
  • Velvet hand
  • Paired comparison
  • Finite element method
  • Strain energy density
Otwarty dostęp

Reliable Data Broadcast for Zigbee Wireless Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 504 - 520

Abstrakt

Abstract

As we know, the data transmission in the wireless networks is more unreliable than it is in the wired network environment. Although the virtual carrier sensing scheme can be used in the wireless unicast transmission, the multicast and broadcast still not utilize the acknowledgement mechanism for reliable transmission. This is due to the acknowledgement packets of broadcast transmission will cause much higher communication traffic and overhead. Since reliable data broadcast is critical and required in many applications in the wireless sensor networks, our study focuses on the ZigBee network which is a new industrial standard for sensor networks. Some previous related papers improved the broadcast reliability by introducing redundant transmission and increasing coverage ratio of every receiver node, but there still exists probability of packet loss and extra communication cost due to redundant broadcast. This paper proposes an efficient acknowledgement-based approach for reliable data broadcast in wireless sensor networks. Hierarchical acknowledgement mechanism, reduction of rebroadcast packets and ACK packets, degree-based ACK/rebroadcast Jitter, and parent-oriented retransmission are the key schemes to achieve the efficient data broadcast. Simulation results show that the proposed schemes can efficiently reduce the acknowledgement traffic as well as communication overhead and provide the high reliable data broadcast transmission in ZigBee networks..

Słowa kluczowe

  • ZigBee
  • wireless sensor network
  • reliability
  • data broadcast
  • acknowledgement
Otwarty dostęp

Real-Time Path Planning Tracing of Deformable Object by Robot

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 521 - 535

Abstrakt

Abstract

Edge tracing is considered important for deformable object manipulation in order to spread and reveal the original shape of an object before it can be sorted. This paper proposes a unique realtime path-planning tracing method for clothes manipulation by robots. Tracing in this paper context involves tracing the clothes edge, with the robot arm movement based on the calculated path and feedback from sensors. Using tracing method to find a second corner has been proven to be efficient in finding a second corner next to the first corner and not apposite it, resulting in the robot properly spreading the clothes. Adequate force control is also applied to the gripper during tracing so that it doesn't grip the clothes too hard or vice versa which can affect the performance of the robot. Vision sensor is used from time to time to check whether the static gripper has reached the second corner or not. Practical experiments were conducted to evaluate the proposed method. Experimental results have demonstrated the uniqueness and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Home service robot
  • path-planning
  • deformable object manipulation
  • image processing
  • sensors
Otwarty dostęp

Fundamental Study of Magnetically Levitated Contact-Free Micro-Bearing for Mems Applications

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 536 - 549

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper, the authors introduced a new approach to realize a contact-free micro-bearing for MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) applications. In the proposed idea, the mechanism of magnetic repulsion by eddy current was employed. Numerical analysis and experimental research was performed. In the proposed structure having a ringed magnetic circuit having a circularly-arranged gap (gapped-core), the generated magnetic flux was concentrated with high density and showed precipitously gradient in the magnetic field and also showed a larger of repulsive force comparing to the general electromagnetic (iron-core). Advantage of the proposed method and its viability as a contact-free Micro-bearing was discussed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Micro-bearing
  • magnetic levitation
  • eddy-current
  • contact-free
  • MEMS
Otwarty dostęp

Design of Vibration-Based Miniature Generator Using Piezoelectric Bender

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 550 - 572

Abstrakt

Abstract

For the use of green energy and ubiquitous computing, this study investigates miniature electric generators that are constructed with piezoelectric benders. Electric power is generated by vibratory deformation of piezoelectric benders. Three different designs of piezoelectric generators are created and compared in this study by using mechanics analysis. The result shows that the cantilever design yields more power than symmetric and airfoil designs. Experimental results show that generated voltage rises with not only attached point masses, but also the swing frequency of a swing arm, to which the proposed piezoelectric generator is attached. In addition, At 6.5 Hz swing frequency, the maximum power 0.3μW is generated.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Miniature Generator
  • Piezoelectric Bender
  • Energy Harvesting
14 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Hepa Filter Material Load Detection Using a Microwave Cavity Sensor

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 322 - 337

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents a novel microwave cavity sensor application for the detection of HEPA filter particulate loading. The sensor resonates at 3.435GHz and 8.570GHz when empty, where the TM010 and TM020 modes dominate respectively. Experimental results show that the resonant frequency of the sensor shifts significantly when filters of different particulate loadings are presented to it. This is a significant finding, and means that the sensor could present an effective solution for determining the loading of periodic use HEPA filters (e.g. those used in personal respirators), which are often disposed of unnecessarily.

Słowa kluczowe

  • HEPA filter
  • filter load
  • filter ageing
  • filter sensor
  • microwave cavity
  • microwave sensor
Otwarty dostęp

A Cooperative Object Tracking System with Fuzzy-Based Adaptive Camera Selection

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 338 - 358

Abstrakt

Abstract

The intelligent environments, built upon many distributed sensors, are promising technology for ubiquitous interaction between robots and human beings. Especially, it is important to track target objects and get the positional information of them in such environments. This paper focuses on adapting camera selection for target tracking in multi-camera system. In this paper, a fuzzy automaton based camera selection method is introduced. In the proposed method, the camera selection decision is driven by fuzzy automaton based on the previously selected camera (previous camera state) and the tracking level of the object in each available camera. Simulations for evaluation of the proposed method and comparison with the previous method are presented. The results show that the proposed method is efficient for adaptive camera selection in multi-camera environment and helps easy construction of multi-camera placement. An actual multi-camera system with the proposed camera selection method was developed for checking tracking performance in the real environment. Experiments in the constructed system show that the proposed method suits well the camera selection task for tracking a moving object in the real intelligent environment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • intelligent environment
  • object tracking
  • camera selection
  • fuzzy automaton
Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of Tactile Slippage Control Algorithm for Robotic Hand Performing Grasp-Move-Twist Motions

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 359 - 375

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents an analysis result of grasp-move-and-twist motions of robotic hands equipped with optical three-axis tactile sensor to evaluate performance of a new control algorithm based on tactile slippage sensation. The optical three-axis tactile sensor is capable of defining normal and shear forces simultaneously. The proposed algorithm consists of robot arm and hand controls based on parameters of normal and shear force, and slippage detection. To improve performance during grasp, move and twist motions, we present analysis of slippage direction and classify the control algorithm in two phases: grasp-move-release and grasp-twist. We present detailed explanation of the control algorithm based on the existing robot arm control system. The experiment is conducted using a bottle cap, and the analysis results show that the slippage control parameters enhanced performance of grasp control in simultaneous robot tasks. Experimental results revealed good performance of the proposed control algorithm to accomplish the proposed grasp-move-and-twist motions.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Tactile sensor
  • robot hand
  • tactile slippage sensation
  • slippage detection
  • control algorithm
  • grasp-move-twist motion
  • normal and shear force
  • slippage measurement
Otwarty dostęp

A Spherical Haptic Interface with Unlimited Workspace

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 376 - 388

Abstrakt

Abstract

Over the last two decades, various haptic interfaces have been developed. However, their workspace has been mechanically restricted. This limited workspace reduces operationality, because operation should be suspended at the boundary. In this paper, to tackle this problem, a spherical haptic interface is developed, which utilizes a ball as an interface with the human. The ball is driven by three DC motors through omni wheels. Consequently, unlimited workspace is achieved for orientation. Furthermore, a novel artificial sensation is implemented by rolling the ball with the palm.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Haptic interface
  • virtual reality
  • human interface
  • joystick
  • teleoperation
Otwarty dostęp

Dual Modality Tomography System Using Optical and Electrodynamic Sensors for Tomographic Imaging Solid Flow

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 389 - 399

Abstrakt

Abstract

Process tomography is a technique to realize flow imaging in a process vessel or pipeline by using the sensor system. This technique involves the use of tomographic imaging methods to manipulate data from sensors in order to collect sufficient information about the flow in the pipeline. The overall aim of this paper is to investigate the benefits of dual modality (optical and electrodynamic) tomography system for the measurement of tomographic images of solids flow. This research will investigate the distribution of conveying plastic beads in a conveying pipe by placing optical and electrodynamic sensors around the pipe without interrupting the flow inside the pipe.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Dual modality
  • tomography
  • solid flow
  • optical sensors
  • electrodynamic sensors
Otwarty dostęp

Using Lego Mindstorms Nxt™ Robotics Kits as a Spectrophotometric Instrument

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 400 - 410

Abstrakt

Abstract

High-end spectrophotometric analytical instruments are typically employed in academic institutions and industrial research laboratories and are rarely available for experimenters or younger students. An affordable high-tech robotic product manufactured by Lego may be employed as a single-beam monochromatic light source, detector and display to demonstrate and investigate the Beer-Lambert law using solutions containing chromophores that absorb light in the 600 nm - 660 nm range. Using the materials shown in this work, users will gain an understanding of the measurement of optical properties of solutions, and basic properties of semiconductor photonic devices. Some semiconductor theory is essential to understand the photonic devices employed in this work in addition to an understanding of basic analytical chemistry The majority of this work addresses the relationship between concentration and absorbance.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Absorbance
  • Chromophores
  • Microcontroller
  • Reflectance
  • Robotics
  • Solution
  • Spectroscopy
  • Spectrophotometric Instrumentation
Otwarty dostęp

Ranged Subgroup Particle Swarm Optimization for Localizing Multiple Odor Sources

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 411 - 442

Abstrakt

Abstract

A new algorithm based on Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) that follows is a local gradient of a chemical concentration within a plume and follows the direction of the wind velocity is investigated. Moreover, the niche or parallel search characteristic is adopted on MPSO to solve the multi-peak and multi-source problem. When using parallel MPSO, subgroup of robot is introduced then each subgroup can locate the odor source. Unfortunately, there is a possibility that more that one subgroup locates one odor sources. This is inefficient because other subgroups locate other source, then we proposed a ranged subgroup method for coping for that problem, then the searching performance will increase. Finally ODE (Open Dynamics Engine) library is used for physical modeling of the robot like friction, balancing moment and others so that the simulation adequate to accurately address the real life scenario.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Modified Particle Swarm Optimization
  • Multiple Odor Sources Localization
  • Parallel Search
  • Subgroup
  • Open Dynamic Engine
  • Real Life Scenario
Otwarty dostęp

Self-Organizing Urban Traffic Control Architecture With Swarm-Self Organizing Map in Jakarta: Signal Control System and Simulator

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 443 - 465

Abstrakt

Abstract

Urban traffic control is the main factor that contributes to traffic jam. Approach in distributed Urban traffic control has been developed in several research, but the coordinating controller factor is basically a quite complicated task to tackle, because between intersection have dependency, so required a method of distributed control system capable for synchronizing between intersections. In this paper we present architecture of decentralized self-organizing traffic control with swarm-self organizing map in real situation even on non-structure intersections like in Jakarta (Indonesia). Based on the proposed architecture we have been implemented Traffic Signal Control System for controlling traffic lights in which the coordination between the intersections is implemented using distributed swarm self-organizing map. Traffic Signal Control System were tested in a simulated real-road scenario of Jakarta. By means of the computer simulation, the application of distributed swarm signal self-organizing control is proved effective in urban traffic.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Traffic Control
  • Swarm-self Organizing Map
  • Distributed Traffic Control
Otwarty dostęp

Two Methodologies Toward Artificial Tactile Affordance System in Robotics

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 466 - 487

Abstrakt

Abstract

If the theory of affordance is applied to a robot, performing the whole process of recognition and planning is not always required in its computer. Since the tactile sensing of a robot is important to perform any task, we focus on tactile sensing and introduce a new concept called the artificial tactile affordance system (ATAS). Its basic idea is the implementation of a recurrent mechanism in which information obtained from the object and the behavior performed by the robot's inducing the next behavior. We intend to implement ATAS based on the following two methodologies: (1) after each rule is transformed into an algorithm, a program module is coded based on the algorithm; ATAS is composed of several program modules, and a module is selected from the set of modules based on sensor information; (2) a set of rules is expressed as a table composed of sensor input columns and behavior output columns, and the table rows correspond to rules; since each rule is transformed to a string of 0 and 1, we treat a long string composed of rule strings as a gene to obtain an optimum gene that adapts to its environment using a genetic algorithm (GA). For methodology 1, we established an ATAS composed of 3 to 5 modules to accomplish such tasks as object grasping, pick and place, cap screwing, and assembling. Using methodology 1, a two-hand-arm robot equipped with an optical three- axis tactile sensor performed the above tasks. For methodology 2, we propose the Evolutionary Behavior Table System (EBTS) that uses a GA to acquire the autonomous cooperation behavior of multiple mobile robots. In validation experiments, three agents equipped with behavior tables conveyed an object to a specified goal with higher scores than the four-agent condition. Since the redundant agent does not interrupt the other agents, the agent acquires the collective behavior of not interrupting other agents based on its environment information. Methodology 1 is very effective for such fine control as handling tasks of humanoid robots, and methodology 2 is very useful to obtain general robotic behavior that is suitable for the environment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Affordance
  • Tactile sensor
  • Three-axis
  • Collective robot
  • Evolution
  • Behavior
  • Genetic algorithm
Otwarty dostęp

Investigation on Velvet Hand Illusion Using Psychophysics and Fem Analysis

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 488 - 503

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the velvet hand illusion (VHI), a person rubs his/her hands together on either side of wires strung through a frame, producing the sensation of rubbing a very smooth and soft surface like velvet. We investigate the VHI mechanism to obtain an effective hint for a new tactile display because such tactile illusions play a good role in deceiving the brain so that operators believe that a virtual sensation is real. To elucidate the VHI mechanism, we propose two approaches: one uses psychophysics to obtain human mental models; the other is a finite element method (FEM) to evaluate the tactile stimulus that causes VHI. Based on psychophysical experiments using Thurstone's Paired Comparison, VHI strength depends on the distance between two adjacent wires, and VHI caused by wide spacing of wires is considerably stronger than that caused by narrow spacing. In FEM analysis, a mesh model of fingertips is produced to mimic an actual finger to evaluate the strain energy density (SED) because one mechanoreceptive unit is a slowly adaptive mechanoreceptive type I unit (SAI) that well responds to SED. There is a considerable difference between the SEDs of the one-finger case and the two-finger case (VHI case): the peak SED value for the VHI case is around half of that for the one-finger case. The VHI mechanism is assumed as follows: although the area bounded by two wires moves relative to the hands, tangential force does not occur on the hand surface except for the wire-passing portion, causing operators to experience the illusion of touching a smooth virtual film with a zero coefficient of friction. Since VHI decreases with a decrease of wire spacing and an increase of the peak value of SED, excessive temporal stimulus generated by wire prevents VHI from increasing.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Tactile display and sensor
  • Illusion
  • Psychophysics
  • Velvet hand
  • Paired comparison
  • Finite element method
  • Strain energy density
Otwarty dostęp

Reliable Data Broadcast for Zigbee Wireless Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 504 - 520

Abstrakt

Abstract

As we know, the data transmission in the wireless networks is more unreliable than it is in the wired network environment. Although the virtual carrier sensing scheme can be used in the wireless unicast transmission, the multicast and broadcast still not utilize the acknowledgement mechanism for reliable transmission. This is due to the acknowledgement packets of broadcast transmission will cause much higher communication traffic and overhead. Since reliable data broadcast is critical and required in many applications in the wireless sensor networks, our study focuses on the ZigBee network which is a new industrial standard for sensor networks. Some previous related papers improved the broadcast reliability by introducing redundant transmission and increasing coverage ratio of every receiver node, but there still exists probability of packet loss and extra communication cost due to redundant broadcast. This paper proposes an efficient acknowledgement-based approach for reliable data broadcast in wireless sensor networks. Hierarchical acknowledgement mechanism, reduction of rebroadcast packets and ACK packets, degree-based ACK/rebroadcast Jitter, and parent-oriented retransmission are the key schemes to achieve the efficient data broadcast. Simulation results show that the proposed schemes can efficiently reduce the acknowledgement traffic as well as communication overhead and provide the high reliable data broadcast transmission in ZigBee networks..

Słowa kluczowe

  • ZigBee
  • wireless sensor network
  • reliability
  • data broadcast
  • acknowledgement
Otwarty dostęp

Real-Time Path Planning Tracing of Deformable Object by Robot

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 521 - 535

Abstrakt

Abstract

Edge tracing is considered important for deformable object manipulation in order to spread and reveal the original shape of an object before it can be sorted. This paper proposes a unique realtime path-planning tracing method for clothes manipulation by robots. Tracing in this paper context involves tracing the clothes edge, with the robot arm movement based on the calculated path and feedback from sensors. Using tracing method to find a second corner has been proven to be efficient in finding a second corner next to the first corner and not apposite it, resulting in the robot properly spreading the clothes. Adequate force control is also applied to the gripper during tracing so that it doesn't grip the clothes too hard or vice versa which can affect the performance of the robot. Vision sensor is used from time to time to check whether the static gripper has reached the second corner or not. Practical experiments were conducted to evaluate the proposed method. Experimental results have demonstrated the uniqueness and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Home service robot
  • path-planning
  • deformable object manipulation
  • image processing
  • sensors
Otwarty dostęp

Fundamental Study of Magnetically Levitated Contact-Free Micro-Bearing for Mems Applications

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 536 - 549

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper, the authors introduced a new approach to realize a contact-free micro-bearing for MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) applications. In the proposed idea, the mechanism of magnetic repulsion by eddy current was employed. Numerical analysis and experimental research was performed. In the proposed structure having a ringed magnetic circuit having a circularly-arranged gap (gapped-core), the generated magnetic flux was concentrated with high density and showed precipitously gradient in the magnetic field and also showed a larger of repulsive force comparing to the general electromagnetic (iron-core). Advantage of the proposed method and its viability as a contact-free Micro-bearing was discussed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Micro-bearing
  • magnetic levitation
  • eddy-current
  • contact-free
  • MEMS
Otwarty dostęp

Design of Vibration-Based Miniature Generator Using Piezoelectric Bender

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 550 - 572

Abstrakt

Abstract

For the use of green energy and ubiquitous computing, this study investigates miniature electric generators that are constructed with piezoelectric benders. Electric power is generated by vibratory deformation of piezoelectric benders. Three different designs of piezoelectric generators are created and compared in this study by using mechanics analysis. The result shows that the cantilever design yields more power than symmetric and airfoil designs. Experimental results show that generated voltage rises with not only attached point masses, but also the swing frequency of a swing arm, to which the proposed piezoelectric generator is attached. In addition, At 6.5 Hz swing frequency, the maximum power 0.3μW is generated.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Miniature Generator
  • Piezoelectric Bender
  • Energy Harvesting

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