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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 4 (2011): Zeszyt 4 (January 2011)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

12 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Wireless sensing of open loop micro inductors using Helmholtz coil

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 527 - 546

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper reports wireless sensing of open loop micro inductors parameters i.e. distributed capacitance, inductance, resistance and Q factor in presence uniform magnetic fields generated by Helmholtz coils pair. A frequency dependent analytical model is developed which models the inductively coupled system including the effects generated by the presence of test micro coil in uniform magnetic field. Micro inductor parameters are extracted from the remotely measured impedance signal and compared with the developed modeled. Further to visualize the magnetic field coupling effects and numerically compute the micro inductor parameters, FEM simulation is performed using HFSS and COMSOL Multiphyscics.

Index terms

  • Magnetic coupling
  • Helmholtz coils
  • micro inductors
  • HFSS
Otwarty dostęp

Biologically-Inspired Signal Processor using Lateral Inhibition and Integrative Function Mechanisms for High Instantaneous Dynamic Range

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 547 - 567

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents a biologically-inspired signal processor, which allows selective amplification of signals, and signal channeling mechanism to increase the contrast and sharpness of the perceived signals. The processor draws influence from lateral inhibition and integrative function mechanisms of the human nervous system. The uniqueness of the proposed design is that it combines two intelligent signal transmission mechanisms of the human nervous system with desirable capabilities: 1) wide input bandwidth, and 2) high instantaneous dynamic range. The simulations results demonstrate that the proposed design can selectively amplify weak signals among four existing strong signals and suppress noise and spurs to expose and detect weak signals, which is 58 dB below the strong ones if 4096-point FFT is used.

Index terms

  • Biologically-inspired signal
  • signal processor
  • lateral inhibition
  • integrative function
  • selective amplification
Otwarty dostęp

Design of Auto-Focusing Modules in Cell Phone Cameras

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 568 - 582

Abstrakt

Abstract

Endowed with Hall-effect sensors and voice coil motors, cell phone cameras as intelligent systems are capable to execute auto-focusing for acquiring sharp image. For the use of cell phone cameras, this study presents an innovative auto-focusing module. When coils are powered, induced magnetic fields generate N and S poles around iron cores in the actuator. Unlike voice coil motors that employ Lorentz force, the motion of the moving part in this study is arisen from a magnetic pole property - same poles repel each other while opposite poles attract each other. Using a threedimensional finite element method, we calculate electromagnetic and mechanical characteristics including current variation of coils, displacement and velocity of the moving part, and actuation force. Simulation results show that the proposed auto-focusing module achieves rapid response and low power consumption.

Index terms

  • Auto-focusing
  • cell phone camera
  • magnetic circuit analysis
  • finite element method
Otwarty dostęp

Bottom-Up Approach for Behavior Acquisition of Agents Equipped With Multi-Sensors

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 583 - 606

Abstrakt

Abstract

While the top-down approach of artificial intelligence encounters the frame problem, the bottom-up approach based on a creature’s evolution and behavior is effective for robotic design of intellectual behavior in a specific field. We propose the Evolutionary Behavior Table System (EBTS) using a simple genetic algorithm (SGA) to acquire the autonomous cooperative behavior of multiagents as the bottom-up approach. In EBTS, a set of rules is expressed as a table composed of sensor input columns and actuator output columns; a row of the table corresponds to a rule. Since each rule is transformed to a string of Boolean values, we treat a long string composed of actuator output strings in the rules as a gene to obtain an optimum gene that adapts to the environment using SGA. In computational experiments, the collective robots could convey an object to a goal through cooperative work; the multi-fingered hands grasped the object and transferred it to the goal. Final truth tables obtained by the gene data do not always assure an optimum solution, but the calculation cost is reduced from astronomical figures to around one ten to twenty thousandth. If we use the top-down methodology, astronomical trials are needed to specify the optimum pattern. Therefore, EBTS is an attractive method because it is very useful for obtaining general robotic behaviors in both collective and multi-fingered hand tasks.

Index terms

  • Multi-agent
  • Bottom-up approach
  • Collective task
  • Multi-fingered hand
  • Evolution
  • Behavior table
  • Genetic algorithm
Otwarty dostęp

Type-2 Fuzzy Kalman Hybrid Application for Dynamic Security Monitoring Systems based on Multiple Sensor Fusion

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 607 - 629

Abstrakt

Abstract

Multiple sensors fusion plays a major role in situation awareness, especially in modern dynamic security monitoring and tracking applications. In this paper, we focus on a specific effective set of complementary sensors [Laser (for speed measurements), Sonar (for space scanning) and RF (for access rights)]. A novel multi-agent system is obtained by fusing the above types of sensory data taking advantages of similarity and complementarity concepts. Furthermore, Kalman Filter is utilized to track next state estimates of agent(s) in uncertain environment. Finally, our proposed system transforms system state to be able to make a security awareness decision, using type-2 fuzzy logic system to handle exhibited uncertainty, for asset scenery under surveillance. It is shown that the system performance can exhibit promising improvements for this dynamic security monitoring situation as a result of using the above complementary heterogeneous set of sensors.

Index terms

  • Sensor Similarity
  • Sensor Complementarity
  • Type-2 Fuzzy
Otwarty dostęp

Review on Modeling and Controller Design in Pneumatic Actuator Control System

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 630 - 661

Abstrakt

Abstract

Pneumatic actuators are highly nonlinear characteristics and uncertainties make it difficult to achieve high performances. The objective of this paper is to present a brief overview of pneumatic actuators based on modeling and control strategies that has been proposed by various researchers. Before the main discussion, some background information will be presented in a relation to pneumatic actuators. This review concludes with a short summary and discussion of modeling and control approaches of pneumatic actuators. The implication of this paper is for further improving the performance of existing pneumatic actuators.

Index terms

  • Pneumatic actuator system
  • modeling
  • controller
  • nonlinearities
  • uncertainties
  • position tracking
Otwarty dostęp

A Hybrid MAC Mechanism for Multiple Load Intelligent Vehicle Transportation Network

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 662 - 674

Abstrakt

Abstract

The Media Access Control (MAC) mechanism of intelligent vehicle communication network meets a new challenge due to the multiple load data traffic and high speed mobility. This paper proposes a hybrid MAC mechanism which takes the advantages of both TDMA and CSMA mechanism. This hybrid mechanism is based on TDMA, while CSMA mechanism is added in time slots to improve the slot utilization in both high and low load networks. Through the simulation in NS2 we compare the results of the hybrid MAC protocol with those of using CSMA and TDMA individually. It is verified that in terms of flexibility and reliability in channel utilization, packet loss ratio and fairness index, the hybrid MAC protocol is superior. The hybrid mechanism makes the MAC layer self-adaptively switch between TDMA and CSMA according to the data traffic load.

Index terms

  • hybrid
  • MAC mechanism
  • multiple load
  • intelligent vehicle transportation
  • CSMA
  • TDMA
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of Placement Errors on Performance of VLF Metal Detector Heads

Data publikacji: 03 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 675 - 685

Abstrakt

Abstract

Metal-detector performance depends heavily on the sensor head. Errors in coil placement within the head can lead to degradation in detector performance. Electromagnetic modelling of typical very-low-frequency detector heads shows the effect of coil placement errors on detector sensitivity. Provided the bucking coil ‘tracks’ the receive coil, required error corrections can remain small. A correctly-aligned head could detect a gold ring target at a range of about 12 cm.

Index terms

  • metal detector
  • sensor head modelling
  • metal detector sensitivity
Otwarty dostęp

Device Application of Non-Equilibrium MOS Capacitors Fabricated on High Resistivity Silicon

Data publikacji: 04 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 686 - 697

Abstrakt

Abstract

–This work shows that the direct pulse-wide-modulated (PWM) output electric signal, with a duty cycle controlled by light intensity, can be obtained using a circuit that contains a sawtooth voltage generator connected in series with a dc voltage source and a metal (semitransparent gate) oxide semiconductor capacitor (MOS-C) operating in non-equilibrium mode.

Amplified output signal presents positive and negative PWM waveforms that can be easily separated using diodes. The duty of the positive part is proportional to the light intensity, whereas for the negative part is inversely proportional to the intensity. The frequency operating range of this proposed instrument varies from 1 Hz to a few kilohertz. The duty cycle of the PWM output signal varies from 2 to 98 % when the incident light intensity is varying in the microwatts range. This new transducer could be useful for automatic control, robotic applications, dimmer systems feedback electronic systems, and non-contact optical position sensing for nulling and centering measurements. The detailed description of the physical and operating principles of this invented transducer are presented.

Index terms

  • MOS-capacitor
  • silicon
  • pulse-width modulation
  • nulling and centering measurements
Otwarty dostęp

FPGA Based Vibration Control of a Mass Varying Two-Degree of Freedom System

Data publikacji: 04 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 698 - 709

Abstrakt

Abstract

Controlling of vibration in any system is very challenging problem. In the present work design, fabrication and testing of a variable mass 2-DoF system was presented. The system has been designed to be used as tool to demonstrate the capability of mass variable tuned vibration damper for wide frequency application. All valves and pumps were controlled by a cRIO with onboard FPGA. cRIO with FPGA enable the designer to implement different control algorithms that can be used for real time wide spectrum vibration control. LabVIEW with real time suite was used for algorithm implementation and device control. To avoid sloshing in tanks at different water height a floating roof was used. Its effect on damping was also studied.

Index terms

  • FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array)
  • Reconfigurable Input Output device (cRIO)
  • Vibration control
  • Real time control
  • TMD (Tuned Mass Damper)
  • LabVIEW
Otwarty dostęp

Copper (II) oxide thin film for methanol and ethanol sensing

Data publikacji: 06 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 710 - 725

Abstrakt

Abstract

A nanostructured copper (II) oxide film deposited by reactive DC-magnetron sputtering technique, has been studied for static sensor response towards methanol and ethanol by operating temperature and analyte concentration modulations. The optimum operating temperature (Topt) for the sensing of methanol and ethanol is observed to be 350 °C and 400 °C, respectively. The maximum sensitivity observed for 2500 ppm methanol and ethanol is 29% and 15.4% respectively. Another important observation is that the sensitivity time reduces with analyte concentrations, where as recovery time increases. The response time of 2500 ppm methanol and ethanol is 235 s and 247 s correspondingly.

Index term

  • Copper (II) Oxide thin films
  • sputtering
  • gas sensing
  • response time and recovery time
Otwarty dostęp

LabVIEW Based Characterization and Optimization of Thermal Sensors

Data publikacji: 06 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 726 - 739

Abstrakt

Abstract

Reliable operation of a transducer carries a great importance while choosing it for a particular application.This project report characterization of thermistor, and RTD in detail. Thermal transducers are widely used transducers in most of the industrial and scientific instrumentation. These transducers of different types and parameters are commercially available in the market by different manufacturers. The manufactures need to test large volume for specifying the parameters of these devices. More over this test would serve as feedback for quality assurance and production schedule. Moreover any upgradation in processing technology proposed by the research and development activities has to be evaluated before launching in to the production. On the other hand the users of such transducers would need to test the critical parameters before they use it in a specific application. The LabVIEW software, its example and LabVIEW based characterization setup reported here offer reliable high speed solution with flexibility in the form of software adjustment for performing different test suitable to both categories such as manufacturers and the users.

Index terms

  • LabVIEW
  • Transdcer
  • RTD
  • Thermistor
  • AD590
  • Sampling and Optimization
12 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Wireless sensing of open loop micro inductors using Helmholtz coil

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 527 - 546

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper reports wireless sensing of open loop micro inductors parameters i.e. distributed capacitance, inductance, resistance and Q factor in presence uniform magnetic fields generated by Helmholtz coils pair. A frequency dependent analytical model is developed which models the inductively coupled system including the effects generated by the presence of test micro coil in uniform magnetic field. Micro inductor parameters are extracted from the remotely measured impedance signal and compared with the developed modeled. Further to visualize the magnetic field coupling effects and numerically compute the micro inductor parameters, FEM simulation is performed using HFSS and COMSOL Multiphyscics.

Index terms

  • Magnetic coupling
  • Helmholtz coils
  • micro inductors
  • HFSS
Otwarty dostęp

Biologically-Inspired Signal Processor using Lateral Inhibition and Integrative Function Mechanisms for High Instantaneous Dynamic Range

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 547 - 567

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents a biologically-inspired signal processor, which allows selective amplification of signals, and signal channeling mechanism to increase the contrast and sharpness of the perceived signals. The processor draws influence from lateral inhibition and integrative function mechanisms of the human nervous system. The uniqueness of the proposed design is that it combines two intelligent signal transmission mechanisms of the human nervous system with desirable capabilities: 1) wide input bandwidth, and 2) high instantaneous dynamic range. The simulations results demonstrate that the proposed design can selectively amplify weak signals among four existing strong signals and suppress noise and spurs to expose and detect weak signals, which is 58 dB below the strong ones if 4096-point FFT is used.

Index terms

  • Biologically-inspired signal
  • signal processor
  • lateral inhibition
  • integrative function
  • selective amplification
Otwarty dostęp

Design of Auto-Focusing Modules in Cell Phone Cameras

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 568 - 582

Abstrakt

Abstract

Endowed with Hall-effect sensors and voice coil motors, cell phone cameras as intelligent systems are capable to execute auto-focusing for acquiring sharp image. For the use of cell phone cameras, this study presents an innovative auto-focusing module. When coils are powered, induced magnetic fields generate N and S poles around iron cores in the actuator. Unlike voice coil motors that employ Lorentz force, the motion of the moving part in this study is arisen from a magnetic pole property - same poles repel each other while opposite poles attract each other. Using a threedimensional finite element method, we calculate electromagnetic and mechanical characteristics including current variation of coils, displacement and velocity of the moving part, and actuation force. Simulation results show that the proposed auto-focusing module achieves rapid response and low power consumption.

Index terms

  • Auto-focusing
  • cell phone camera
  • magnetic circuit analysis
  • finite element method
Otwarty dostęp

Bottom-Up Approach for Behavior Acquisition of Agents Equipped With Multi-Sensors

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 583 - 606

Abstrakt

Abstract

While the top-down approach of artificial intelligence encounters the frame problem, the bottom-up approach based on a creature’s evolution and behavior is effective for robotic design of intellectual behavior in a specific field. We propose the Evolutionary Behavior Table System (EBTS) using a simple genetic algorithm (SGA) to acquire the autonomous cooperative behavior of multiagents as the bottom-up approach. In EBTS, a set of rules is expressed as a table composed of sensor input columns and actuator output columns; a row of the table corresponds to a rule. Since each rule is transformed to a string of Boolean values, we treat a long string composed of actuator output strings in the rules as a gene to obtain an optimum gene that adapts to the environment using SGA. In computational experiments, the collective robots could convey an object to a goal through cooperative work; the multi-fingered hands grasped the object and transferred it to the goal. Final truth tables obtained by the gene data do not always assure an optimum solution, but the calculation cost is reduced from astronomical figures to around one ten to twenty thousandth. If we use the top-down methodology, astronomical trials are needed to specify the optimum pattern. Therefore, EBTS is an attractive method because it is very useful for obtaining general robotic behaviors in both collective and multi-fingered hand tasks.

Index terms

  • Multi-agent
  • Bottom-up approach
  • Collective task
  • Multi-fingered hand
  • Evolution
  • Behavior table
  • Genetic algorithm
Otwarty dostęp

Type-2 Fuzzy Kalman Hybrid Application for Dynamic Security Monitoring Systems based on Multiple Sensor Fusion

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 607 - 629

Abstrakt

Abstract

Multiple sensors fusion plays a major role in situation awareness, especially in modern dynamic security monitoring and tracking applications. In this paper, we focus on a specific effective set of complementary sensors [Laser (for speed measurements), Sonar (for space scanning) and RF (for access rights)]. A novel multi-agent system is obtained by fusing the above types of sensory data taking advantages of similarity and complementarity concepts. Furthermore, Kalman Filter is utilized to track next state estimates of agent(s) in uncertain environment. Finally, our proposed system transforms system state to be able to make a security awareness decision, using type-2 fuzzy logic system to handle exhibited uncertainty, for asset scenery under surveillance. It is shown that the system performance can exhibit promising improvements for this dynamic security monitoring situation as a result of using the above complementary heterogeneous set of sensors.

Index terms

  • Sensor Similarity
  • Sensor Complementarity
  • Type-2 Fuzzy
Otwarty dostęp

Review on Modeling and Controller Design in Pneumatic Actuator Control System

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 630 - 661

Abstrakt

Abstract

Pneumatic actuators are highly nonlinear characteristics and uncertainties make it difficult to achieve high performances. The objective of this paper is to present a brief overview of pneumatic actuators based on modeling and control strategies that has been proposed by various researchers. Before the main discussion, some background information will be presented in a relation to pneumatic actuators. This review concludes with a short summary and discussion of modeling and control approaches of pneumatic actuators. The implication of this paper is for further improving the performance of existing pneumatic actuators.

Index terms

  • Pneumatic actuator system
  • modeling
  • controller
  • nonlinearities
  • uncertainties
  • position tracking
Otwarty dostęp

A Hybrid MAC Mechanism for Multiple Load Intelligent Vehicle Transportation Network

Data publikacji: 01 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 662 - 674

Abstrakt

Abstract

The Media Access Control (MAC) mechanism of intelligent vehicle communication network meets a new challenge due to the multiple load data traffic and high speed mobility. This paper proposes a hybrid MAC mechanism which takes the advantages of both TDMA and CSMA mechanism. This hybrid mechanism is based on TDMA, while CSMA mechanism is added in time slots to improve the slot utilization in both high and low load networks. Through the simulation in NS2 we compare the results of the hybrid MAC protocol with those of using CSMA and TDMA individually. It is verified that in terms of flexibility and reliability in channel utilization, packet loss ratio and fairness index, the hybrid MAC protocol is superior. The hybrid mechanism makes the MAC layer self-adaptively switch between TDMA and CSMA according to the data traffic load.

Index terms

  • hybrid
  • MAC mechanism
  • multiple load
  • intelligent vehicle transportation
  • CSMA
  • TDMA
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of Placement Errors on Performance of VLF Metal Detector Heads

Data publikacji: 03 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 675 - 685

Abstrakt

Abstract

Metal-detector performance depends heavily on the sensor head. Errors in coil placement within the head can lead to degradation in detector performance. Electromagnetic modelling of typical very-low-frequency detector heads shows the effect of coil placement errors on detector sensitivity. Provided the bucking coil ‘tracks’ the receive coil, required error corrections can remain small. A correctly-aligned head could detect a gold ring target at a range of about 12 cm.

Index terms

  • metal detector
  • sensor head modelling
  • metal detector sensitivity
Otwarty dostęp

Device Application of Non-Equilibrium MOS Capacitors Fabricated on High Resistivity Silicon

Data publikacji: 04 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 686 - 697

Abstrakt

Abstract

–This work shows that the direct pulse-wide-modulated (PWM) output electric signal, with a duty cycle controlled by light intensity, can be obtained using a circuit that contains a sawtooth voltage generator connected in series with a dc voltage source and a metal (semitransparent gate) oxide semiconductor capacitor (MOS-C) operating in non-equilibrium mode.

Amplified output signal presents positive and negative PWM waveforms that can be easily separated using diodes. The duty of the positive part is proportional to the light intensity, whereas for the negative part is inversely proportional to the intensity. The frequency operating range of this proposed instrument varies from 1 Hz to a few kilohertz. The duty cycle of the PWM output signal varies from 2 to 98 % when the incident light intensity is varying in the microwatts range. This new transducer could be useful for automatic control, robotic applications, dimmer systems feedback electronic systems, and non-contact optical position sensing for nulling and centering measurements. The detailed description of the physical and operating principles of this invented transducer are presented.

Index terms

  • MOS-capacitor
  • silicon
  • pulse-width modulation
  • nulling and centering measurements
Otwarty dostęp

FPGA Based Vibration Control of a Mass Varying Two-Degree of Freedom System

Data publikacji: 04 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 698 - 709

Abstrakt

Abstract

Controlling of vibration in any system is very challenging problem. In the present work design, fabrication and testing of a variable mass 2-DoF system was presented. The system has been designed to be used as tool to demonstrate the capability of mass variable tuned vibration damper for wide frequency application. All valves and pumps were controlled by a cRIO with onboard FPGA. cRIO with FPGA enable the designer to implement different control algorithms that can be used for real time wide spectrum vibration control. LabVIEW with real time suite was used for algorithm implementation and device control. To avoid sloshing in tanks at different water height a floating roof was used. Its effect on damping was also studied.

Index terms

  • FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array)
  • Reconfigurable Input Output device (cRIO)
  • Vibration control
  • Real time control
  • TMD (Tuned Mass Damper)
  • LabVIEW
Otwarty dostęp

Copper (II) oxide thin film for methanol and ethanol sensing

Data publikacji: 06 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 710 - 725

Abstrakt

Abstract

A nanostructured copper (II) oxide film deposited by reactive DC-magnetron sputtering technique, has been studied for static sensor response towards methanol and ethanol by operating temperature and analyte concentration modulations. The optimum operating temperature (Topt) for the sensing of methanol and ethanol is observed to be 350 °C and 400 °C, respectively. The maximum sensitivity observed for 2500 ppm methanol and ethanol is 29% and 15.4% respectively. Another important observation is that the sensitivity time reduces with analyte concentrations, where as recovery time increases. The response time of 2500 ppm methanol and ethanol is 235 s and 247 s correspondingly.

Index term

  • Copper (II) Oxide thin films
  • sputtering
  • gas sensing
  • response time and recovery time
Otwarty dostęp

LabVIEW Based Characterization and Optimization of Thermal Sensors

Data publikacji: 06 Dec 2011
Zakres stron: 726 - 739

Abstrakt

Abstract

Reliable operation of a transducer carries a great importance while choosing it for a particular application.This project report characterization of thermistor, and RTD in detail. Thermal transducers are widely used transducers in most of the industrial and scientific instrumentation. These transducers of different types and parameters are commercially available in the market by different manufacturers. The manufactures need to test large volume for specifying the parameters of these devices. More over this test would serve as feedback for quality assurance and production schedule. Moreover any upgradation in processing technology proposed by the research and development activities has to be evaluated before launching in to the production. On the other hand the users of such transducers would need to test the critical parameters before they use it in a specific application. The LabVIEW software, its example and LabVIEW based characterization setup reported here offer reliable high speed solution with flexibility in the form of software adjustment for performing different test suitable to both categories such as manufacturers and the users.

Index terms

  • LabVIEW
  • Transdcer
  • RTD
  • Thermistor
  • AD590
  • Sampling and Optimization

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