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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 10 (2017): Zeszyt 1 (January 2017)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

10 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

AN IN VITRO COST-EFFECTIVE TEST BENCH FOR ACTIVE CARDIAC IMPLANTS, REPRODUCING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ELECTRIC FIELDS 50 HZ

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 17

Abstrakt

Abstract

The European Directive 2013/35/UE sets the minimum requirements for the protection of workers exposed to electromagnetic fields and defines workers bearing implants as workers at particular risk. The European standards 50527-1 and 50527-2-1 propose risk assessments methods for these workers, including numerical and/or experimental in-vitro approaches. This study aims to conceive by using both methods, a cost-effective test bench for active cardiac implants in order to reproduce induced phenomena on a cardiac implant inside a human exposed to 50 Hz electric field, representing exposure up to 100 kV/m, which covers occupational exposure.

Index Terms

  • Electric Field
  • Low Frequency
  • Implanted Cardiac Defibrillators
  • Pacemaker
  • -vitro EMC setup
Otwarty dostęp

A SOLAR-POWERED WHITE LED-BASED UV-VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM MANAGED BY PC FOR AIR POLLUTION DETECTION IN FARAWAY AND UNFRIENDLY LOCATIONS

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 31

Abstrakt

Abstract

This research work regards the design and realization of an absorption spectrophotometer based on a LED light source in place of the usually employed Xenon lamp. The advantage of the use of LED technology resides in several factors such as the reducing of the analyte temperature variations and thus noise generation, which occur if a Xenon light source is used, beside of the high luminous efficiency, reliability, operating duration, lower maintenance and a lower power consumption. This last factor allows to supply the entire designed apparatus using a solar panel thus making the system easly portable for use even in places where the electricity network is absent. An optical filtering system was realized in order to detect the analyte absorption for each wavelength range selected by the optical filters. A PC-interfaced PIC-based control unit used to manage the different functionalities required by the spectophotometer was realized and tested. The control unit acquires and processes, via the developed firmware, the raw data provided by different sensors employed in the system. The sensors are used to monitor analyte temperature and humidity values, to control the analyte pressure and to acquire the luminous intensity value of the light beam before and after passing through the analyte. Finally, the realized electronic control unit actuates different mechanical sections (stepper motor, solenoid valve), sincronyzing and controlling the data exchange between hardware sections, microcontroller and the PC.

Index Terms

  • Electronic control system
  • absorption spectroscopy
  • sensors
  • LED
  • PIC
  • firmware
  • measurements and prototype characterization.
Otwarty dostęp

FEEDBACK EQUALIZER FOR VEHICULAR CHANNEL

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 19

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this fast moving world, the number of fatal accidents is increasing day by day and this leads to the requirement of the availability of the traffic condition and road conditions related data to the users. Therefore, to support Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication in high speed mobility condition, it is required to have reliable and secure of communication. Here, the performance of multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) system as a combination of nonlinear decision feedback receiver (DFE) have been investigated in V2V channel. In this paper, through the simulation, the results are presented to show the effect of the channel correlation coefficient and Doppler shift (Fd) (because of the relative velocity of the vehicle) over the performance of the MIMO system. As a counter measure of those problems nonlinear receivers have been formulated and analyzed.

Index Terms

  • DFE
  • Doppler Shift
  • MIMO
  • SCM
  • VANET
Otwarty dostęp

DESIGN OF A WIRELESS CAPACITIVE POWER TRANSFER SYSTEM

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 19

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents the design of a capacitive power transfer (CPT) system by using the Class-E amplifier approach. The Class-E amplifier approach is chosen to be adopted since it produces high efficiency as close as to 100%, theoretically. Based on the Class-E approach, a design of wireless power transfer system is used to transfer power to a LED lamp. The system has an output around 4.2 watts at a distance of 2 millimeters which transfer enough output power to light a LED lamp. Simulation and experimental results are carried out to verify the high efficiency of the Class-E amplifier. Finally, the design of practical wireless LED lamp is achieved.

Index Terms

  • Class-E amplifier
  • capacitive power transfer
  • ZVS condition
  • Additional capacitor
  • LED
Otwarty dostęp

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-CHANNEL TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBABILITY CSMA AD HOC NETWORK PROTOCOL BASED THREE-WAY HANDSHAKE MECHANISM

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 20

Abstrakt

Abstract

In wireless Ad Hoc networks, large number and flexible mobility of terminals lead to the rarity of wireless channel resources. Also the hidden and exposed terminal problem exists in the Ad Hoc network which is the major factors restricting its development and applying. Considering these factors, this paper proposes a new CSMA protocol: multi-channel two-dimensional probability CSMA for wireless Ad Hoc network protocol based on three-way handshake mechanism, and analyzes the system throughput, delay of information packet, energy consumption and other properties under the control of the proposed protocol. By using the cycle analysis method, computer simulation results not only verify the theoretical analysis, but also show that the protocol has the optimum performance. The proposed protocol can not only reduce the collision probability of information packets to some extent, improving the channel utilization, reducing the waste of channel resources, but also achieve the balancing of load in a variety of wireless Ad Hoc network services, meeting the needs by different priorities with different QoS, and ensuring the systematic efficiency and fairness.

Index Terms

  • Two-dimensional CSMA
  • multi-channel
  • three-way handshake
  • throughput
  • QoS
Otwarty dostęp

ASSESSMENT TO EFFECTIVENESS OF THE NEW EARLY STREAMER EMISSION LIGHTNING PROTECTION SYSTEM

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 26

Abstrakt

Abstract

A novel early streamer emission (ESE) lightning air terminal system is designed and fabricated. By comparing the intercepted artificial lightning striking numbers of the new ESE lightning protection device and the conventional lightning rod (CLR) lightning protection device in laboratory, the effectiveness of intercepting the artificial lightning strokes by the new ESE lightning protection device is superior to that by the conventional lightning rod lightning protection device. A modified Tesla Coil (TC) discharging by powering AC voltage up to 650 kV with the controlled triggering function generator is used to produce simulated lightning strokes. The top tips of both devices in the same horizontal plane are placed at the same distance to the modified TC during all the test processes. Exchanging their positions makes no obvious difference between the recorded results. The test data validate the effectiveness of the new ESE lightning protection device under the laboratory environment.

Index Terms

  • Early streamer emission
  • electric field
  • zone of protection
Otwarty dostęp

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A TRACK BICYCLE INSTRUMENT FOR TORQUE MEASUREMENT USING THE ZIGBEE WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 22

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study evaluates the consistency between the bicycle torque of the proposed system, and a Schoberer Rad Messtechnik (SRM) system. The torque was measured while a trainer was cycling indoors, and the measured values were compared with those of the SRM system. A Bland-Altman statistical analysis indicated that the measured values agreed with the SRM within 95%. The mean absolute percentage error and root mean square error between the measurements of the proposed system and the SRM system were 8.25%, and 1.86, respectively. The results show that the bicycle torque can be measured accurately and transmitted using ZigBee wireless protocol.

Index Terms

  • measurement accuracy
  • sensor
  • statistical analysis
  • strain gauge
  • torque
  • track cycling
  • wireless sensor network
  • ZigBee
Otwarty dostęp

SPECTRUM SENSING IN COGNITIVE RADIOS UNDER NOISE UNCERTAINTY: DECISION MAKING USING GAME THEORY

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 28

Abstrakt

Abstract

Energy detection is best suited for the detection of licensed users when prior knowledge about them is unavailable. However, the presence of noise uncertainty refrains the use of energy detection for spectrum sensing. In this paper, we propose a refined energy detection (RED) which used dual threshold in the presence of noise uncertainty, and combine the concepts from game theory to achieve further performance improvements. The secondary user payoff is defined based on the primary user activity and the strategy adopted by the secondary user. The pure strategy Nash equilibrium and the best response for the mixed strategy Nash equilibrium are analyzed for all the possible strategies adopted by the secondary user. Simulations results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in terms of greater secondary user payoff and robustness against noise uncertainty.

Index Terms

  • Cognitive Radio
  • Spectrum sensing
  • Energy Detection
  • Noise Uncertainty
  • Game Theory
Otwarty dostęp

A TOTAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT SOLUTION FOR SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR NLFM WAVEFORM GENERATION AND EVALUATION IN A COMPLEX RANDOM MEDIA

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 25

Abstrakt

Abstract

A Design, simulation and optimal selection of non-linear frequency modulation waveforms (NLFM) based on correlated ambiguity function (AF) quality analysis for the purpose of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is done in this article. The selected optimum CNLFM waveform in contribution with other waveforms are applied directly into a SAR image formation algorithm (IFA) and their quality metrics in comparison to other waveforms are derived and analyzed in a complex random media (CRM). The total quality performance analysis includes both the qualitative AF diagrams and the objective image quality metrics assessments. The simulation results not only verify the robustness of the proposed NLFM waveforms as a suitable alternative for LFM waveform but also introduce NLFM as a proper method of modulation for SAR in CRM.

Index Terms

  • Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
  • Non-Linear Frequency Modulation (NLFM)
  • Ambiguity Function (AF)
  • image formation algorithm (IFA)
  • complex random media (CRM)
  • quality assessment techniques
Otwarty dostęp

DEVELOPMENT OF SOFT SENSOR TO ESTIMATE MULTIPHASE FLOW RATES USING NEURAL NETWORKS AND EARLY STOPPING

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 24

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper proposes a soft sensor to estimate phase flow rates utilizing common measurements in oil and gas production wells. The developed system addresses the limited production monitoring due to using common metering facilities. It offers a cost-effective solution to meet real-time monitoring demands, reduces operational and maintenance costs, and acts as a back-up to multiphase flow meters. The soft sensor is developed using feed-forward neural network, and generalization and network complexity are regulated using K-fold cross-validation and early stopping technique. The soft sensor is validated using actual well test data from producing wells, and model performance is analyzed using cumulative deviation and cumulative flow plots. The developed soft sensor shows promising performance with a mean absolute percent error of around 4% and less than 10% deviation for 90% of the samples.

Index Terms

  • Multiphase Flow
  • Soft Sensor
  • Virtual Flow Meter
  • Neural Network
  • early stopping
10 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

AN IN VITRO COST-EFFECTIVE TEST BENCH FOR ACTIVE CARDIAC IMPLANTS, REPRODUCING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ELECTRIC FIELDS 50 HZ

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 17

Abstrakt

Abstract

The European Directive 2013/35/UE sets the minimum requirements for the protection of workers exposed to electromagnetic fields and defines workers bearing implants as workers at particular risk. The European standards 50527-1 and 50527-2-1 propose risk assessments methods for these workers, including numerical and/or experimental in-vitro approaches. This study aims to conceive by using both methods, a cost-effective test bench for active cardiac implants in order to reproduce induced phenomena on a cardiac implant inside a human exposed to 50 Hz electric field, representing exposure up to 100 kV/m, which covers occupational exposure.

Index Terms

  • Electric Field
  • Low Frequency
  • Implanted Cardiac Defibrillators
  • Pacemaker
  • -vitro EMC setup
Otwarty dostęp

A SOLAR-POWERED WHITE LED-BASED UV-VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM MANAGED BY PC FOR AIR POLLUTION DETECTION IN FARAWAY AND UNFRIENDLY LOCATIONS

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 31

Abstrakt

Abstract

This research work regards the design and realization of an absorption spectrophotometer based on a LED light source in place of the usually employed Xenon lamp. The advantage of the use of LED technology resides in several factors such as the reducing of the analyte temperature variations and thus noise generation, which occur if a Xenon light source is used, beside of the high luminous efficiency, reliability, operating duration, lower maintenance and a lower power consumption. This last factor allows to supply the entire designed apparatus using a solar panel thus making the system easly portable for use even in places where the electricity network is absent. An optical filtering system was realized in order to detect the analyte absorption for each wavelength range selected by the optical filters. A PC-interfaced PIC-based control unit used to manage the different functionalities required by the spectophotometer was realized and tested. The control unit acquires and processes, via the developed firmware, the raw data provided by different sensors employed in the system. The sensors are used to monitor analyte temperature and humidity values, to control the analyte pressure and to acquire the luminous intensity value of the light beam before and after passing through the analyte. Finally, the realized electronic control unit actuates different mechanical sections (stepper motor, solenoid valve), sincronyzing and controlling the data exchange between hardware sections, microcontroller and the PC.

Index Terms

  • Electronic control system
  • absorption spectroscopy
  • sensors
  • LED
  • PIC
  • firmware
  • measurements and prototype characterization.
Otwarty dostęp

FEEDBACK EQUALIZER FOR VEHICULAR CHANNEL

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 19

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this fast moving world, the number of fatal accidents is increasing day by day and this leads to the requirement of the availability of the traffic condition and road conditions related data to the users. Therefore, to support Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication in high speed mobility condition, it is required to have reliable and secure of communication. Here, the performance of multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) system as a combination of nonlinear decision feedback receiver (DFE) have been investigated in V2V channel. In this paper, through the simulation, the results are presented to show the effect of the channel correlation coefficient and Doppler shift (Fd) (because of the relative velocity of the vehicle) over the performance of the MIMO system. As a counter measure of those problems nonlinear receivers have been formulated and analyzed.

Index Terms

  • DFE
  • Doppler Shift
  • MIMO
  • SCM
  • VANET
Otwarty dostęp

DESIGN OF A WIRELESS CAPACITIVE POWER TRANSFER SYSTEM

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 19

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents the design of a capacitive power transfer (CPT) system by using the Class-E amplifier approach. The Class-E amplifier approach is chosen to be adopted since it produces high efficiency as close as to 100%, theoretically. Based on the Class-E approach, a design of wireless power transfer system is used to transfer power to a LED lamp. The system has an output around 4.2 watts at a distance of 2 millimeters which transfer enough output power to light a LED lamp. Simulation and experimental results are carried out to verify the high efficiency of the Class-E amplifier. Finally, the design of practical wireless LED lamp is achieved.

Index Terms

  • Class-E amplifier
  • capacitive power transfer
  • ZVS condition
  • Additional capacitor
  • LED
Otwarty dostęp

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-CHANNEL TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBABILITY CSMA AD HOC NETWORK PROTOCOL BASED THREE-WAY HANDSHAKE MECHANISM

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 20

Abstrakt

Abstract

In wireless Ad Hoc networks, large number and flexible mobility of terminals lead to the rarity of wireless channel resources. Also the hidden and exposed terminal problem exists in the Ad Hoc network which is the major factors restricting its development and applying. Considering these factors, this paper proposes a new CSMA protocol: multi-channel two-dimensional probability CSMA for wireless Ad Hoc network protocol based on three-way handshake mechanism, and analyzes the system throughput, delay of information packet, energy consumption and other properties under the control of the proposed protocol. By using the cycle analysis method, computer simulation results not only verify the theoretical analysis, but also show that the protocol has the optimum performance. The proposed protocol can not only reduce the collision probability of information packets to some extent, improving the channel utilization, reducing the waste of channel resources, but also achieve the balancing of load in a variety of wireless Ad Hoc network services, meeting the needs by different priorities with different QoS, and ensuring the systematic efficiency and fairness.

Index Terms

  • Two-dimensional CSMA
  • multi-channel
  • three-way handshake
  • throughput
  • QoS
Otwarty dostęp

ASSESSMENT TO EFFECTIVENESS OF THE NEW EARLY STREAMER EMISSION LIGHTNING PROTECTION SYSTEM

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 26

Abstrakt

Abstract

A novel early streamer emission (ESE) lightning air terminal system is designed and fabricated. By comparing the intercepted artificial lightning striking numbers of the new ESE lightning protection device and the conventional lightning rod (CLR) lightning protection device in laboratory, the effectiveness of intercepting the artificial lightning strokes by the new ESE lightning protection device is superior to that by the conventional lightning rod lightning protection device. A modified Tesla Coil (TC) discharging by powering AC voltage up to 650 kV with the controlled triggering function generator is used to produce simulated lightning strokes. The top tips of both devices in the same horizontal plane are placed at the same distance to the modified TC during all the test processes. Exchanging their positions makes no obvious difference between the recorded results. The test data validate the effectiveness of the new ESE lightning protection device under the laboratory environment.

Index Terms

  • Early streamer emission
  • electric field
  • zone of protection
Otwarty dostęp

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A TRACK BICYCLE INSTRUMENT FOR TORQUE MEASUREMENT USING THE ZIGBEE WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 22

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study evaluates the consistency between the bicycle torque of the proposed system, and a Schoberer Rad Messtechnik (SRM) system. The torque was measured while a trainer was cycling indoors, and the measured values were compared with those of the SRM system. A Bland-Altman statistical analysis indicated that the measured values agreed with the SRM within 95%. The mean absolute percentage error and root mean square error between the measurements of the proposed system and the SRM system were 8.25%, and 1.86, respectively. The results show that the bicycle torque can be measured accurately and transmitted using ZigBee wireless protocol.

Index Terms

  • measurement accuracy
  • sensor
  • statistical analysis
  • strain gauge
  • torque
  • track cycling
  • wireless sensor network
  • ZigBee
Otwarty dostęp

SPECTRUM SENSING IN COGNITIVE RADIOS UNDER NOISE UNCERTAINTY: DECISION MAKING USING GAME THEORY

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 28

Abstrakt

Abstract

Energy detection is best suited for the detection of licensed users when prior knowledge about them is unavailable. However, the presence of noise uncertainty refrains the use of energy detection for spectrum sensing. In this paper, we propose a refined energy detection (RED) which used dual threshold in the presence of noise uncertainty, and combine the concepts from game theory to achieve further performance improvements. The secondary user payoff is defined based on the primary user activity and the strategy adopted by the secondary user. The pure strategy Nash equilibrium and the best response for the mixed strategy Nash equilibrium are analyzed for all the possible strategies adopted by the secondary user. Simulations results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in terms of greater secondary user payoff and robustness against noise uncertainty.

Index Terms

  • Cognitive Radio
  • Spectrum sensing
  • Energy Detection
  • Noise Uncertainty
  • Game Theory
Otwarty dostęp

A TOTAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT SOLUTION FOR SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR NLFM WAVEFORM GENERATION AND EVALUATION IN A COMPLEX RANDOM MEDIA

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 25

Abstrakt

Abstract

A Design, simulation and optimal selection of non-linear frequency modulation waveforms (NLFM) based on correlated ambiguity function (AF) quality analysis for the purpose of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is done in this article. The selected optimum CNLFM waveform in contribution with other waveforms are applied directly into a SAR image formation algorithm (IFA) and their quality metrics in comparison to other waveforms are derived and analyzed in a complex random media (CRM). The total quality performance analysis includes both the qualitative AF diagrams and the objective image quality metrics assessments. The simulation results not only verify the robustness of the proposed NLFM waveforms as a suitable alternative for LFM waveform but also introduce NLFM as a proper method of modulation for SAR in CRM.

Index Terms

  • Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
  • Non-Linear Frequency Modulation (NLFM)
  • Ambiguity Function (AF)
  • image formation algorithm (IFA)
  • complex random media (CRM)
  • quality assessment techniques
Otwarty dostęp

DEVELOPMENT OF SOFT SENSOR TO ESTIMATE MULTIPHASE FLOW RATES USING NEURAL NETWORKS AND EARLY STOPPING

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 24

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper proposes a soft sensor to estimate phase flow rates utilizing common measurements in oil and gas production wells. The developed system addresses the limited production monitoring due to using common metering facilities. It offers a cost-effective solution to meet real-time monitoring demands, reduces operational and maintenance costs, and acts as a back-up to multiphase flow meters. The soft sensor is developed using feed-forward neural network, and generalization and network complexity are regulated using K-fold cross-validation and early stopping technique. The soft sensor is validated using actual well test data from producing wells, and model performance is analyzed using cumulative deviation and cumulative flow plots. The developed soft sensor shows promising performance with a mean absolute percent error of around 4% and less than 10% deviation for 90% of the samples.

Index Terms

  • Multiphase Flow
  • Soft Sensor
  • Virtual Flow Meter
  • Neural Network
  • early stopping

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