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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 5 (2012): Zeszyt 1 (January 2012)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

15 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Flexible Ph Sensor With Polyaniline Layer Based On Impedance Measurement

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 1 - 13

Abstrakt

Abstract

A flexible sensor with conducting polyaniline layer for detecting pH value based on the impedance measurement is fabricated and demonstrated in this study. The pH sensor consists of an interdigital electrode array on a flexible printed circuit and a thin-film polyaniline as the sensing layer. As the conductivity of polyaniline depends on the redox state, the impedance change of the polyaniline after it has reacted with different pH value solutions works as the sensing mechanism. In order to obtain a reliable and stable impedance measurement result, a standard procedure for pH value detection is also developed. As the experimental results show, the impedance variation of the pH sensor is less than 1% in an ambient environment, and the measured impedance increases with pH values varying from 2 to 12. In addition, the impedance change between the unreacted sensor and the reacted sensor exhibit 3 orders of difference; thus, the resolution of the pH value detection is very high, making it possible to detect the impedance by means of a simple electronic device. Consequently, the low-cost, disposable, flexible IDT electrode sensor with a polyaniline layer effectively demonstrates the feasibility of pH value detection. Moreover, the sensor can be applied to other applications, such as gas detection, humidity and glucose, etc.

Index terms

  • Flexible
  • Polyaniline
  • pH value
  • Impedance
Otwarty dostęp

Modeling and Control of Ball and Beam System using Model Based and Non-Model Based Control Approaches

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 14 - 35

Abstrakt

Abstract

The ball and beam system is a laboratory equipment with high nonlinearity in its dynamics. The aims of this research are to model the ball and beam system considering nonlinear factors and coupling effect and to design controllers to control the ball position. The LQR is designed considering two Degrees-of-Freedom and coupling dynamics. The parameters of the LQR are tuned using Genetic Algorithm (GA). Jacobian linearization method is used to linearize the system around operating-point. Due to the noise of the sensor in the experimental setup, a state observer is designed to observe the velocity of the ball. In order to compare the performance of the LQR and study the effect of simplifying assumptions, two control strategies are designed and implemented: Proportional Derivative Integral (PID) as non-model based control strategy, hybrid PID and Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) as combination of model based and non-model based control strategies. The experimental results of this research prove the model based control strategies outperforms the non-model based or hybrid controllers in a nonlinear and noisy ball and beam system. In addition, it is shown that the coupling dynamics cannot be eliminated as a simplifying assumption in designing the controller.

Index terms

  • Ball and beam
  • proportional derivative integral controller
  • linear quadratic regulator
  • genetic algorithm
Otwarty dostęp

Capacitive Sensor Design Utilizing Conformal Mapping Methods

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 36 - 56

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this work we demonstrate the advantages of conformal mapping methods for the design of capacitive sensor setups. If the setups are modeled appropriately, the respective Laplace equations can be solved utilizing conformal mapping methods. These methods yield the equations describing the electric field of the sensor setups. The field equations contain the distinct geometric properties of the sensor setups. An in depth analysis of these equations permits the optimization of the sensor setups with respect to their sensitivities. This approach also facilitates the application of efficient signal processing methods. In addition, we propose a method which expands the application range of conformal maps produced by the Schwarz-Christoffel transform. This method permits the analysis of more complex sensor setups.

Index terms

  • Conformal mapping
  • Schwarz-Christoffel transform
  • Joukowski tranform
  • capacitance sensor
  • electric field
  • blade geometry
  • edge geometry
  • sensitivity analysis
Otwarty dostęp

Synthesis of Zno Nanorods by Hydrothermal Method for Gas Sensor Applications

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 57 - 70

Abstrakt

Abstract

ZnO nanorods with different sizes and shapes have been successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal route, using zinc acetate and Cetyltriammonium bromide (CTAB) as the reactants. The thick films of as prepared ZnO were prepared by screen-printing technique in desired pattern. The films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The gas sensing properties of the materials have been investigated for various interfering gases such as CO2, CO, Ethanol, NH3 and H2S etc at operating temperature from 30° (room temperature) to 300°C. The results indicate that the ZnO nanorod thick films showed much better sensitivity and stability than the conventional materials to H2S gas at 30°C. The nanoshaped pillar can improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensors. ZnO nanorods are excellent potential candidates for gas sensors.

Index terms

  • Hydrothermal
  • CTAB
  • ZnO nanorods
  • HS gas sensor
  • gas response
Otwarty dostęp

Humidity sensor based on silver nanoparticles embedded in a polymeric coating

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 71 - 83

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this work, it is presented a novel optical fiber humidity sensor based on silver nanoparticle-loaded polymeric coatings built onto an optical fiber core. The polymeric film was fabricated using the Layer-by-Layer assembly technique. The silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and UV-VIS spectroscopy. A Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) attenuation band is observed when the thickness of the coating increases, and showed a very good sensitivity to Relative Humidity (RH) variations, suitable for high performance applications such as human breathing monitoring.

Index terms

  • Optical fiber
  • humidity sensor
  • surface Plasmon resonance (SPR)
  • synthesis of silver nanoparticles
  • polymeric coating
Otwarty dostęp

Study on Light Response of Pachira Aquatica’S Leaf Via Surface Plasmon Resonance Technique

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 84 - 94

Abstrakt

Abstract

Light response of a pachira aquatica’s leaf at room temperature was investigated with a strong p-wave electromagnetic field by utilizing a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based sensor technique of angular interrogation method for biological and chemical sensing. The essential principle of SPR biosensing is based on measurement of the change regarding leaf’s microstructure against the sensor’s metallic surface owing to the interaction with the strong p-wave electromagnetic field. The test result shows that the pachira aquatica’s leaf responds to each light lamp within 1 minute.

Index terms

  • surface plasmon resonance
  • pachira aquatica
  • angular interrogation
  • p-wave
  • light response
Otwarty dostęp

Feedforward Control of Temperature-Induced Head Skew for Hard Disk Drives

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 95 - 106

Abstrakt

Abstract

In hard disk drives (HDDs), head skew error among multiple heads is calibrated during manufacturing process, and will be implemented prior to head switching seeks. In operational environment, additional head skew deviation due to temperature drift may be observed, which could introduce heavy handling burden for feedback controller along with unacceptable noise to HDD customers. Therefore, a thorough analysis of head skew variation against temperature is carried out in this paper. With help of accurate estimation of head skew based on drive temperature, smart feedforward control strategy during drive startup is embedded. Experimental results demonstrating its effectiveness to enhance drive performance are given.

Index terms

  • Head skew deviation
  • hard disk drives
  • calibration
  • and temperature coefficient
Otwarty dostęp

A Review of Artificial Fish Swarm Optimization Methods and Applications

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 107 - 148

Abstrakt

Abstract

The Swarm Intelligence is a new and modern method employed in optimization problems. The Swarm Intelligence method is based on the en masse movement of living animals like birds, fishes, ants and other social animals. Migration, seeking for food and fighting with enemies are social behaviors of animals. Optimization principle is seen in these animals. The Artificial Fish Swarm Optimization (AFSA) method is one of the Swarm Intelligence approaches that works based on the population and stochastic search. Fishes show very intelligently social behaviors. This algorithm is one of the best approaches of the Swarm Intelligence method with considerable advantages like high convergence speed, flexibility, error tolerance and high accuracy. this paper review the AFSA algorithm, its evolution stages from the start point up to now, improvements and applications in various fields like optimization, control, image processing, data mining, improving neural networks, networks, scheduling, and signal processing and so on. Also, various methods combining the AFSA with other optimization methods like PSO, Fuzzy Logic, Cellular Learning Automata or intelligent search methods like Tabu search, Simulated Annealing, Chaos Search and etc.

Index terms

  • Artificial Fish Swarm Optimization
  • Swarm Optimization
  • Natural Computing
Otwarty dostęp

Monitoring of Nitrates and Phosphates in Wastewater: Current Technologies and Further Challenges

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 149 - 176

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

A Review of Sensing and Distributed Detection Algorithms for Cognitive Radio Systems

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 177 - 190

Abstrakt

Abstract

Optimized spectrum sensing using distributed detection techniques for secondary user spectrum access is becoming important in Cognitive Radio (CR) systems, which have been proposed to utilize the available frequency spectrum more efficiently. For achieving best performance and ensuring minimal acceptable interference to spectrum owners, it is important to accurately sense and detect the presence or absence of primary licensed users. For this purpose, the solutions learned within the framework of distributed detection in wireless sensor networks have been considered. In this paper, we review sensing algorithms and approaches of distributed detection and their relevance to CR systems.

Index terms

  • Wireless Sensor Networks
  • Sensing Techniques
  • Distributed Detection
  • Cognitive Radio
Otwarty dostęp

An Air Quality Monitoring System for Urban Areas Based on the Technology of Wireless Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 191 - 214

Abstrakt

Abstract

Air pollution is one of environmental issues that cannot be ignored. The heavy transportation and urbanization result in the air pollutants concentrated in certain areas. Inhaling pollutants for a long time causes damages in human health. Traditional air quality monitoring methods, such as building air quality monitoring stations, are typically expensive. In addition, monitoring stations are generally less densely deployed and provide low resolution sensing data. This paper proposes an urban air quality monitoring system based on the technology of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). It also integrates with the global system for mobile communications (GSM). The system consists of sensor nodes, a gateway, and a control center managed by the LabVIEW program through which sensing data can be stored in a database. This system is deployed to the main roads in the Taipei city to monitor the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration caused by vehicle emissions. The experimental results show that the proposed system is suitable for micro-scale air quality monitoring in real-time through the WSN technology.

Index terms

  • air quality monitoring
  • wireless sensor networks
  • real-time monitoring
Otwarty dostęp

Development of Semi-Quantitative Analytical System for Metal Nanoparticle Ink Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 215 - 232

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper describes the semi-quantitative analysis of metal nanoparticle ink using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS can be used to obtain information about the density and chemical composition of silver particles or copper particles, even ultrafine particles. Metal particles have been attracting much attention because of their increased use in new micro-nano technologies. In this work, LIBS was used as a fine metal particle measurement system for nanometallic materials used in printing. Good spectral peak resolutions were obtained when the Ag spectra were recorded at wavelengths of 328.068 nm and 338.289 nm and Cu spectra at 324.754 nm and 327.396 nm.

Index terms

  • LIBS
  • laser
  • nanomaterials
  • in-situ measurement
Otwarty dostęp

Oxygen Sensor with Advanced Oxide Electrode Materials

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 233 - 245

Abstrakt

Abstract

Calcium doped lanthanum and yttrium manganite electrode materials with oxygen deficiency and low polarization resistance (<30Ω*cm2at 600°C) were tested in new advanced electrochemical sensor for the oxygen measurements. Oxygen sensor with oxide electrodes was showing fast response (t95~5s at 600°C), good reproducibility (±0.04% O2) and long term stability at different oxygen concentration.

Index terms

  • oxygen concentration measurements
  • potentiometric gas sensor
  • oxide electrode
  • perovskite structure
  • rare earth manganite electrode
  • combustion application
Otwarty dostęp

Hscloud: Cloud Architecture for Supporting Homeland Security

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 246 - 276

Abstrakt

Abstract

Governmental institutions all over the world are trying to increase the level of security of their countries emphasizing the usage Information Technology solutions. We believe that Cloud Computing may strongly help Homeland Security, since it offers a very flexible support for organizing and managing heterogeneous systems, providing huge amount of processing, storing and sensing resources. In this work we introduce a new Cloud architecture able to virtualize different types of sensing environments in virtual sensing elements, logically belonging to Cooperating Clouds. It represents a very flexible solution, which offers seamless, secure and advanced services to support Homeland Security.

Index terms

  • Homeland Security
  • Cloud Computing
  • Dangerous Goods
  • Virtual Sensing
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Annealing on Gas Sensing Performance of Nanostructured Zno Thick Film Resistors

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 277 - 294

Abstrakt

Abstract

ZnO nano-particles have been synthesized by simple chemical route using a starting solution consisting of zinc acetate and citric acid as a surfactant agent. The structural properties of the prepared ZnO nano-particles annealed at different temperatures have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. The XRD patterns show ZnO-wurtize phase in the nano-powders, and size of crystals increases by increasing the annealing temperatures. The TEM images show nano-particles as clusters with size in the range of 10-20 nm. Electron diffraction pattern of nano-powders annealed at 900°C temperature shows a well distribution of spherical particles due to the effect of citric acid as surfactant in chemical process. Thick films prepared by screen printing technique from zinc oxide nano-powders annealed at different temperatures (500–900 °C), characterized by SEM analysis and tested for various gases. The film prepared from ZnO powder annealed at 700°C shows the higher sensitivity to H2S gas for 10 ppm gas concentration.

Index terms

  • ZnO nano-particles
  • annealing
  • TEM
  • thick films
  • gas sensor
15 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Flexible Ph Sensor With Polyaniline Layer Based On Impedance Measurement

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 1 - 13

Abstrakt

Abstract

A flexible sensor with conducting polyaniline layer for detecting pH value based on the impedance measurement is fabricated and demonstrated in this study. The pH sensor consists of an interdigital electrode array on a flexible printed circuit and a thin-film polyaniline as the sensing layer. As the conductivity of polyaniline depends on the redox state, the impedance change of the polyaniline after it has reacted with different pH value solutions works as the sensing mechanism. In order to obtain a reliable and stable impedance measurement result, a standard procedure for pH value detection is also developed. As the experimental results show, the impedance variation of the pH sensor is less than 1% in an ambient environment, and the measured impedance increases with pH values varying from 2 to 12. In addition, the impedance change between the unreacted sensor and the reacted sensor exhibit 3 orders of difference; thus, the resolution of the pH value detection is very high, making it possible to detect the impedance by means of a simple electronic device. Consequently, the low-cost, disposable, flexible IDT electrode sensor with a polyaniline layer effectively demonstrates the feasibility of pH value detection. Moreover, the sensor can be applied to other applications, such as gas detection, humidity and glucose, etc.

Index terms

  • Flexible
  • Polyaniline
  • pH value
  • Impedance
Otwarty dostęp

Modeling and Control of Ball and Beam System using Model Based and Non-Model Based Control Approaches

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 14 - 35

Abstrakt

Abstract

The ball and beam system is a laboratory equipment with high nonlinearity in its dynamics. The aims of this research are to model the ball and beam system considering nonlinear factors and coupling effect and to design controllers to control the ball position. The LQR is designed considering two Degrees-of-Freedom and coupling dynamics. The parameters of the LQR are tuned using Genetic Algorithm (GA). Jacobian linearization method is used to linearize the system around operating-point. Due to the noise of the sensor in the experimental setup, a state observer is designed to observe the velocity of the ball. In order to compare the performance of the LQR and study the effect of simplifying assumptions, two control strategies are designed and implemented: Proportional Derivative Integral (PID) as non-model based control strategy, hybrid PID and Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) as combination of model based and non-model based control strategies. The experimental results of this research prove the model based control strategies outperforms the non-model based or hybrid controllers in a nonlinear and noisy ball and beam system. In addition, it is shown that the coupling dynamics cannot be eliminated as a simplifying assumption in designing the controller.

Index terms

  • Ball and beam
  • proportional derivative integral controller
  • linear quadratic regulator
  • genetic algorithm
Otwarty dostęp

Capacitive Sensor Design Utilizing Conformal Mapping Methods

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 36 - 56

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this work we demonstrate the advantages of conformal mapping methods for the design of capacitive sensor setups. If the setups are modeled appropriately, the respective Laplace equations can be solved utilizing conformal mapping methods. These methods yield the equations describing the electric field of the sensor setups. The field equations contain the distinct geometric properties of the sensor setups. An in depth analysis of these equations permits the optimization of the sensor setups with respect to their sensitivities. This approach also facilitates the application of efficient signal processing methods. In addition, we propose a method which expands the application range of conformal maps produced by the Schwarz-Christoffel transform. This method permits the analysis of more complex sensor setups.

Index terms

  • Conformal mapping
  • Schwarz-Christoffel transform
  • Joukowski tranform
  • capacitance sensor
  • electric field
  • blade geometry
  • edge geometry
  • sensitivity analysis
Otwarty dostęp

Synthesis of Zno Nanorods by Hydrothermal Method for Gas Sensor Applications

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 57 - 70

Abstrakt

Abstract

ZnO nanorods with different sizes and shapes have been successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal route, using zinc acetate and Cetyltriammonium bromide (CTAB) as the reactants. The thick films of as prepared ZnO were prepared by screen-printing technique in desired pattern. The films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The gas sensing properties of the materials have been investigated for various interfering gases such as CO2, CO, Ethanol, NH3 and H2S etc at operating temperature from 30° (room temperature) to 300°C. The results indicate that the ZnO nanorod thick films showed much better sensitivity and stability than the conventional materials to H2S gas at 30°C. The nanoshaped pillar can improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensors. ZnO nanorods are excellent potential candidates for gas sensors.

Index terms

  • Hydrothermal
  • CTAB
  • ZnO nanorods
  • HS gas sensor
  • gas response
Otwarty dostęp

Humidity sensor based on silver nanoparticles embedded in a polymeric coating

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 71 - 83

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this work, it is presented a novel optical fiber humidity sensor based on silver nanoparticle-loaded polymeric coatings built onto an optical fiber core. The polymeric film was fabricated using the Layer-by-Layer assembly technique. The silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and UV-VIS spectroscopy. A Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) attenuation band is observed when the thickness of the coating increases, and showed a very good sensitivity to Relative Humidity (RH) variations, suitable for high performance applications such as human breathing monitoring.

Index terms

  • Optical fiber
  • humidity sensor
  • surface Plasmon resonance (SPR)
  • synthesis of silver nanoparticles
  • polymeric coating
Otwarty dostęp

Study on Light Response of Pachira Aquatica’S Leaf Via Surface Plasmon Resonance Technique

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 84 - 94

Abstrakt

Abstract

Light response of a pachira aquatica’s leaf at room temperature was investigated with a strong p-wave electromagnetic field by utilizing a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based sensor technique of angular interrogation method for biological and chemical sensing. The essential principle of SPR biosensing is based on measurement of the change regarding leaf’s microstructure against the sensor’s metallic surface owing to the interaction with the strong p-wave electromagnetic field. The test result shows that the pachira aquatica’s leaf responds to each light lamp within 1 minute.

Index terms

  • surface plasmon resonance
  • pachira aquatica
  • angular interrogation
  • p-wave
  • light response
Otwarty dostęp

Feedforward Control of Temperature-Induced Head Skew for Hard Disk Drives

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 95 - 106

Abstrakt

Abstract

In hard disk drives (HDDs), head skew error among multiple heads is calibrated during manufacturing process, and will be implemented prior to head switching seeks. In operational environment, additional head skew deviation due to temperature drift may be observed, which could introduce heavy handling burden for feedback controller along with unacceptable noise to HDD customers. Therefore, a thorough analysis of head skew variation against temperature is carried out in this paper. With help of accurate estimation of head skew based on drive temperature, smart feedforward control strategy during drive startup is embedded. Experimental results demonstrating its effectiveness to enhance drive performance are given.

Index terms

  • Head skew deviation
  • hard disk drives
  • calibration
  • and temperature coefficient
Otwarty dostęp

A Review of Artificial Fish Swarm Optimization Methods and Applications

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 107 - 148

Abstrakt

Abstract

The Swarm Intelligence is a new and modern method employed in optimization problems. The Swarm Intelligence method is based on the en masse movement of living animals like birds, fishes, ants and other social animals. Migration, seeking for food and fighting with enemies are social behaviors of animals. Optimization principle is seen in these animals. The Artificial Fish Swarm Optimization (AFSA) method is one of the Swarm Intelligence approaches that works based on the population and stochastic search. Fishes show very intelligently social behaviors. This algorithm is one of the best approaches of the Swarm Intelligence method with considerable advantages like high convergence speed, flexibility, error tolerance and high accuracy. this paper review the AFSA algorithm, its evolution stages from the start point up to now, improvements and applications in various fields like optimization, control, image processing, data mining, improving neural networks, networks, scheduling, and signal processing and so on. Also, various methods combining the AFSA with other optimization methods like PSO, Fuzzy Logic, Cellular Learning Automata or intelligent search methods like Tabu search, Simulated Annealing, Chaos Search and etc.

Index terms

  • Artificial Fish Swarm Optimization
  • Swarm Optimization
  • Natural Computing
Otwarty dostęp

Monitoring of Nitrates and Phosphates in Wastewater: Current Technologies and Further Challenges

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 149 - 176

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

A Review of Sensing and Distributed Detection Algorithms for Cognitive Radio Systems

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 177 - 190

Abstrakt

Abstract

Optimized spectrum sensing using distributed detection techniques for secondary user spectrum access is becoming important in Cognitive Radio (CR) systems, which have been proposed to utilize the available frequency spectrum more efficiently. For achieving best performance and ensuring minimal acceptable interference to spectrum owners, it is important to accurately sense and detect the presence or absence of primary licensed users. For this purpose, the solutions learned within the framework of distributed detection in wireless sensor networks have been considered. In this paper, we review sensing algorithms and approaches of distributed detection and their relevance to CR systems.

Index terms

  • Wireless Sensor Networks
  • Sensing Techniques
  • Distributed Detection
  • Cognitive Radio
Otwarty dostęp

An Air Quality Monitoring System for Urban Areas Based on the Technology of Wireless Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 191 - 214

Abstrakt

Abstract

Air pollution is one of environmental issues that cannot be ignored. The heavy transportation and urbanization result in the air pollutants concentrated in certain areas. Inhaling pollutants for a long time causes damages in human health. Traditional air quality monitoring methods, such as building air quality monitoring stations, are typically expensive. In addition, monitoring stations are generally less densely deployed and provide low resolution sensing data. This paper proposes an urban air quality monitoring system based on the technology of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). It also integrates with the global system for mobile communications (GSM). The system consists of sensor nodes, a gateway, and a control center managed by the LabVIEW program through which sensing data can be stored in a database. This system is deployed to the main roads in the Taipei city to monitor the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration caused by vehicle emissions. The experimental results show that the proposed system is suitable for micro-scale air quality monitoring in real-time through the WSN technology.

Index terms

  • air quality monitoring
  • wireless sensor networks
  • real-time monitoring
Otwarty dostęp

Development of Semi-Quantitative Analytical System for Metal Nanoparticle Ink Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 215 - 232

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper describes the semi-quantitative analysis of metal nanoparticle ink using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS can be used to obtain information about the density and chemical composition of silver particles or copper particles, even ultrafine particles. Metal particles have been attracting much attention because of their increased use in new micro-nano technologies. In this work, LIBS was used as a fine metal particle measurement system for nanometallic materials used in printing. Good spectral peak resolutions were obtained when the Ag spectra were recorded at wavelengths of 328.068 nm and 338.289 nm and Cu spectra at 324.754 nm and 327.396 nm.

Index terms

  • LIBS
  • laser
  • nanomaterials
  • in-situ measurement
Otwarty dostęp

Oxygen Sensor with Advanced Oxide Electrode Materials

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 233 - 245

Abstrakt

Abstract

Calcium doped lanthanum and yttrium manganite electrode materials with oxygen deficiency and low polarization resistance (<30Ω*cm2at 600°C) were tested in new advanced electrochemical sensor for the oxygen measurements. Oxygen sensor with oxide electrodes was showing fast response (t95~5s at 600°C), good reproducibility (±0.04% O2) and long term stability at different oxygen concentration.

Index terms

  • oxygen concentration measurements
  • potentiometric gas sensor
  • oxide electrode
  • perovskite structure
  • rare earth manganite electrode
  • combustion application
Otwarty dostęp

Hscloud: Cloud Architecture for Supporting Homeland Security

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 246 - 276

Abstrakt

Abstract

Governmental institutions all over the world are trying to increase the level of security of their countries emphasizing the usage Information Technology solutions. We believe that Cloud Computing may strongly help Homeland Security, since it offers a very flexible support for organizing and managing heterogeneous systems, providing huge amount of processing, storing and sensing resources. In this work we introduce a new Cloud architecture able to virtualize different types of sensing environments in virtual sensing elements, logically belonging to Cooperating Clouds. It represents a very flexible solution, which offers seamless, secure and advanced services to support Homeland Security.

Index terms

  • Homeland Security
  • Cloud Computing
  • Dangerous Goods
  • Virtual Sensing
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Annealing on Gas Sensing Performance of Nanostructured Zno Thick Film Resistors

Data publikacji: 01 Mar 2012
Zakres stron: 277 - 294

Abstrakt

Abstract

ZnO nano-particles have been synthesized by simple chemical route using a starting solution consisting of zinc acetate and citric acid as a surfactant agent. The structural properties of the prepared ZnO nano-particles annealed at different temperatures have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. The XRD patterns show ZnO-wurtize phase in the nano-powders, and size of crystals increases by increasing the annealing temperatures. The TEM images show nano-particles as clusters with size in the range of 10-20 nm. Electron diffraction pattern of nano-powders annealed at 900°C temperature shows a well distribution of spherical particles due to the effect of citric acid as surfactant in chemical process. Thick films prepared by screen printing technique from zinc oxide nano-powders annealed at different temperatures (500–900 °C), characterized by SEM analysis and tested for various gases. The film prepared from ZnO powder annealed at 700°C shows the higher sensitivity to H2S gas for 10 ppm gas concentration.

Index terms

  • ZnO nano-particles
  • annealing
  • TEM
  • thick films
  • gas sensor

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