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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 6 (2013): Zeszyt 1 (January 2013)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

24 Artykułów
access type Otwarty dostęp

Study of Endoscopy for Dental Treatment

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 1 - 17

Abstrakt

Abstract

Observation of the oral cavity microstructure is an important factor for a successful dental treatment. None of the many currently available diagnostic equipment can accurately observe the microstructure. In this study, we have designed an endoscope with a single graded-index multimode fiber of 600-μm diameter that can reach the narrow spaces in the oral cavity and can perform both image acquisition and sample illumination using a prism beam splitter, unlike the conventional endoscope using separate fibers. Thus, the side branch of the teeth and the subgingival calculus can be accurately observed with a resolution of up to 10 μm.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dental therapy
  • root canal
  • graded-index image fiber
access type Otwarty dostęp

Outlier Detection Based On Similar Flocking Model In Wireless Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 18 - 37

Abstrakt

Abstract

Outlier detection plays a crucial role in secure monitoring in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). Moreover, outlier detection techniques in WSN face the problem of limited resources of transmission bandwidth, energy consumption and storage capacity. In this paper, similar flocking model is proposed and a cluster algorithm based on similar flocking model (CASFM) is put forward to detect outliers in real-time stream data collected by sensor nodes. The similar flocking model improves the Vicsek model by introducing the similarity between individuals and velocity updating rule, which causes similar objects to cluster quickly. In order to save energy, CASFM algorithm preprocesses similar data on the sending sensors first, which greatly reduces the transmission of similar data. So the communication overhead is decreased. With the characteristics of self-organization and fast convergence of flocking model, stream data can be clustered quickly. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can detect outliers effectively with less energy consumption.

Index terms

  • Wireless sensor network
  • Outlier detection
  • Stream clustering
  • Flocking model
access type Otwarty dostęp

Bridge Deflection Measurement Using Wireless Mems Inclination Sensor Systems

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 38 - 57

Abstrakt

Abstract

Bridge is an important part of modern transportation systems and deflection is an important index for bridge’s safety evaluation. In this paper, a method of deflection measurement using Wireless MEMS Inclination Sensor Systems (WMISS) is presented and validated. Firstly, based on various bridge deflection measuring methods, the method of deflection measurement using inclination parameter is introduced. Secondly, a low-power wireless inclination sensor based on 3D-MEMS SCA60 inclinometer is designed using modularization way, and this kind of wireless sensor loaded with ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol stack can self-organize wireless sensor network, measure the angle value and send the data to the coordinator. Then the deflection curve is displayed on PC. Finally, deflection measurement experiments are conducted on a bridge model and Beida Bridge. The experimental results show that, the presented deflection measurement method is feasible, practical and reliable; the wireless inclination sensor is easy to operate with no lines, and has extensive and broad application prospects.

Index terms

  • wireless sensor networks
  • MEMS
  • deflection measurement
  • inclination
  • bridge
access type Otwarty dostęp

CFM: A Fitness-Model-Based Topology Control Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 58 - 76

Abstrakt

Abstract

The main objective of wireless sensor network design is to maximize network lifetime. The network topology, which is the important foundation of upper layer protocols, serves as the supportive groundwork for this goal. We constructed the model of sensor networks, and investigated the property of topology with complex network theory. Three statistical parameters were used to describe the network structure, and then some ideal characteristics were concluded for topology. The characteristics of topology can be achieved by fitness model, so we designed an approximate clustering algorithm based on fitness model, which is distributed. CFM is composed of three phases: links generation phase, heads selection phase and cluster division phase. The performance of CFM algorithm was analyzed through simulation experiments, which indicated a well-constructed topology and effectively prolonged network lifetime.

Index terms

  • Wireless sensor networks
  • topology control
  • fitness model
  • cluster-heads selection
access type Otwarty dostęp

Secrecy Transfer for Sensor Networks: From Random Graphs to Secure Random Geometric Graphs

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 77 - 94

Abstrakt

Abstract

Suppose n nodes with n0 acquaintances per node are randomly deployed in a two-dimensional Euclidean space with the geographic restriction that each pair of nodes can exchange information between them directly only if the distance between them is at most r, the acquaintanceship between nodes form a random graph, while the physical communication links constitute a random geometric graph. To get a fully connected and secure graph, we introduce a secrecy transfer algorithm which combines the random graph and the random geometric graph via an introduction process to produce an acquaintanceship graph Gn,n0. We find that the maximum component of graph Gn,n0 transitions rapidly from small components to a giant component when n0 is larger than a threshold, the threshold is derived, and applications for sensor networks are presented.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Random graph
  • Random geometric graph
  • Sensor networks
  • Security
access type Otwarty dostęp

Adaptive Spray Routing For Opportunistic Networks

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 95 - 119

Abstrakt

Abstract

opportunistic networks are sparse wireless networks where most of the time there is nocomplete path from the source to the destination. Many applications require delay constrained routing mechanism which can provide acceptable and resilient service in the face of challenged environments. A class of adaptive spray mechanisms which aims to achieve the delay constraint with low cost in dynamic circumstances was proposed in this paper. Adaptive spray mechanisms use relay nodes to make spray decisions in order to apperceive the change of network conditions exquisitely. These protocols are least-cost delay-bounded routing protocols under specific spray mechanisms. Theoretic analyses of adaptive spray routings at aspects of routing cost, copy redundancy and expected delay were also given in this paper. Simulation results have shown that adaptive spray mechanisms exhibit prominent superiority in routing cost, adaptability and scalability. Adaptive spray mechanisms are a class of correct and efficient delay-bounded routings for opportunistic networks.

Index terms

  • opportunistic networks
  • spray routing
  • delay constraint
  • adaptive
access type Otwarty dostęp

Performance Analysis For Dct-Based Coded Image Communication In Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 120 - 135

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to study the image communication behavior of a wireless video sensor, and analyze its performance under resource constrained wireless multimedia sensor networks. Energy consumption and rate distortion model of DCT-based coded image compression and transmission is developed. Based on energy consumption and rate distortion model proposed, resource allocation is optimized with limited energy and bandwidth. Number of DCT coefficient and step size of quantization table is adapted according to the activity of monitoring scene, and then the energy consumption will be minimized. Simulations results are conducted to show the performance of our work. The proposed scheme dramatically reduces image compression and transmission energy consumption under expected image distortion and transmission rate.

Index terms

  • Wireless multimedia sensor networks
  • image compression
  • image transmission
  • DCT
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Novel Two-Step Strategy For Point Correspondence In Multi-Ocular System

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 136 - 153

Abstrakt

Abstract

Camera is widely used for 3D-Reconstruction and Recognition where a fundamental task is point correspondence that finds the corresponding points captured by different cameras from the same 3D-point. The approaches based on epipolar constraint are very effective for the task. However, they set the threshold of epipolar constraint by empirical method, and their complexity and computational cost will quickly increase with increasing the number of cameras. This paper proposes a novel two-step strategy using epipolar constraint regardless of the number of cameras in a uniform way. The strategy uses a statistic method to set the threshold, and decomposes the task of point correspondence in a multi-ocular system into the task of point correspondence in several binocular systems by transitivity constraint. The experiment and theoretical analyses indicate our approach is better than existing methods on complexity and computational cost.

Index terms

  • Camera
  • Epipolar Constraint
  • Point Correspondence
  • Multi-ocular System
access type Otwarty dostęp

Feed Forward Linear Quadratic Controller Design For An Industrial Electro Hydraulic Actuator System With Servo Valve

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 154 - 170

Abstrakt

Abstract

Electro-hydraulic servo actuator (EHA) system consists of several dynamic parts which are widely used in motion control application. These dynamic parts need to be controlled to determine direction of the motion. In this research paper, system identification technique is used for system modeling and the model of the system is estimated by using parameter estimation technique. This process started with collection of input and output data from experimental procedure. The data collected is used for model estimation and Auto Regressive with eXogeneous input (ARX) model is chosen as model structure of the system. Based on the input and output data of the system, best fit criterion and correlation analysis of the residual is analyzed to determine the adequate model to represent the EHA system. Once the model is obtained, discrete PID and feed forward plus Linear

Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller is developed to improve the performance and position tracking performance of EHA system. In order to verify these controllers, it is applied to the real time system and the performance of the system is monitored. The result obtained shows that the output of the system in simulation mode and experimental works is almost similar for both controllers. The output of the system also tracked the input given successfully. Finally, by comparing the best tuning output from these two different controllers, feed forward plus LQR controller proved to give a better output performance than the classical discrete PID controller by minimize the phase lag and reduce disturbance effect in the system.

Index terms

  • Electro-hydraulic system
  • System identification
  • ARX model
  • PID controller
  • LQR controller
access type Otwarty dostęp

Data Fusion Algorithm of Fault Diagnosis Considering Sensor Measurement Uncertainty

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 171 - 190

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents data fusion algorithm of fault diagnosis considering sensor measurement uncertainty. Random-fuzzy variables (RFV) are used to model testing patterns (TPs) and fault template patterns (FTPs) respectively according to on-line sensor monitoring data and typical historical sensor data reflecting every fault mode. A similarity measure is given to calculate matching degree between a TP and each FTP in fault database such that Basic Probability Assignment (BPA) can be obtained by normalizing matching degree. Several BPAs provided by many sensor sources are fused by Dempster’s rule of combination. A diagnosis decision-making can be done according to the fusion results. Finally, the diagnosis examples of machine rotor system with vibration sensors show that the proposed method can enhance accuracy and reliability of data fusion-based diagnosis system.

Index terms

  • sensor data fusion
  • fault diagnosis
  • random-fuzzy variable
  • similarity measure
  • Dempster-Shafer evidence theory
access type Otwarty dostęp

De-Noising Signal of The Quartz Flexural Accelerometer by Multiwavelet Shrinkage

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 191 - 209

Abstrakt

Abstract

Methods of de-noising the output signal of the JSD-I/A quartz flexural accelerometer based on five types of multiwavelets are comparatively investigated in this paper. Firstly, the theory of multiwavelet transform and the generalized cross validation criterion are analyzed. Secondly, because the JSD-I/A quartz flexural accelerometer which is fixed in SCT-1 two-axis rotation platform by the appropriative clamp has a start-up procedure of 3 minutes, the output signal of the quartz flexural accelerometer are sampled after applying the voltage for 5 minutes. Thirdly, based on the soft threshold function and the universal threshold, GHM orthogonal multiwavelet, SA4 orthogonal multiwavelet, CL orthogonal multiwavelet, Cardbal2 balanced multiwavelet and BIGHM biorthogonal multiwavelet are applied to de-noise the sampled signal of the JSD-I/A quartz flexural accelerometer with 4 decomposition level, respectively. Lastly, the generalized cross validation criterion is used to evaluate the de-noising effects of the above five multiwavelets. The experimental results shows that the generalized cross validation value of BIGHM biorthogonal multiwavelet is effective in de-nosing the the output signal of the JSD-I/A quartz flexural accelerometer, and offer the best performance than GHM orthogonal multiwavelet, SA4 orthogonal multiwavelet, CL orthogonal multiwavelet and Cardbal2 balanced multiwavelet.

Index terms

  • GHM orthogonal multiwavelet
  • SA4 orthogonal multiwavelet
  • CL orthogonal multiwavelet
  • Cardbal2 balanced multiwavelet
  • BIGHM biorthogonal multiwavelet
  • generalized cross validation
  • JSD-I/A quartz flexural accelerometer
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Viable Capacitive Approach for Damage Detection of Aircraft Composite Material

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 209 - 228

Abstrakt

Abstract

Military and Commercial aircraft are being constructed by more and more advanced composite materials. In order to prevent catastrophic failure any damage in aircraft composite material should be detected as soon as possible. The relations of the electrode length, the electrode width, and the space between electrodes to the testing sensitivity of the uniplanar double electrodes are investigated. A three dimensions model of the uniplanar capacitive sensor with 8 electrodes is founded and the optimization for the structure parameters of the sensor with 8electrodes is carried out. According to the optimization, a uni-planar capacitive sensor, with 8-electrode on one plane substrate and a ground screen electrode and the screen between electrodes, is designed to get the corresponding capacitance information of the measured composite material slab. 2 aircraft composite material slabs, one is healthy and the other is notched, are used as a sample for the experiment of detecting the damages. The preliminary experimental results show that the measured capacitances decrease after damage occurs in aircraft composite material and that the proposed approach can effectively detect the damage of aircraft composite material. The proposed approach is a viable technique for in-situ damage detection of aircraft composite material.

Index terms

  • Uni-planar capacitive sensor
  • sensitivity simulation
  • optimization
  • FEM
  • damage detection
  • composite material
access type Otwarty dostęp

Detecting Wormhole Attacks In Wireless Sensor Networks Using Hop Count Analysis

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 209 - 223

Abstrakt

Abstract

The wormhole attack is a severe threat to wireless sensor networks. Most existing countermeasures for detecting and locating wormhole links either require extra hardware or are too complex for the inherently capability-constrained sensor nodes. Actually, wormhole links can enormously change the original sensor network topology. In this paper, we introduce the HCA4DW mechanism for detecting and locating wormholes in wireless sensor networks. It is based on the basic idea that the change of topology can be detected through neighborhood validation. We discover the maximum necessary hop count between the sensors in the same neighbor set for neighborhood validation. We describe the detail procedure of HCA4DW in this paper and test the performance of the HCA4DW mechanism rigorously through simulative experiments.

Index terms

  • wireless sensor networks
  • wormhole attack
  • hop count
  • neighborhood validation
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Voronoi-Based Depth-Adjustment Scheme for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 244 - 258

Abstrakt

Abstract

Underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN) is a special kind of wireless sensor network which is composed of a large quantity number of wireless sensor nodes deployed in the water. While there are extensive studies on deploy-issue of terrestrial wireless sensor networks (WSN), UWSN has not been paid enough attention due to the challenges of UWSN, such as low available bandwidth, highly varying multipath, and large propagation delays. In this paper, we propose a depth-adjustment scheme to maximize the coverage in 3D space. After deploying nodes in the water surface, we use Voronoi diagram to compute redundant nodes whose disappearance will not decrease the coverage in 2D space, and then we determine the depth that redundant nodes should be moved towards. After all the redundant nodes have moved to the lower layer, the algorithm continues to schedule redundant nodes of the lower layer until 3D space coverage is fulfilled.

Index terms

  • UWSN
  • Voronoi
  • 3D space
  • Sensor Deploying
access type Otwarty dostęp

The Fast Method for Correction of Distortion on Infrared Marker-Based Tracking System

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 259 - 277

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper adopts ordinary CCD cameras and IR filters to constitute IR cameras for a marker-based quadri-ocular tracking system. However, the IR filters will affect the accuracy of the tracking system. Therefore, this paper analyses the refraction of IR filters and finds IR filters will bring about the biggish radial distortion on imaging process. And then, this paper directly uses Zhang’s technique to calibrate the parameters of IR cameras in infrared environment by adjusting the imaging conditions of calibration. To improve the accuracy and satisfy the real-time requirement of the tracking system, a real-time method to correct the radial distortion is proposed in this paper. The experiments show that the speed of the correction method is satisfactory, and the accuracy of tracking system is effectively improved by the method.

Index terms

  • CCD Sensor
  • Infrared Pass Filter
  • Radial Distortion
  • Calibration
  • Correction
access type Otwarty dostęp

Theory and Technology of The Single-Probe Two-Step Method to Separate Error

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 278 - 296

Abstrakt

Abstract

The multi-step error separation technique is a important method of roundness error separation, but it is not suitable to be used in measuring online for multiple inversion of tested parts, long measurement period and vulnerable to surroundings in the implementation process. In this paper, the studies of single-probe two-step error separation method have been realized by single sensor which is rotated by different angle two times. Not only the influence of harmonic control is reduced, but also the efficiency is greatly improved. It has the advantages of multi-probe method and multi-step method. A mathematical description of the method is given by this paper, which establishes a error separation equation and gives the solving method. The method of error fitting to simulate three circumstances is also used by it: same spindle’s gyration error and existing random error and carries on computer simulation analysis. The results show that when the gyration error are identical, high error separation accuracy can be achieved by the method when there exists random error, although the influence on the measuring results of roundness error cannot be eliminated, the random errors can be decreased or basically eliminated by averaging the testing values of repeated measurements. Several contrastive experiments of the on-line measurement are carried out in a grinding machine (MB1332A). The results of these experiments successfully verify that the theory and mathematical models are correct. The contrast of the measuring results in these experiments proves that the Single-probe two-step method can realize the complete separation of all kinds of errors basically and this method is applicable to online measurement of a workpiece and it can also make the measurement accuracy very high.

Index terms

  • Error separation technique
  • two-step method
  • roundness error
  • simulation analysis
  • experimental verification
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Wsn-Based On-Line Working Condition Monitoring System For Large Electrical Equipment

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 297 - 316

Abstrakt

Abstract

To solve the problems of traditional wired on-line monitoring system which has lines too much, cost too high, fault diagnosing and maintaining difficulties and so on, an on-line working condition monitoring system for large electrical equipment based on wireless sensor network (WSN) is proposed, designed and implemented. CC2431 chips were used for hardware design of wireless sensor network node and base station, and the TinyOS transplanted into the sensor nodes and base stations are discussed in detail. Then, a management software system based on LabVIEW and database programming technique is proposed and implemented. The experiment results show that the system can satisfy the needs for real-time data gathering, data storage, data curve drawing, low power consumption, wide coverage, no region limitation. It’s a good operation performance.

Index terms

  • WSN
  • CC2431
  • TinyOS
  • LabVIEW
  • SQL
  • On-line Monitoring
access type Otwarty dostęp

Adaptive Estimation and Pi Learning Springrelaxation Technique for Location Estimation In Wireless Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 317 - 322

Abstrakt

Abstract

In order to reduce the location estimation error in Wireless Sensor Network(WSN). A localization algorithm is proposed combining adaptive estimation, PI-learning and spring-relaxation techniques for wireless sensor networks in this paper. Our proposed method takes the advantages of the spring-relaxation technique, thus it inherits its simplicity. The overall accuracy of the location estimations is improved by introducing adaptive estimation and PI-learning. Moreover, it requires only a few beacons with known locations to compute the location estimates of all sensors. Simulation examples demonstrate the overall accuracy of the proposed method.

Index terms

  • Wireless Sensor Networks
  • Location Estimation
  • Adaptive Estimation
  • Spring-Relaxation Technique
  • PI learning
access type Otwarty dostęp

Deformation Forecast of Flexible Material Process By Spline Finite Element Method and Application

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 333 - 351

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper provides a new computing method for the amount of deformation of flexible materials by spline finite element. Firstly, it analyzes the deformation of single yarn in the way of cubic spline interpolation, with the idea of spline finite element; it takes the flat fabric as anisotropic material to build a simple surface model with the use of bicubic interpolation, so as to deduce to the formula of flat fabric’s deformational displacement under the stress. Finally, it takes the line graphic element for object to get the amount of deformation and to compensate it in quilting, test result show that the position error scope of quilting is 0.093~0.186mm, the accuracy is higher than excellence grade of quilting which refers to national standard FZ/T81005-2006.

Index terms

  • Flexible material process
  • Deformation calculation
  • Spline finite element
access type Otwarty dostęp

Traffic Signal Control for Urban Trunk Road Based on Wireless Sensor Network and Intelligent Algorithm

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 352 - 367

Abstrakt

Abstract

Based on the analysis for the present research on controlling urban trunk road, a intelligent control method for urban trunk road based on wireless sensor and fuzzy neural network was proposed. In this method, we took two layers of WSN structure. The first one was data collecting layer, which consisted of traffic information collecting nodes and sink nodes. Data collecting layer was responsible for collecting vehicle information at single crossing, transmitted to the second layer after data fusion. The second one was control layer, composed of traffic light controller nodes in which fuzzy neural controller was nested. Traffic light controller nodes were used to accept the traffic data detected by the first layer, and fuzzy neural controller determined the signal cycle at artery, and on-line adjusted the green ratio at all directions on crossroads to accomplish traffic light control. Simulating results showed that the method is superior to the common fuzzy control, effectively reducing queue length, so as to reach the purpose of decreasing vehicle delay.

Index terms

  • wireless sensor network
  • intelligent traffic
  • fuzzy neural network
  • queue length
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Simple Scheme for Location and Distance Estimation of Wireless Sensor Nodes In Outdoor Environments

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 368 - 382

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper we suggest a simple, practical and cost effective localization scheme that can be used to manually deploy wireless sensors to form wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We test our scheme exclusively in outdoor environments using commercially available IRIS XM2110 sensor motes. The location discovery of sensor motes deployed in outdoor environments is obtained in accordance with geographical latitude and longitude. The distance between the deployed sensor motes is also computed using the Haversine formula. The proposed scheme is the outcome of experiments performed on data visualization and monitoring tool Mote View 2.0.F developed by Crossbow Technology™. The proposed scheme is easy to implement and requires less number of sensor motes as compared to other manual deployment based schemes. The visualization of location is validated on Google earth geographical information program.

Index terms

  • Google earth
  • IRIS XM2110
  • localization
  • Mote View 2.0.F
  • data visualization
  • WSNs
access type Otwarty dostęp

Trajectory Adaptive Zpet Controller Without Factorization of Zeros for Non-Minimum Phase System In Application to Real-Time Digital Tracking Control of Electro-Hydraulic Actuator

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 383 - 402

Abstrakt

Abstract

Electro-hydraulic actuators are very important tools for industrial processes because they provide linear movement, fast response and accurate positioning of heavy load. Recently, with the research and development of mathematics, control theory and basic theory of hydraulic, hydraulic control technology has been developed and has been widely used in many applications such as industrial automation and machining processes. Due to its applications, the highest performance of the electro-hydraulic actuators on position, motion or tracking is needed. Therefore, a suitable controller is required to improve the performance of the electro-hydraulic actuator. Most researchers have used advanced control approach to improve the motion or tracking control. Based on these problems, we had done a real-time digital tracking control studies on electro-hydraulic actuator using trajectory adaptive zero phase error tracking control (ZPETC) without factorization of zero polynomial algorithm. The control strategy uses a recursive least square parameters estimation that was done offline prior the actual control operation by taking advantage of the available known reference input. The experimental results obtained show significant tracking performance.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Adaptive Control
  • feedforward control
  • tracking control
  • zero phase error tracking control
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Versatile Lattice Based Model For Situation Recognition From Dynamic Ambient Sensors

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 403 - 432

Abstrakt

Abstract

Recent advances in acquisition, storage, and transmission of data from sensors in digital format has increased the need of tools to support users effectively in retrieving, understanding, and mining the information contained in such data.Extraction of domain specific actionable information like occurrence of one of the predefined “situations” is desirable. Major difficulties in achieving this extraction are 1) Source of Data, that is, number and type of sensors deployed is highly variable even for one type of application, 2)Availability of domain specific labeled training data is critical for computation of situations.In this paper, we propose a versatile method based on formal concept analysis to overcome these difficulties in modelingsensor based situations.Our method, making use of contexts as intermediate form of sensors data, works on any number and type of sensors. It is alsoinstance-independent and eliminates need of training, when applied to various instances of similar application.For illustration, we model and perform real time recognition of activity of a person in indoor home environment with ambientsensors.The embedded sensors captureusage and proximity of human beings to objects.We apply the model learnt from one house, foractivity recognition of new persons across different new houses. The recognition results obtained have high precision and recall.

Index terms

  • Wireless Sensor Networks
  • Ambient Intelligence
  • Formal Concept Analysis
  • Situation Modeling
  • Activity Recognition
  • Lattice based Classification
access type Otwarty dostęp

Pure and Cupricated BaSnO3 thick film resistor: Synthesis, Characterization and studies on its gas sensing performance

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 433 - 447

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this work we report the synthesis, microstructure, electric properties and sensing performance of BaSnO3 (BS) powder, it was prepared by mechano-chemical method. As prepared powder is calcinated at temperatures 1100 °c, and 1300 °c tested for crystallization. Thick films were prepared using simple screen-printing technology. Structural and electrical analyses were performed and the results have been correlated. The material was tested for various gases such as CO, CO2, NH3, Cl2, H2, LPG, ethanol, and H2S. The pure BS film shows good response multiple gases at various operating temperature up to 5000C as NH3, CO2, CO, ethanol and, H2S for different gas concentrations, when the pure film is surface modified with aqueous solution of Cucl2 using simple dipping technique for various time intervals (5 min., 10 min., 20 min. and, 30 min.), film improves the selectivity and sensitivity. Maximum response (S=36.2) was found to H2S gas at temperature of 250 0C and S=12.1 for ethanol at 500 °c for gas concentration of 50 ppm with film dipped for 10 min. time interval. The characterization of the films was done by XRD, SEM and TG-DTA. Crystallite size, texture coefficient, specific surface area, electric properties and gas sensitivity of the films were measured and presented.

Index terms

  • BaSnO (BS)
  • Thick films Resistor
  • HS gas sensor
  • Sensitivity
  • Selectivity
24 Artykułów
access type Otwarty dostęp

Study of Endoscopy for Dental Treatment

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 1 - 17

Abstrakt

Abstract

Observation of the oral cavity microstructure is an important factor for a successful dental treatment. None of the many currently available diagnostic equipment can accurately observe the microstructure. In this study, we have designed an endoscope with a single graded-index multimode fiber of 600-μm diameter that can reach the narrow spaces in the oral cavity and can perform both image acquisition and sample illumination using a prism beam splitter, unlike the conventional endoscope using separate fibers. Thus, the side branch of the teeth and the subgingival calculus can be accurately observed with a resolution of up to 10 μm.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dental therapy
  • root canal
  • graded-index image fiber
access type Otwarty dostęp

Outlier Detection Based On Similar Flocking Model In Wireless Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 18 - 37

Abstrakt

Abstract

Outlier detection plays a crucial role in secure monitoring in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). Moreover, outlier detection techniques in WSN face the problem of limited resources of transmission bandwidth, energy consumption and storage capacity. In this paper, similar flocking model is proposed and a cluster algorithm based on similar flocking model (CASFM) is put forward to detect outliers in real-time stream data collected by sensor nodes. The similar flocking model improves the Vicsek model by introducing the similarity between individuals and velocity updating rule, which causes similar objects to cluster quickly. In order to save energy, CASFM algorithm preprocesses similar data on the sending sensors first, which greatly reduces the transmission of similar data. So the communication overhead is decreased. With the characteristics of self-organization and fast convergence of flocking model, stream data can be clustered quickly. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can detect outliers effectively with less energy consumption.

Index terms

  • Wireless sensor network
  • Outlier detection
  • Stream clustering
  • Flocking model
access type Otwarty dostęp

Bridge Deflection Measurement Using Wireless Mems Inclination Sensor Systems

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 38 - 57

Abstrakt

Abstract

Bridge is an important part of modern transportation systems and deflection is an important index for bridge’s safety evaluation. In this paper, a method of deflection measurement using Wireless MEMS Inclination Sensor Systems (WMISS) is presented and validated. Firstly, based on various bridge deflection measuring methods, the method of deflection measurement using inclination parameter is introduced. Secondly, a low-power wireless inclination sensor based on 3D-MEMS SCA60 inclinometer is designed using modularization way, and this kind of wireless sensor loaded with ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol stack can self-organize wireless sensor network, measure the angle value and send the data to the coordinator. Then the deflection curve is displayed on PC. Finally, deflection measurement experiments are conducted on a bridge model and Beida Bridge. The experimental results show that, the presented deflection measurement method is feasible, practical and reliable; the wireless inclination sensor is easy to operate with no lines, and has extensive and broad application prospects.

Index terms

  • wireless sensor networks
  • MEMS
  • deflection measurement
  • inclination
  • bridge
access type Otwarty dostęp

CFM: A Fitness-Model-Based Topology Control Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 58 - 76

Abstrakt

Abstract

The main objective of wireless sensor network design is to maximize network lifetime. The network topology, which is the important foundation of upper layer protocols, serves as the supportive groundwork for this goal. We constructed the model of sensor networks, and investigated the property of topology with complex network theory. Three statistical parameters were used to describe the network structure, and then some ideal characteristics were concluded for topology. The characteristics of topology can be achieved by fitness model, so we designed an approximate clustering algorithm based on fitness model, which is distributed. CFM is composed of three phases: links generation phase, heads selection phase and cluster division phase. The performance of CFM algorithm was analyzed through simulation experiments, which indicated a well-constructed topology and effectively prolonged network lifetime.

Index terms

  • Wireless sensor networks
  • topology control
  • fitness model
  • cluster-heads selection
access type Otwarty dostęp

Secrecy Transfer for Sensor Networks: From Random Graphs to Secure Random Geometric Graphs

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 77 - 94

Abstrakt

Abstract

Suppose n nodes with n0 acquaintances per node are randomly deployed in a two-dimensional Euclidean space with the geographic restriction that each pair of nodes can exchange information between them directly only if the distance between them is at most r, the acquaintanceship between nodes form a random graph, while the physical communication links constitute a random geometric graph. To get a fully connected and secure graph, we introduce a secrecy transfer algorithm which combines the random graph and the random geometric graph via an introduction process to produce an acquaintanceship graph Gn,n0. We find that the maximum component of graph Gn,n0 transitions rapidly from small components to a giant component when n0 is larger than a threshold, the threshold is derived, and applications for sensor networks are presented.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Random graph
  • Random geometric graph
  • Sensor networks
  • Security
access type Otwarty dostęp

Adaptive Spray Routing For Opportunistic Networks

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 95 - 119

Abstrakt

Abstract

opportunistic networks are sparse wireless networks where most of the time there is nocomplete path from the source to the destination. Many applications require delay constrained routing mechanism which can provide acceptable and resilient service in the face of challenged environments. A class of adaptive spray mechanisms which aims to achieve the delay constraint with low cost in dynamic circumstances was proposed in this paper. Adaptive spray mechanisms use relay nodes to make spray decisions in order to apperceive the change of network conditions exquisitely. These protocols are least-cost delay-bounded routing protocols under specific spray mechanisms. Theoretic analyses of adaptive spray routings at aspects of routing cost, copy redundancy and expected delay were also given in this paper. Simulation results have shown that adaptive spray mechanisms exhibit prominent superiority in routing cost, adaptability and scalability. Adaptive spray mechanisms are a class of correct and efficient delay-bounded routings for opportunistic networks.

Index terms

  • opportunistic networks
  • spray routing
  • delay constraint
  • adaptive
access type Otwarty dostęp

Performance Analysis For Dct-Based Coded Image Communication In Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 120 - 135

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to study the image communication behavior of a wireless video sensor, and analyze its performance under resource constrained wireless multimedia sensor networks. Energy consumption and rate distortion model of DCT-based coded image compression and transmission is developed. Based on energy consumption and rate distortion model proposed, resource allocation is optimized with limited energy and bandwidth. Number of DCT coefficient and step size of quantization table is adapted according to the activity of monitoring scene, and then the energy consumption will be minimized. Simulations results are conducted to show the performance of our work. The proposed scheme dramatically reduces image compression and transmission energy consumption under expected image distortion and transmission rate.

Index terms

  • Wireless multimedia sensor networks
  • image compression
  • image transmission
  • DCT
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Novel Two-Step Strategy For Point Correspondence In Multi-Ocular System

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 136 - 153

Abstrakt

Abstract

Camera is widely used for 3D-Reconstruction and Recognition where a fundamental task is point correspondence that finds the corresponding points captured by different cameras from the same 3D-point. The approaches based on epipolar constraint are very effective for the task. However, they set the threshold of epipolar constraint by empirical method, and their complexity and computational cost will quickly increase with increasing the number of cameras. This paper proposes a novel two-step strategy using epipolar constraint regardless of the number of cameras in a uniform way. The strategy uses a statistic method to set the threshold, and decomposes the task of point correspondence in a multi-ocular system into the task of point correspondence in several binocular systems by transitivity constraint. The experiment and theoretical analyses indicate our approach is better than existing methods on complexity and computational cost.

Index terms

  • Camera
  • Epipolar Constraint
  • Point Correspondence
  • Multi-ocular System
access type Otwarty dostęp

Feed Forward Linear Quadratic Controller Design For An Industrial Electro Hydraulic Actuator System With Servo Valve

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 154 - 170

Abstrakt

Abstract

Electro-hydraulic servo actuator (EHA) system consists of several dynamic parts which are widely used in motion control application. These dynamic parts need to be controlled to determine direction of the motion. In this research paper, system identification technique is used for system modeling and the model of the system is estimated by using parameter estimation technique. This process started with collection of input and output data from experimental procedure. The data collected is used for model estimation and Auto Regressive with eXogeneous input (ARX) model is chosen as model structure of the system. Based on the input and output data of the system, best fit criterion and correlation analysis of the residual is analyzed to determine the adequate model to represent the EHA system. Once the model is obtained, discrete PID and feed forward plus Linear

Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller is developed to improve the performance and position tracking performance of EHA system. In order to verify these controllers, it is applied to the real time system and the performance of the system is monitored. The result obtained shows that the output of the system in simulation mode and experimental works is almost similar for both controllers. The output of the system also tracked the input given successfully. Finally, by comparing the best tuning output from these two different controllers, feed forward plus LQR controller proved to give a better output performance than the classical discrete PID controller by minimize the phase lag and reduce disturbance effect in the system.

Index terms

  • Electro-hydraulic system
  • System identification
  • ARX model
  • PID controller
  • LQR controller
access type Otwarty dostęp

Data Fusion Algorithm of Fault Diagnosis Considering Sensor Measurement Uncertainty

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 171 - 190

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents data fusion algorithm of fault diagnosis considering sensor measurement uncertainty. Random-fuzzy variables (RFV) are used to model testing patterns (TPs) and fault template patterns (FTPs) respectively according to on-line sensor monitoring data and typical historical sensor data reflecting every fault mode. A similarity measure is given to calculate matching degree between a TP and each FTP in fault database such that Basic Probability Assignment (BPA) can be obtained by normalizing matching degree. Several BPAs provided by many sensor sources are fused by Dempster’s rule of combination. A diagnosis decision-making can be done according to the fusion results. Finally, the diagnosis examples of machine rotor system with vibration sensors show that the proposed method can enhance accuracy and reliability of data fusion-based diagnosis system.

Index terms

  • sensor data fusion
  • fault diagnosis
  • random-fuzzy variable
  • similarity measure
  • Dempster-Shafer evidence theory
access type Otwarty dostęp

De-Noising Signal of The Quartz Flexural Accelerometer by Multiwavelet Shrinkage

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 191 - 209

Abstrakt

Abstract

Methods of de-noising the output signal of the JSD-I/A quartz flexural accelerometer based on five types of multiwavelets are comparatively investigated in this paper. Firstly, the theory of multiwavelet transform and the generalized cross validation criterion are analyzed. Secondly, because the JSD-I/A quartz flexural accelerometer which is fixed in SCT-1 two-axis rotation platform by the appropriative clamp has a start-up procedure of 3 minutes, the output signal of the quartz flexural accelerometer are sampled after applying the voltage for 5 minutes. Thirdly, based on the soft threshold function and the universal threshold, GHM orthogonal multiwavelet, SA4 orthogonal multiwavelet, CL orthogonal multiwavelet, Cardbal2 balanced multiwavelet and BIGHM biorthogonal multiwavelet are applied to de-noise the sampled signal of the JSD-I/A quartz flexural accelerometer with 4 decomposition level, respectively. Lastly, the generalized cross validation criterion is used to evaluate the de-noising effects of the above five multiwavelets. The experimental results shows that the generalized cross validation value of BIGHM biorthogonal multiwavelet is effective in de-nosing the the output signal of the JSD-I/A quartz flexural accelerometer, and offer the best performance than GHM orthogonal multiwavelet, SA4 orthogonal multiwavelet, CL orthogonal multiwavelet and Cardbal2 balanced multiwavelet.

Index terms

  • GHM orthogonal multiwavelet
  • SA4 orthogonal multiwavelet
  • CL orthogonal multiwavelet
  • Cardbal2 balanced multiwavelet
  • BIGHM biorthogonal multiwavelet
  • generalized cross validation
  • JSD-I/A quartz flexural accelerometer
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Viable Capacitive Approach for Damage Detection of Aircraft Composite Material

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 209 - 228

Abstrakt

Abstract

Military and Commercial aircraft are being constructed by more and more advanced composite materials. In order to prevent catastrophic failure any damage in aircraft composite material should be detected as soon as possible. The relations of the electrode length, the electrode width, and the space between electrodes to the testing sensitivity of the uniplanar double electrodes are investigated. A three dimensions model of the uniplanar capacitive sensor with 8 electrodes is founded and the optimization for the structure parameters of the sensor with 8electrodes is carried out. According to the optimization, a uni-planar capacitive sensor, with 8-electrode on one plane substrate and a ground screen electrode and the screen between electrodes, is designed to get the corresponding capacitance information of the measured composite material slab. 2 aircraft composite material slabs, one is healthy and the other is notched, are used as a sample for the experiment of detecting the damages. The preliminary experimental results show that the measured capacitances decrease after damage occurs in aircraft composite material and that the proposed approach can effectively detect the damage of aircraft composite material. The proposed approach is a viable technique for in-situ damage detection of aircraft composite material.

Index terms

  • Uni-planar capacitive sensor
  • sensitivity simulation
  • optimization
  • FEM
  • damage detection
  • composite material
access type Otwarty dostęp

Detecting Wormhole Attacks In Wireless Sensor Networks Using Hop Count Analysis

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 209 - 223

Abstrakt

Abstract

The wormhole attack is a severe threat to wireless sensor networks. Most existing countermeasures for detecting and locating wormhole links either require extra hardware or are too complex for the inherently capability-constrained sensor nodes. Actually, wormhole links can enormously change the original sensor network topology. In this paper, we introduce the HCA4DW mechanism for detecting and locating wormholes in wireless sensor networks. It is based on the basic idea that the change of topology can be detected through neighborhood validation. We discover the maximum necessary hop count between the sensors in the same neighbor set for neighborhood validation. We describe the detail procedure of HCA4DW in this paper and test the performance of the HCA4DW mechanism rigorously through simulative experiments.

Index terms

  • wireless sensor networks
  • wormhole attack
  • hop count
  • neighborhood validation
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Voronoi-Based Depth-Adjustment Scheme for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 244 - 258

Abstrakt

Abstract

Underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN) is a special kind of wireless sensor network which is composed of a large quantity number of wireless sensor nodes deployed in the water. While there are extensive studies on deploy-issue of terrestrial wireless sensor networks (WSN), UWSN has not been paid enough attention due to the challenges of UWSN, such as low available bandwidth, highly varying multipath, and large propagation delays. In this paper, we propose a depth-adjustment scheme to maximize the coverage in 3D space. After deploying nodes in the water surface, we use Voronoi diagram to compute redundant nodes whose disappearance will not decrease the coverage in 2D space, and then we determine the depth that redundant nodes should be moved towards. After all the redundant nodes have moved to the lower layer, the algorithm continues to schedule redundant nodes of the lower layer until 3D space coverage is fulfilled.

Index terms

  • UWSN
  • Voronoi
  • 3D space
  • Sensor Deploying
access type Otwarty dostęp

The Fast Method for Correction of Distortion on Infrared Marker-Based Tracking System

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 259 - 277

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper adopts ordinary CCD cameras and IR filters to constitute IR cameras for a marker-based quadri-ocular tracking system. However, the IR filters will affect the accuracy of the tracking system. Therefore, this paper analyses the refraction of IR filters and finds IR filters will bring about the biggish radial distortion on imaging process. And then, this paper directly uses Zhang’s technique to calibrate the parameters of IR cameras in infrared environment by adjusting the imaging conditions of calibration. To improve the accuracy and satisfy the real-time requirement of the tracking system, a real-time method to correct the radial distortion is proposed in this paper. The experiments show that the speed of the correction method is satisfactory, and the accuracy of tracking system is effectively improved by the method.

Index terms

  • CCD Sensor
  • Infrared Pass Filter
  • Radial Distortion
  • Calibration
  • Correction
access type Otwarty dostęp

Theory and Technology of The Single-Probe Two-Step Method to Separate Error

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 278 - 296

Abstrakt

Abstract

The multi-step error separation technique is a important method of roundness error separation, but it is not suitable to be used in measuring online for multiple inversion of tested parts, long measurement period and vulnerable to surroundings in the implementation process. In this paper, the studies of single-probe two-step error separation method have been realized by single sensor which is rotated by different angle two times. Not only the influence of harmonic control is reduced, but also the efficiency is greatly improved. It has the advantages of multi-probe method and multi-step method. A mathematical description of the method is given by this paper, which establishes a error separation equation and gives the solving method. The method of error fitting to simulate three circumstances is also used by it: same spindle’s gyration error and existing random error and carries on computer simulation analysis. The results show that when the gyration error are identical, high error separation accuracy can be achieved by the method when there exists random error, although the influence on the measuring results of roundness error cannot be eliminated, the random errors can be decreased or basically eliminated by averaging the testing values of repeated measurements. Several contrastive experiments of the on-line measurement are carried out in a grinding machine (MB1332A). The results of these experiments successfully verify that the theory and mathematical models are correct. The contrast of the measuring results in these experiments proves that the Single-probe two-step method can realize the complete separation of all kinds of errors basically and this method is applicable to online measurement of a workpiece and it can also make the measurement accuracy very high.

Index terms

  • Error separation technique
  • two-step method
  • roundness error
  • simulation analysis
  • experimental verification
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Wsn-Based On-Line Working Condition Monitoring System For Large Electrical Equipment

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 297 - 316

Abstrakt

Abstract

To solve the problems of traditional wired on-line monitoring system which has lines too much, cost too high, fault diagnosing and maintaining difficulties and so on, an on-line working condition monitoring system for large electrical equipment based on wireless sensor network (WSN) is proposed, designed and implemented. CC2431 chips were used for hardware design of wireless sensor network node and base station, and the TinyOS transplanted into the sensor nodes and base stations are discussed in detail. Then, a management software system based on LabVIEW and database programming technique is proposed and implemented. The experiment results show that the system can satisfy the needs for real-time data gathering, data storage, data curve drawing, low power consumption, wide coverage, no region limitation. It’s a good operation performance.

Index terms

  • WSN
  • CC2431
  • TinyOS
  • LabVIEW
  • SQL
  • On-line Monitoring
access type Otwarty dostęp

Adaptive Estimation and Pi Learning Springrelaxation Technique for Location Estimation In Wireless Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 317 - 322

Abstrakt

Abstract

In order to reduce the location estimation error in Wireless Sensor Network(WSN). A localization algorithm is proposed combining adaptive estimation, PI-learning and spring-relaxation techniques for wireless sensor networks in this paper. Our proposed method takes the advantages of the spring-relaxation technique, thus it inherits its simplicity. The overall accuracy of the location estimations is improved by introducing adaptive estimation and PI-learning. Moreover, it requires only a few beacons with known locations to compute the location estimates of all sensors. Simulation examples demonstrate the overall accuracy of the proposed method.

Index terms

  • Wireless Sensor Networks
  • Location Estimation
  • Adaptive Estimation
  • Spring-Relaxation Technique
  • PI learning
access type Otwarty dostęp

Deformation Forecast of Flexible Material Process By Spline Finite Element Method and Application

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 333 - 351

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper provides a new computing method for the amount of deformation of flexible materials by spline finite element. Firstly, it analyzes the deformation of single yarn in the way of cubic spline interpolation, with the idea of spline finite element; it takes the flat fabric as anisotropic material to build a simple surface model with the use of bicubic interpolation, so as to deduce to the formula of flat fabric’s deformational displacement under the stress. Finally, it takes the line graphic element for object to get the amount of deformation and to compensate it in quilting, test result show that the position error scope of quilting is 0.093~0.186mm, the accuracy is higher than excellence grade of quilting which refers to national standard FZ/T81005-2006.

Index terms

  • Flexible material process
  • Deformation calculation
  • Spline finite element
access type Otwarty dostęp

Traffic Signal Control for Urban Trunk Road Based on Wireless Sensor Network and Intelligent Algorithm

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 352 - 367

Abstrakt

Abstract

Based on the analysis for the present research on controlling urban trunk road, a intelligent control method for urban trunk road based on wireless sensor and fuzzy neural network was proposed. In this method, we took two layers of WSN structure. The first one was data collecting layer, which consisted of traffic information collecting nodes and sink nodes. Data collecting layer was responsible for collecting vehicle information at single crossing, transmitted to the second layer after data fusion. The second one was control layer, composed of traffic light controller nodes in which fuzzy neural controller was nested. Traffic light controller nodes were used to accept the traffic data detected by the first layer, and fuzzy neural controller determined the signal cycle at artery, and on-line adjusted the green ratio at all directions on crossroads to accomplish traffic light control. Simulating results showed that the method is superior to the common fuzzy control, effectively reducing queue length, so as to reach the purpose of decreasing vehicle delay.

Index terms

  • wireless sensor network
  • intelligent traffic
  • fuzzy neural network
  • queue length
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Simple Scheme for Location and Distance Estimation of Wireless Sensor Nodes In Outdoor Environments

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 368 - 382

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper we suggest a simple, practical and cost effective localization scheme that can be used to manually deploy wireless sensors to form wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We test our scheme exclusively in outdoor environments using commercially available IRIS XM2110 sensor motes. The location discovery of sensor motes deployed in outdoor environments is obtained in accordance with geographical latitude and longitude. The distance between the deployed sensor motes is also computed using the Haversine formula. The proposed scheme is the outcome of experiments performed on data visualization and monitoring tool Mote View 2.0.F developed by Crossbow Technology™. The proposed scheme is easy to implement and requires less number of sensor motes as compared to other manual deployment based schemes. The visualization of location is validated on Google earth geographical information program.

Index terms

  • Google earth
  • IRIS XM2110
  • localization
  • Mote View 2.0.F
  • data visualization
  • WSNs
access type Otwarty dostęp

Trajectory Adaptive Zpet Controller Without Factorization of Zeros for Non-Minimum Phase System In Application to Real-Time Digital Tracking Control of Electro-Hydraulic Actuator

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 383 - 402

Abstrakt

Abstract

Electro-hydraulic actuators are very important tools for industrial processes because they provide linear movement, fast response and accurate positioning of heavy load. Recently, with the research and development of mathematics, control theory and basic theory of hydraulic, hydraulic control technology has been developed and has been widely used in many applications such as industrial automation and machining processes. Due to its applications, the highest performance of the electro-hydraulic actuators on position, motion or tracking is needed. Therefore, a suitable controller is required to improve the performance of the electro-hydraulic actuator. Most researchers have used advanced control approach to improve the motion or tracking control. Based on these problems, we had done a real-time digital tracking control studies on electro-hydraulic actuator using trajectory adaptive zero phase error tracking control (ZPETC) without factorization of zero polynomial algorithm. The control strategy uses a recursive least square parameters estimation that was done offline prior the actual control operation by taking advantage of the available known reference input. The experimental results obtained show significant tracking performance.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Adaptive Control
  • feedforward control
  • tracking control
  • zero phase error tracking control
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Versatile Lattice Based Model For Situation Recognition From Dynamic Ambient Sensors

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 403 - 432

Abstrakt

Abstract

Recent advances in acquisition, storage, and transmission of data from sensors in digital format has increased the need of tools to support users effectively in retrieving, understanding, and mining the information contained in such data.Extraction of domain specific actionable information like occurrence of one of the predefined “situations” is desirable. Major difficulties in achieving this extraction are 1) Source of Data, that is, number and type of sensors deployed is highly variable even for one type of application, 2)Availability of domain specific labeled training data is critical for computation of situations.In this paper, we propose a versatile method based on formal concept analysis to overcome these difficulties in modelingsensor based situations.Our method, making use of contexts as intermediate form of sensors data, works on any number and type of sensors. It is alsoinstance-independent and eliminates need of training, when applied to various instances of similar application.For illustration, we model and perform real time recognition of activity of a person in indoor home environment with ambientsensors.The embedded sensors captureusage and proximity of human beings to objects.We apply the model learnt from one house, foractivity recognition of new persons across different new houses. The recognition results obtained have high precision and recall.

Index terms

  • Wireless Sensor Networks
  • Ambient Intelligence
  • Formal Concept Analysis
  • Situation Modeling
  • Activity Recognition
  • Lattice based Classification
access type Otwarty dostęp

Pure and Cupricated BaSnO3 thick film resistor: Synthesis, Characterization and studies on its gas sensing performance

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2013
Zakres stron: 433 - 447

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this work we report the synthesis, microstructure, electric properties and sensing performance of BaSnO3 (BS) powder, it was prepared by mechano-chemical method. As prepared powder is calcinated at temperatures 1100 °c, and 1300 °c tested for crystallization. Thick films were prepared using simple screen-printing technology. Structural and electrical analyses were performed and the results have been correlated. The material was tested for various gases such as CO, CO2, NH3, Cl2, H2, LPG, ethanol, and H2S. The pure BS film shows good response multiple gases at various operating temperature up to 5000C as NH3, CO2, CO, ethanol and, H2S for different gas concentrations, when the pure film is surface modified with aqueous solution of Cucl2 using simple dipping technique for various time intervals (5 min., 10 min., 20 min. and, 30 min.), film improves the selectivity and sensitivity. Maximum response (S=36.2) was found to H2S gas at temperature of 250 0C and S=12.1 for ethanol at 500 °c for gas concentration of 50 ppm with film dipped for 10 min. time interval. The characterization of the films was done by XRD, SEM and TG-DTA. Crystallite size, texture coefficient, specific surface area, electric properties and gas sensitivity of the films were measured and presented.

Index terms

  • BaSnO (BS)
  • Thick films Resistor
  • HS gas sensor
  • Sensitivity
  • Selectivity

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