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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 4 (2011): Zeszyt 1 (January 2011)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

10 Artykułów
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Methodology for the Optimization Of Multi-program Shared Scratchpad Memory

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 20

Abstrakt

Abstract

Processors used in wireless and ad hoc networks bring more strict requirements on performance and power consumption. The hardware and software need to coordinate more efficiently to meet such requirements. With the rapid development of semi-conductor technology, more memory can be integrated into the processor. ScratchPad Memory (SPM) is a kind of the on-chip memory, is a SRAM based memory with fast response, small on-chip area and low power consumption. It is still a big challenge on how to take advantages of SPM because SPM must be explicitly used by software to achieve high performance. This paper proposes a novel methodology to share SPM during multiprograms. The applications are analyzed and memory objects are generated. During the executions, multi-programs can share SPM through these memory objects. The experimental results show that our approach can reduce both the execution time and the energy consumption effectively.

Index terms

  • methodology
  • optimization
  • scratchpad memory
  • high performance
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Low Cost Three-Directional Force Sensor

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 21 - 34

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this work a low cost sensor has been developed to measure three-directional forces. The theory, design and sensor construction details are presented. It was constructed by using commercial strain gauges. Finite element method was adopted to optimize the structure dimensions, and improve the sensitivity of force sensor by distributing the sensing stress on the maximum strain positions. A hardware conditioning circuits was developed for the 3D force sensor. The calibration experiments were performed to calculate calibration coefficients by using the regression analysis method and test linear property of the sensor.

Index terms

  • Strain gauge
  • three-directional forces
  • 3D force platform
  • gait and posture
access type Otwarty dostęp

Cyclic Temporal Network Density and its impact on Information Diffusion for Delay Tolerant Networks

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 35 - 52

Abstrakt

Abstract

We adopt temporal graph model to explore the dynamic temporal properties of three mobility datasets in DTN (Delay Tolerant Network), collected from different sources, including one university campus WLAN and two conferences WLANs. With this model, we observe that the temporal network density of DTN changes with time and approximate varies periodically. Then we study the impact of this phenomenon on information diffusion. Our studies and findings can be used for establishing more realistic mobile model, building intelligent routing algorithm, and design advanced applications for DTNs.

Index terms

  • Delay Tolerant Network
  • Temporal Network Density
  • Information Diffusion
  • Temporal Graph Model
access type Otwarty dostęp

Self Organizing Sensor Network to Enhance Event Coverage

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 53 - 74

Abstrakt

Abstract

We are proposing a self deploying mobile sensor network which is empowered with event based relocation of redundant sensors for enhancing the quality of event sensing. Energy efficient Cell quorum based protocol is used for communication between event location and redundant sensors. Computationally light cascaded reorganization of sensor is suggested for relocation of sensors. The proposed method provides good coverage as it dynamically relocates the sensors either for avoiding coverage hole or for improving the quality of event sensing.

Index terms

  • Cell Quorum based protocol
  • redundant sensors
  • event detection
  • and relocation
access type Otwarty dostęp

Low-Frequency Localization And Identification System With Zigbee Network

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 75 - 93

Abstrakt

Abstract

Location awareness is important in health care. One way of generating this is a low-frequency radio frequency identification (RFID) location system that has been developed. The system tracks RFID tags with a quad antenna matrix that is placed under the floor surface. The tag can be also used to receive alarms and send acknowledgements via a ZigBee network. This article discusses the requirements of this kind of a tag, its structure, and its location accuracy. The demonstrated RFID system can locate people and items inside the building with an accuracy of 1.1 ± 0.5 m (S. D.).

Index terms

  • localization
  • Elderly care
  • RFID
  • Low frequency
  • ZigBee
  • Near-field imaging
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Low Cost Portable Temperature-Moisture Sensing Unit With Artificial Neural Network Based Signal Conditioning For Smart Irrigation Applications

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 94 - 111

Abstrakt

Abstract

The recent trends in developing low cost techniques to support cost effective agriculture in developing countries with large population has motivated the development of low cost sensing systems to provide for low cost irrigation facilities and also to provide for conservation of water at the same time. The current paper highlights the development of temperature and soil moisture sensor that can be placed on suitable locations on field for monitoring of temperature and moisture of soil, the two parameters to which the crops are susceptive. The sensing system is based on a feedback control mechanism with a centralized control unit which regulates the flow of water on to the field in the real time based on the instantaneous temperature and moisture values. Depending on the varied requirement of different crops, a lookup table has been prepared and referred to for ascertaining the amount of water needed by that crop. The system based on a microcontroller has been applied on rice and maize fields spanning over area of 1 acres each for 3 weeks and more than 94% of the plants were found to be alive after experimentation. The cost of the system has been estimated to be as low as 120 INR and is therefore easily deployable in developing countries.

Index terms

  • Moisture Sensing
  • ANN
  • temperature drift compensation
  • linearization
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Method For Fine Bonding Wire Detection Using Light Diffraction

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 112 - 124

Abstrakt

Abstract

In manufacturing industry, bonding wires are used to interconnect the pads of a semiconductor chip to terminals of a package containing the chip [1]. With increasing demand of fine wires, current detection apparatus encounters some limitations. In this paper, a method to detect breakage of fine bonding wires using diffraction of light is proposed, where a laser head generates the light beam, and a slot introduced in the path of light source generates diffraction pattern. Then, irradiance loss of the corresponding diffraction pattern at the receiver could be observed, due to the presence of a wire. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method with a slot design renders satisfactory performance of wire detection.

Index terms

  • Bonding wire
  • diffraction
  • slot
  • and irradiance
access type Otwarty dostęp

The Use Of Optical Sensors To Estimate Pasture Quality

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 125 - 137

Abstrakt

Abstract

Optical remote sensing tools are being used in a number of agricultural applications by recording an object’s transmission of electromagnetic energy from reflecting and radiating surfaces. This unique spectral information is used to characterize the features of green vegetation. With the development of proximal sensing tools, vegetation or crop health can be determined and monitored in real-time. This information provides an opportunity for precise management of input resources to optimise plant growth and reduce the potential for an adverse environmental effect.

Pasture management is of major importance in New Zealand. This paper describes the operation of multispectral (Crop Circle and CROPSCAN™) and hyper spectral sensors (ASD Field Spec® Pro) to explore the pasture quality and quantity. The ability to manage these factors is an important component in grazing, livestock management, and a key driver of animal performance and productivity. The results indicate that these sensors have the potential to assess vegetation characteristics.

Index terms

  • electromagnetic energy
  • optical remote sensing
  • pasture management
  • multispectral
  • hyperspectral
access type Otwarty dostęp

Topology Optimization Control with Balanced Energy and Load in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 138 - 159

Abstrakt

Abstract

In view of unbalanced link bandwidth and node energy consumption in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs), a distributed topology optimization control algorithm (EL-BatCA) is proposed, which is based on balanced network energy and load. A hierarchical network model is designed based on minimum-hop, by which the nodes are divided into n layers. EL-BatCA is implemented through three stages-topology graph formation in initialization, an innovative transmission power adjustment in topology control, and finally topology optimization through object functions. Simulation results show that EL-BatCA not only balances energy consumption and network load, but also prolongs network lifetime and improves network throughout.

Index terms

  • UASNs
  • Network Load
  • Node energy
  • Topology Optimization
  • Topology control
  • EL-BatCA
access type Otwarty dostęp

Embedded Sensing And Actuation For Helmets Co2 Levels Control

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 160 - 185

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper reports on the development and evaluation of a simple closed loop solution for controlling the CO2 levels within small enclosed environments, such as Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) protective suit helmets. Based on a detailed analysis of the helmet environment during bomb disposal missions, the solution proposed automates the current manually controlled fan integrated within the helmet to achieve an effective, timely and energy efficient, control system.

Whilst the paper and its supporting experimental work focus on the particular case study of operatives wearing EOD suit helmets, the methods proposed and the control system development methodology are generic and directly applicable to a wide class of helmet usage scenarios.

The main contributions in the paper are as follows: i) the design and implementation of an empirical helmet model based on data collected with a bespoke helmet embedded instrument developed by the authors; and ii) the production of a simple but effective fan air flow control algorithm for containing CO2 concentration exposure during missions, and an associated evaluation simulator/test bed. The resulting closed loop, automated sensing and actuation system extends the otherwise short fan battery lifetime to cover entire missions, delivers a healthy breathing environment for the operative and minimises noise disruption associated with the use of the fan. The control algorithm outperforms fixed airflow settings in terms of energy efficiency.

10 Artykułów
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Methodology for the Optimization Of Multi-program Shared Scratchpad Memory

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 20

Abstrakt

Abstract

Processors used in wireless and ad hoc networks bring more strict requirements on performance and power consumption. The hardware and software need to coordinate more efficiently to meet such requirements. With the rapid development of semi-conductor technology, more memory can be integrated into the processor. ScratchPad Memory (SPM) is a kind of the on-chip memory, is a SRAM based memory with fast response, small on-chip area and low power consumption. It is still a big challenge on how to take advantages of SPM because SPM must be explicitly used by software to achieve high performance. This paper proposes a novel methodology to share SPM during multiprograms. The applications are analyzed and memory objects are generated. During the executions, multi-programs can share SPM through these memory objects. The experimental results show that our approach can reduce both the execution time and the energy consumption effectively.

Index terms

  • methodology
  • optimization
  • scratchpad memory
  • high performance
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Low Cost Three-Directional Force Sensor

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 21 - 34

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this work a low cost sensor has been developed to measure three-directional forces. The theory, design and sensor construction details are presented. It was constructed by using commercial strain gauges. Finite element method was adopted to optimize the structure dimensions, and improve the sensitivity of force sensor by distributing the sensing stress on the maximum strain positions. A hardware conditioning circuits was developed for the 3D force sensor. The calibration experiments were performed to calculate calibration coefficients by using the regression analysis method and test linear property of the sensor.

Index terms

  • Strain gauge
  • three-directional forces
  • 3D force platform
  • gait and posture
access type Otwarty dostęp

Cyclic Temporal Network Density and its impact on Information Diffusion for Delay Tolerant Networks

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 35 - 52

Abstrakt

Abstract

We adopt temporal graph model to explore the dynamic temporal properties of three mobility datasets in DTN (Delay Tolerant Network), collected from different sources, including one university campus WLAN and two conferences WLANs. With this model, we observe that the temporal network density of DTN changes with time and approximate varies periodically. Then we study the impact of this phenomenon on information diffusion. Our studies and findings can be used for establishing more realistic mobile model, building intelligent routing algorithm, and design advanced applications for DTNs.

Index terms

  • Delay Tolerant Network
  • Temporal Network Density
  • Information Diffusion
  • Temporal Graph Model
access type Otwarty dostęp

Self Organizing Sensor Network to Enhance Event Coverage

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 53 - 74

Abstrakt

Abstract

We are proposing a self deploying mobile sensor network which is empowered with event based relocation of redundant sensors for enhancing the quality of event sensing. Energy efficient Cell quorum based protocol is used for communication between event location and redundant sensors. Computationally light cascaded reorganization of sensor is suggested for relocation of sensors. The proposed method provides good coverage as it dynamically relocates the sensors either for avoiding coverage hole or for improving the quality of event sensing.

Index terms

  • Cell Quorum based protocol
  • redundant sensors
  • event detection
  • and relocation
access type Otwarty dostęp

Low-Frequency Localization And Identification System With Zigbee Network

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 75 - 93

Abstrakt

Abstract

Location awareness is important in health care. One way of generating this is a low-frequency radio frequency identification (RFID) location system that has been developed. The system tracks RFID tags with a quad antenna matrix that is placed under the floor surface. The tag can be also used to receive alarms and send acknowledgements via a ZigBee network. This article discusses the requirements of this kind of a tag, its structure, and its location accuracy. The demonstrated RFID system can locate people and items inside the building with an accuracy of 1.1 ± 0.5 m (S. D.).

Index terms

  • localization
  • Elderly care
  • RFID
  • Low frequency
  • ZigBee
  • Near-field imaging
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Low Cost Portable Temperature-Moisture Sensing Unit With Artificial Neural Network Based Signal Conditioning For Smart Irrigation Applications

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 94 - 111

Abstrakt

Abstract

The recent trends in developing low cost techniques to support cost effective agriculture in developing countries with large population has motivated the development of low cost sensing systems to provide for low cost irrigation facilities and also to provide for conservation of water at the same time. The current paper highlights the development of temperature and soil moisture sensor that can be placed on suitable locations on field for monitoring of temperature and moisture of soil, the two parameters to which the crops are susceptive. The sensing system is based on a feedback control mechanism with a centralized control unit which regulates the flow of water on to the field in the real time based on the instantaneous temperature and moisture values. Depending on the varied requirement of different crops, a lookup table has been prepared and referred to for ascertaining the amount of water needed by that crop. The system based on a microcontroller has been applied on rice and maize fields spanning over area of 1 acres each for 3 weeks and more than 94% of the plants were found to be alive after experimentation. The cost of the system has been estimated to be as low as 120 INR and is therefore easily deployable in developing countries.

Index terms

  • Moisture Sensing
  • ANN
  • temperature drift compensation
  • linearization
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Method For Fine Bonding Wire Detection Using Light Diffraction

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 112 - 124

Abstrakt

Abstract

In manufacturing industry, bonding wires are used to interconnect the pads of a semiconductor chip to terminals of a package containing the chip [1]. With increasing demand of fine wires, current detection apparatus encounters some limitations. In this paper, a method to detect breakage of fine bonding wires using diffraction of light is proposed, where a laser head generates the light beam, and a slot introduced in the path of light source generates diffraction pattern. Then, irradiance loss of the corresponding diffraction pattern at the receiver could be observed, due to the presence of a wire. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method with a slot design renders satisfactory performance of wire detection.

Index terms

  • Bonding wire
  • diffraction
  • slot
  • and irradiance
access type Otwarty dostęp

The Use Of Optical Sensors To Estimate Pasture Quality

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 125 - 137

Abstrakt

Abstract

Optical remote sensing tools are being used in a number of agricultural applications by recording an object’s transmission of electromagnetic energy from reflecting and radiating surfaces. This unique spectral information is used to characterize the features of green vegetation. With the development of proximal sensing tools, vegetation or crop health can be determined and monitored in real-time. This information provides an opportunity for precise management of input resources to optimise plant growth and reduce the potential for an adverse environmental effect.

Pasture management is of major importance in New Zealand. This paper describes the operation of multispectral (Crop Circle and CROPSCAN™) and hyper spectral sensors (ASD Field Spec® Pro) to explore the pasture quality and quantity. The ability to manage these factors is an important component in grazing, livestock management, and a key driver of animal performance and productivity. The results indicate that these sensors have the potential to assess vegetation characteristics.

Index terms

  • electromagnetic energy
  • optical remote sensing
  • pasture management
  • multispectral
  • hyperspectral
access type Otwarty dostęp

Topology Optimization Control with Balanced Energy and Load in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 138 - 159

Abstrakt

Abstract

In view of unbalanced link bandwidth and node energy consumption in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs), a distributed topology optimization control algorithm (EL-BatCA) is proposed, which is based on balanced network energy and load. A hierarchical network model is designed based on minimum-hop, by which the nodes are divided into n layers. EL-BatCA is implemented through three stages-topology graph formation in initialization, an innovative transmission power adjustment in topology control, and finally topology optimization through object functions. Simulation results show that EL-BatCA not only balances energy consumption and network load, but also prolongs network lifetime and improves network throughout.

Index terms

  • UASNs
  • Network Load
  • Node energy
  • Topology Optimization
  • Topology control
  • EL-BatCA
access type Otwarty dostęp

Embedded Sensing And Actuation For Helmets Co2 Levels Control

Data publikacji: 12 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 160 - 185

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper reports on the development and evaluation of a simple closed loop solution for controlling the CO2 levels within small enclosed environments, such as Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) protective suit helmets. Based on a detailed analysis of the helmet environment during bomb disposal missions, the solution proposed automates the current manually controlled fan integrated within the helmet to achieve an effective, timely and energy efficient, control system.

Whilst the paper and its supporting experimental work focus on the particular case study of operatives wearing EOD suit helmets, the methods proposed and the control system development methodology are generic and directly applicable to a wide class of helmet usage scenarios.

The main contributions in the paper are as follows: i) the design and implementation of an empirical helmet model based on data collected with a bespoke helmet embedded instrument developed by the authors; and ii) the production of a simple but effective fan air flow control algorithm for containing CO2 concentration exposure during missions, and an associated evaluation simulator/test bed. The resulting closed loop, automated sensing and actuation system extends the otherwise short fan battery lifetime to cover entire missions, delivers a healthy breathing environment for the operative and minimises noise disruption associated with the use of the fan. The control algorithm outperforms fixed airflow settings in terms of energy efficiency.

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