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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 13 (2020): Zeszyt 1 (January 2020)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

33 Artykułów

Research-Article

Otwarty dostęp

Modeling and experimental validation of the hysteretic dynamics of shape memory alloy springs

Data publikacji: 28 Jan 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 10

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this work, the hysteretic dynamics of a pseudoelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) spring is modeled and tested. A constitutive model of SMA spring is constructed by combining the theory of mechanical spring and the derived SMA constitutive relation. The SMA spring recovery force is modeled by employing the Euler–Lagrange equation based on a non-convex potential function. A macroscopic differential model is formulated to describe the hysteretic dynamics and the pseudoelasticity of the SMA spring. A theoretical method for estimating the equivalent stretch ratio at a specific temperature of SMA spring is given. Numerical simulations were presented in studying the influence of the stretch ratio at a temperature of 50, 70, and 90°C. The experimental tests are performed and presented together with their numerical counterparts. The comparison is made between numerical and experimental results to validate the proposed model for SMA spring.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Shape memory alloys spring
  • Martensitic transformation
  • Pseudoelasticity
  • Differential model
Otwarty dostęp

Robust single target tracking using determinantal point process observations

Data publikacji: 01 Feb 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 8

Abstrakt

Abstract

The efficiency and robustness of modern visual tracking systems are largely dependent on the object detection system at hand. Bernoulli and Multi-Bernoulli filters have been proposed for visual tracking without explicit detections (image observations). However, these previous approaches do not fully exploit discriminative features for tracking. In this paper, we propose a novel Bernoulli filter with determinantal point processes observations. The proposed observation model can select groups of detections with high detection scores and low correlation among the observed features; thus achieving a robust filter.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Visual tracking
  • Bernoulli filter.
Otwarty dostęp

Study on the suitability of ZnO thin film for dynamic pressure sensing application

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 9

Abstrakt

Abstract

ZnO thin films were prepared by RF reactive magnetron sputtering on phynox substrate at room temperature for four different thicknesses by varying deposition duration. The structural and morphological properties and composition of these films were characterized using XRD, SEM, and EDS, respectively. Suitability of these films for dynamic pressure sensing applications and the effect of film thickness on dynamic pressure sensing were evaluated experimentally using a shock tube equipment. Shock tube test results show the pure dynamic behavior of ZnO films with fast rise and discharge. Sensors with higher film thickness showed improved sensitivity which is on par with commercially available dynamic pressure sensors. This work demonstrates that the cost-effective sensors based on ZnO thin film are capable of sensing dynamic pressures for different pressure ranges.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ZnO
  • Thin film
  • Sputtering
  • Dynamic pressure sensor
  • Shock tube.
Otwarty dostęp

Intelligent agent for formal modelling of temporal multi-agent systems

Data publikacji: 05 Feb 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 13

Abstrakt

Abstract

Software systems are becoming complex and dynamic with the passage of time, and to provide better fault tolerance and resource management they need to have the ability of self-adaptation. Multi-agent systems paradigm is an active area of research for modeling real-time systems. In this research, we have proposed a new agent named SA-ARTIS-agent, which is designed to work in hard real-time temporal constraints with the ability of self-adaptation. This agent can be used for the formal modeling of any self-adaptive real-time multi-agent system. Our agent integrates the MAPE-K feedback loop with ARTIS agent for the provision of self-adaptation. For an unambiguous description, we formally specify our SA-ARTIS-agent using Time-Communicating Object-Z (TCOZ) language. The objective of this research is to provide an intelligent agent with self-adaptive abilities for the execution of tasks with temporal constraints. Previous works in this domain have used Z language which is not expressive to model the distributed communication process of agents. The novelty of our work is that we specified the non-terminating behavior of agents using active class concept of TCOZ and expressed the distributed communication among agents. For communication between active entities, channel communication mechanism of TCOZ is utilized. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed agent using a real-time case study of traffic monitoring system.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Formal methods
  • Self-adaptation
  • Autonomic computing
  • Multi-agent systems
  • Real-time systems
  • TCOZ
Otwarty dostęp

An incremental meter placement method for state estimation considering collinear measurements and high leverage points

Data publikacji: 04 Feb 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 12

Abstrakt

Abstract

The performance of the power system state estimation (SE) is influenced by the configuration of the meters and measurement redundancy. Therefore, the measurement set needs to be updated by installing new SCADA meters and phasor measurement units for improving the quality of the SE solution. However, the potential inconsistency between the existing meters and the new meters should be addressed. Otherwise, the additional meters may lead to numerical problems such as collinearity (linear dependence due to duplicated measurements) and the existence of high leverage points (HLPs) (influential measurements). Hence, this paper proposes an incremental meter placement method. The proposed method utilizes the HLPs and aims to improve the numerical performance of the SE and facilitate the elimination of bad data. The cuckoo search optimization is used for selecting the optimal locations and the numbers of the new meters. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested on UK 18-bus, the IEEE 30-bus, and 118-bus systems and simulation results show improvements in the quality of the SE solution.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Cuckoo search
  • Collinearity
  • High leverage points
  • Phasor measurement unit (PMU)
  • State estimation.
Otwarty dostęp

LiDAR derived terrain wetness indices to infer soil moisture above underground pipelines

Data publikacji: 15 Feb 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 7

Abstrakt

Abstract

Corrosion of external cast-iron pipe surfaces, a major contributor to pipe failure, has been attributed to the free water in the soil surrounding the pipe. Because observation at pipe depth is difficult, a potential proxy is the soil surface moisture. Herein highly accurate elevation data derived from airborne light detection and ranging is used to model the distribution of soil water in urban catchments containing pipe infrastructure. The results are compared with local soil moisture Theta Probe measurements along the pipe. The results show potential to identify wetter spots above underground infrastructure, which may inform its corrosion potential, without digging up the asset.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Pipe corrosion
  • Pipe breaks
  • Topographic wetness index
  • SAGA wetness index
  • Infrastructure assessment
Otwarty dostęp

Forest fire detection using wireless sensor networks

Data publikacji: 18 Apr 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 8

Abstrakt

Abstract

A forest has different types of vegetation like herbs, trees, shrubs and different species of animals. In one way or other, these renewable resources are very essential to mankind. Forest fires are the most common hazards in forests which lead to serious destruction of forest wealth, bio-diversity and natural habitat. Early detection and preventive measures are necessary to protect forests from fires. In order to achieve early detection, there are two most used traditional methods of human surveillance. One is directly through human observation and the other is through distant video surveillance. Doing the observation through distant mode, one can achieve surveillance through automation approach of detection. Automated fire alert detection system proposed in this paper comprises of two sensors, namely smoke and fire. These sensors detect change in a measurable physical quantity and help in the early detection of a forest fire. A key feature of this fire detection system is to alert the user remotely by using a GSM module, whenever a fire is detected.

Słowa kluczowe

  • GSM (global system for mobile communication)
  • Smoke sensor
  • Flame sensor
  • WSN (wireless sensor network)
  • Surveillance
  • RF (radio frequency)
Otwarty dostęp

A novel approach to label road defects in video data: semi-automated video analysis

Data publikacji: 30 Apr 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 9

Abstrakt

Abstract

Road defects like potholes have a major impact on road safety and comfort. Detecting these defects manually is a highly time consuming and expensive task. Previous approaches to detect road events automatically using acceleration sensors and gyro meters showed good results. However, these results could be significantly improved with additional usage of image analysis. A large, labeled image data set is required for training and validation. This paper presents a method to automate parts of the labeling task. The method is based on a simple two step approach: at first, an unsupervised algorithm detects possible events based on the acceleration data and filters those video sequences with defects. Second, a human operator decides based on the short video sequences if the event was due to an existing road defect and labels the corresponding area in an image.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Pothole detection
  • Road defect detection
  • Image labeling
  • Acceleration data processing
  • Sensor fusion
  • Intelligent sensor systems
Otwarty dostęp

A review of privacy-preserving human and human activity recognition

Data publikacji: 25 May 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 13

Abstrakt

Abstract

Many automation technologies using software are making humans convenient. One of these technologies is to collect data through cameras and sensors that are common in personal life and automatically recognize human and human activities. The goal of automation is to analyze the various types of big data that are difficult to perform mechanical data mining. Raw data collected from cameras and sensors are nothing but big data before analysis. In this case, how to protect data by secure storage is the most important issue. However, when the context-aware semantic information such as a specific person and his behavior is extracted from the analysis, the security sensitivity is increased. In other words, the secondary information generated by interpreting and extracting personal location and behavioral information contained in images and videos is linked to other personal information, causing privacy infringement issues. Privacy issues become important because there is a lot of software that everyone can access. Therefore, it is necessary to study privacy protection methods in the automatic recognition of human and human activities. This paper analyzes the cutting-edge research trends, techniques, and issues of privacy-preserving human and human activity recognition.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Human recognition
  • Human activity recognition
  • Privacy protection
  • Machine learning
Otwarty dostęp

Non-destructive, non-invasive, in-line real-time phase-based reflectance for quality monitoring of fruit

Data publikacji: 29 May 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 10

Abstrakt

Abstract

Food quality monitoring in the production process is essential. The control of food quality and freshness is of growing interest for both consumer and food industry. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is popular as it does not need any sample preparation. However, NIR spectroscopy is costly and needs reliable calibration. A non-contact, non-destructive optical process is proposed in this work to monitor the quality of the food. It is shown that the reflected phase information can be used to detect the quality of the fruits. The color and the spectral reflectance change with storage. The changes in the spectral feature due to ripening or decay of apples are used to non-destructively monitor the quality of the fruit. A closed relationship between the reflected phase information and degradation is obtained. The developed model is simple, low cost, and does not need extensive calibration as compared to conventional technologies currently used like NIR besides being robust to skin color or appearances of the fruit. The phase-based reflectance spectroscopy could revolutionize the on/inline quality monitoring of the fruits.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Food quality monitoring
  • Phase-based reflectance spectrocopy
  • Polarization imaging
  • Real-time measurements
Otwarty dostęp

QRS complex detection and R–R interval computation based on discrete wavelet transform

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 11

Abstrakt

Abstract

QRS represented the most important part of ECG signal, so different researches and studies are performed for QRS recognition. In this paper, a new technique by using wavelet transform is used for de-noising ECG signal by using adaptive threshold, then DWT used to separate the high frequency from the low component, then compute the statistical information from low frequencies to be used in threshold computation, Based on these statics features, lower and upper threshold are calculated, which are updated according to number of peaks that are detected until two thresholds give same number of peaks, also the detected peaks are updated according to average R–R time. Results of (EDB) database was (Acc = 99.366%), while (LTSTDB) database was (Acc = 98.89%). The results are compared with other work and it is show that the proposed method gave better performance and can be used for QRS detection.

Słowa kluczowe

  • DWT
  • RR
  • HR
  • QRS
  • LTSTDB
  • EDB
Otwarty dostęp

Sliding mode control design for the attitude and altitude of the quadrotor UAV

Data publikacji: 01 Jul 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 13

Abstrakt

Abstract

Recently, the quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are attracting significant interest from researchers due to its widespread applications, which involve the civilian and military sectors. In this paper, a robust sliding mode control (SMC) algorithm is designed to stabilize the attitude and track the altitude of quadrotor UAV. The switching function in the SMC control law has been replaced by the error function to reduce the chattering influences. The chattering phenomenon is induced by the parameter uncertainties and external disturbances and results in critical issues, for instance, the vibration in the mechanical components. The simulation results of the traditional SMC and feedback linearization (FBL) are used as the benchmark to test and evaluate the performance of the proposed SMC, which proved that the proposed controller outperforms the traditional SMC and FBL controllers.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Quadrotor UAV
  • Sliding mode control
  • Feedback linearization
  • PID control
  • Chattering
Otwarty dostęp

A novel algorithm for estimation of Twitter users location using public available information

Data publikacji: 09 Jul 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 10

Abstrakt

Abstract

Social media networks are an attractive and hot research area in the big data community because of their numerous active users. One of the most widely studied topics in social networks is the prediction from the public available data. Recently, researchers have successfully predicted many statistical and human properties from social media networks using different machine learning algorithms. In this paper, a new efficient and accurate algorithm is proposed to predict the country location of a Twitter user using his or her public information only. The proposed algorithm employs the public information of the Twitter user and that of his or her followers and friends to predict his or her location without using GPS data. A convenient data set of Twitter users is gathered and used to test our proposed algorithm using KNIME software. The proposed algorithm is compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms, and results showed that our proposed algorithm significantly outperforms other location detection algorithms by using Twitter users from different countries.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Twitter
  • Social media
  • KNIME
  • Followers
  • Time zone
  • Location
  • Friends
Otwarty dostęp

Spectral filtering of photovoltaic cells using novel bio-filter: silver-coated Ixora extract using water as a solution

Data publikacji: 31 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 7

Abstrakt

Abstract

Over the years, it has been noticed that there is a rising interest in spectral filtering to increase the overall efficiency or output of photovoltaic solar systems. Meanwhile methods for comparing the performance of spectral filtering and the effects of optical spectral filter design on system performance are not well developed. This research emphasizes on two areas, that is, to screen plant extract to serve as a coating to elongate the life span or improve the efficiency of solar cells, to test for the different spectral incident on solar cells and to apply silver-coated plant extract to filter spectral hitting the PV cells. The parameters (voltage, current, and radiation) obtained during the experiment indicate the benefit of using plant extract to coat the PV cells’ surface. Data are obtained to assess the performance of experimental spectral filters in different spectral filtering configurations. The result shows that the efficiency of the PV cell increased by 8%. This research has shown that these spectra filtering method is viable. Hence, it is recommended that solar companies concentrate on the protective layer to improve solar cell efficiency.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Photovoltaic
  • Bio-filter
  • Spectral filtering
  • Solar energy
  • Energy
Otwarty dostęp

Spectral filtering copper-coated hibiscus-butanol extract for photovoltaic cells

Data publikacji: 31 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 6

Abstrakt

Abstract

The efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) panel was queried in this research. Past research on spectra response has shown that the maximum solar response, i.e. using color filters is 24%. This result is not very good for a PV system exposed to the harsh weather condition in any part of the African continent. In this research, the bio-filter was used to perform spectral filtering of harmful solar radiation hitting the surface of the solar PV panel. The bio-filter was synthesized from the extract of the hibiscus flower. Hibiscus is a common plant found in almost all parts of Africa. The results show that the bio-filter has a relative efficiency of 94%. This makes the product a novel to be adopted in Africa and other tropical belts to elongate the life span and performance of the solar photovoltaic panel.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Solar energy
  • Solar
  • Spectral filtering
  • Photovoltaic cells
  • Bio-filter
Otwarty dostęp

Implementation of a low cost, solar charged RF modem for underwater wireless sensor networks

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 11

Abstrakt

Abstract

Underwater communication (UWC) has become an attractive research field over the past few decades. This is mainly due to the increase in underwater applications such as exploration, monitoring, and warning systems. Traditional communications techniques face many obstacles when used underwater. Optical communications require line of sight which is not always maintained underwater due to turbulence. Acoustic communication does not suffer from that, however, it can only operate with very low rates. While radio frequency (RF) communication can only operate over short distances due to the attenuation from the water, it can deliver relatively high data rates and does not require line of sight nor affected by turbulence. Additionally, it does not suffer much when crossing the air–water boundaries. Moreover, underwater nodes require a new method of powering as it is not feasible to change their batteries when they are depleted. And so, we have investigated underwater solar power harvesters as a means to power the underwater nodes. In this paper, we design, implement, integrate, and test a low cost solar powered RF underwater modem to be used as a building block of an underwater wireless sensor network. The system was tested with multiple nodes to allow multi-hop communications in order to increase the communication distance. Results show that the network operates with a moderate to high throughput from end to end.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Underwater communications
  • Solar power
  • WSN
  • RF transceivers
  • Monocrystalline solar cells
Otwarty dostęp

MDRP: An Energy-Efficient Multi-Disjoint Routing protocol in WSNs for Smart Grids

Data publikacji: 18 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 15

Abstrakt

Abstract

Rapid increase in sensor electronics has expanded the call for sensor networks in IoT-based devices. Smart grid is a part of IoT framework, which can be used to screen and manage traffic congestion, electricity influxes, extreme weather, and so on. This is done through a network of transmission lines, smart sensors, and smart meters. It is required to distribute and accumulate information remotely on timely basis from different stages of the grid. The periodic data from the smart meters are transferred to MDMS through WSN’s. In WSN’s, depletion of energy due to unequal load on the sensors is a serious issue, which is to be addressed as it affects the operations of the entire network. To assist these traffic requirements and to boost the network lifetime, asynchronous work sleep cycle approach can be used to create node connections. In this article, an energy-efficient adaptive fuzzy-based multi-disjoint routing protocol in WSN’s for smart grids abbreviated as (MDRP) is proposed, where the next hop node is decided through fuzzy logic. Once the subsequent node is decided, a spanning tree is constructed with the sink node as its root, which calculates the optimal path cost, to transmit the collected data. Furthermore, the simulation results show that the proposed MDRP performs better in terms of network lifetime, packet delivery ratio, total energy consumption, etc.

Słowa kluczowe

  • WSN in smart grids
  • Work sleep approach
  • Spanning tree
  • Optimal path cost
  • Energy efficiency
Otwarty dostęp

Guaranteed time slot trade-off in QOS improvement with IEEE standard 802.15.4 for wireless sensor networks at the MAC layer

Data publikacji: 18 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 12

Abstrakt

Abstract

The performance of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with IEEE standard 802.15.4 at different types of devices can be improved with the appropriate utilization of guaranteed time slots (GTSs) in superframe at the media access control (MAC) layer. GTS implementation at the MAC layer enhances quality of service (QoS) by providing guarantee for delivery in time to the data collected at real time by the reduced functional device (RFD) from the surroundings to be transmitted to the fully functional device (FFD). Results prove that trade-off has to be done in implementing GTSs for various network performance parameters like queue size, queuing delay, CSMA medium access delay, CSMA transmission failures, and network output load to improve QoS.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Wireless sensor network (WSN)
  • Guaranteed time slot (GTS)
  • IEEE 802.15.4
  • Superframe
  • Fully functional device (FFD)
  • Reduced functional device (RFD)
Otwarty dostęp

Dynamical analysis and controllers performance evaluation for single degree-of-freedom system

Data publikacji: 12 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 12

Abstrakt

Abstract

In automation and mechatronics applications, mass spring damper system (MSDS) plays a significant role in ensuring model serviceability and safety. The system’s dynamic of this mechanical system is quite challenging to control. In this paper, the system is a single degree of freedom (SDOF) spring mass system. The issue of performance evaluation of three controllers, linear proportional integral derivate (LPID), nonlinear PID (NPID), and fuzzy logic controller (FLC), is presented. FLC demands that experience be built on information based on a rule. It has two inputs, one of which is the displacement and the other is the velocity, and force is calculated for forced damped vibration control for a single degree of freedom system. The method used for defuzzification is the center of gravity (COG). However, effective control of a system depends largely on the accuracy of the mathematical model that predicts its dynamics behavior. The mathematical model for the MSDS is based on a set of nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equations to simulate the dynamic accurately. The proposed control schemes are implemented with the aid of MATLAB and SIMULINK to investigate the system performance. The sequence of the three controllers in terms of performance is as follows: the first of them is FLC and then in some dominant cases this is NPID by comparison with the LPID and one without any controller cases. Also, FLC displays more effectiveness and efficiency than the system without this controller after a comparative of system analysis performance evaluation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • FLC
  • LPID
  • NPID
  • MSDS
  • SDOF
  • Mamdani system
  • Defuzzification
Otwarty dostęp

The feasibility of motion sensor-based smart RFID system in improving the power saving

Data publikacji: 18 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 9

Abstrakt

Abstract

RFID (radio frequency identification) implementation in large buildings requires setting up a grid that implies a lot of RFID readers. Although these readers are not power greedy, their usage can affect the electricity bill in the long run. In this paper, we study the worthiness of upgrading to a motion sensor-based smart RFID system, from a power-efficiency point of view. A decision-support protocol is developed for this purpose that considers the occupancy ratio of the environment where the system is implanted in deciding its feasibility, given that the energy drain depends on it. Moreover, we discuss the optimal way for integrating the motion sensor into the RFID system’s architecture, as this insertion is able to highly reduce the power consumption in the standby mode, in exchange for slightly augmenting the drain during the reading mode. Finally, the developed decision-support protocol is demonstrated through an analogy on the studied upgrade to assess its overall feasibility. The overall results confirm the suitability of the upgrade for most environments.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Radio frequency identification
  • Microcontroller
  • Motion sensor
  • Power saving
  • Smart system
Otwarty dostęp

Handling temporal constraints in interaction protocols for intelligent multi-agent systems

Data publikacji: 12 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 15

Abstrakt

Abstract

This research focuses on handling temporal constraints in interaction protocols for multi-agent systems. There is a dire need of standardized interaction protocols that can be used to handle timing aspects in real-time multi-agent system’s negotiation. The most commonly used Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents Protocol lacks the appropriate specification in this regard. In real-time systems timing constraint is a major concern for all of its tasks and goals. Agents require real-time responses and must eliminate the possibility of massive communication between them. The timing specification of these real-time multi-agent systems in which agents communicate with each other to achieve their goals within deadline will be of great value for their correct functioning. A high degree of dependability and predictability is expected from real-time software agents. The basis of our work is the standardized interaction protocols to support the communication between agents in real-time environment and this is possible via message passing. By incorporation of well-defined timing parameters in Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents performatives, we have enabled them to be used in any real-time multi-agent’s communication. We demonstrate the usage and effectiveness of our proposed real-time performatives using a case study of monitoring boats in marine reserves in which the agents interact with each other to accomplish their goals.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Multi-agent systems
  • Real-time systems
  • FIPA performatives
  • Agents communication
  • Real-time communication
  • Interaction protocols
Otwarty dostęp

1/10th scale autonomous vehicle based on convolutional neural network

Data publikacji: 25 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 17

Abstrakt

Abstract

A vehicle capable of using sensors to detect and control its driving actions is called an autonomous vehicle. The development of autonomous vehicles caters to many application areas in the technological advancement of society. This research paper shows a demonstration and implementation of an autonomous vehicle based on a convolutional neural network. The vehicle uses a 1/10th scale RC car as its primary base for the system control with the camera as its primary input. For the computing platform, a Raspberry Pi 4 microprocessor board is used. To enhance the capabilities, the ultrasonic sensor has been implemented in the system as well. The unique aspect of this project is the system design, the CAD modeling, and the track built used to train and test the self-driving capability of the car. The CNN model and the software algorithm also are exclusive to this research project. This research has potential in a variety of application areas in education and also for robotics and autonomous car enthusiasts.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Autonomous vehicle
  • Convolutional neural network
  • Raspberry pi 4
  • Ultrasonic sensor
  • Camera
Otwarty dostęp

IoT enabled sensor node: a tutorial paper

Data publikacji: 31 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 18

Abstrakt

Abstract

A descriptive guide to develop smart sensor nodes for Internet of Things (IoT) application has been presented in the paper. The current technology of low-power wide area network (LPWAN) which transmits data with low power consumption over a wide area has been illustrated in the scope of this project. An overview of the transition of IoT devices from a limited range personal area network to wide area network is justified. A sensor node has been developed and tested to validate the implementation of a LoRa network, which can be an exemplar for sensor nodes for various applications.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Wireless sensor network application
  • IoT
  • LoRa
  • LPP
  • LPWAN
  • Arduino MKR1300
  • OTAA protocol
  • The Things Network (TTN)
  • Adafruit IO
Otwarty dostęp

Development of an automated water management system in orchards in southern Thailand

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 7

Abstrakt

Abstract

Traditional agriculture-based orchards often encounter quality problems that do not meet the market demand. Technology development is required for increasing the quality of the production and reducing the production costs. The objective of this research is to develop an automated water management system to improve production in orchards and implementing them in the field. The proposed water management system contains the equipment for water supply systems, automatic measurement, and control systems. The system was developed first inside a demonstration fruit garden. Afterward, a set of water management systems was installed in the mangosteen and durian gardens of farmers, and the system was controlled via mobile phones. The results are promising and showed that the proposed system might be useful for reducing production costs by reducing labor, water, and electricity costs. Moreover, the farmers were able to produce a higher amount of quality products in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Durian
  • Mangosteen
  • Nakhon Si Thammarat
  • Automatic water management systems
Otwarty dostęp

Indonesian traffic sign detection based on Haar-PHOG features and SVM classification

Data publikacji: 05 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 15

Abstrakt

Abstract

Segmentation and feature extraction contributes to improved accuracy in traffic sign detection. As traffic signs are often located in complex environments, it is essential to develop feature extraction based on shapes. The Haar–PHOG feature is a development of both HOG and PHOG based on Canny edge detection. One of its advantages is that PHOG feature conducts calculation in four different frequencies of LL, HL, LH, and HH. Results from experiments on four roads in Central Java and Yogyakarta using SVM classification show that the use of the Haar–PHOG feature provides a better result than the use of HOG and PHOG.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Haar–PHOG
  • HOG
  • PHOG
  • SVM
  • Traffic signs
Otwarty dostęp

Salt and sugar detection system using a compact microstrip patch antenna

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 9

Abstrakt

Abstract

One of the reasons for many diseases such as diabetes, stroke, high blood pressure, kidney disease, etc., is the excess consumption of salt and sugar in the diet. So, to minimize these health problems, it is important to consume appropriate quantity of salt and sugar in the diet. This paper presents the design and development of a salt and sugar detection system using a low cost compact microstrip patch antenna. The salt and sugar detection system using a compact microstrip antenna is based upon the variation of antenna parameters in the solutions of different concentrations of salt and sugar. The defected ground structure (DGS) is utilized for decreasing the size and improving the performance of the proposed microstrip patch antenna. The antenna is fed by using a microstrip line and it resonates at 2.4 GHz. The designed antenna is simulated and optimized using the computer simulation technology (CST) microwave studio. The antenna with optimized dimensions is fabricated and measured. The measurements of the return loss of the fabricated microstrip patch antenna for various solutions with different concentrations of salt and sugar are performed. The measured results confirm that the proposed compact microstrip patch antenna is suitable to detect the concentration of salt and sugar in the water. From the measured results, it is observed that the return loss of the antenna decreases, when the concentration of salt and sugar is increased. The proposed antenna is also suitable for compact 2.4 GHz wireless local area networks (WLAN) applications.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Compact size
  • Defected ground structure (DGS)
  • Microstrip patch antenna
  • Reflection coefficient
  • Salt and sugar detection
Otwarty dostęp

Gain analysis of high-speed DWDM link with different optical amplification configurations

Data publikacji: 19 Sep 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 8

Abstrakt

Abstract

Evolution of data-hungry devices has prompted the need for an exclusive communication infrastructure that can cater to the exponential increase in the need for high-speed data access. Since optical fiber links are inherently capable of supporting high-transmission data rates, fiber systems will be an integral part of the larger strategy to provide cost-effective high-speed data access to end users. This paper demonstrates the 100 × 40-Gbps dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM)-based 100-km-long fiber link whose performance has been analyzed using various configurations of a hybrid optical amplifier. The performance of the proposed link has been investigated using parameters like gain (dB) and bit error rate (BER). During the analysis, it has been observed that hybrid amplification, i.e., combination semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), and Raman amplifier, delivers overwhelming gain (dB) in comparison to the conventional stand-alone amplifier. Further, it has been seen that among different positional configurations of the amplifier, symmetrically positioned hybrid amplifiers achieved the gain of 18.6 dB, while the SOA link with similar configuration and parameters delivered link gain of merely −2.6 dB. In terms of BER performance, the symmetric hybrid configuration was outstanding with BER of 10−5, while preamplification link BER was merely 10−3, and post amplification being the most undesirable. The proposed link has been designed and investigated using OptiSystemTM 14.2.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Gain analysis
  • EDFA
  • hybrid amplifiers
  • positional configuration
Otwarty dostęp

Concept Drift Evolution In Machine Learning Approaches: A Systematic Literature Review

Data publikacji: 02 Feb 2021
Zakres stron: 1 - 16

Abstrakt

Abstract

Concept Drift’s issue is a decisive problem of online machine learning, which causes massive performance degradation in the analysis. The Concept Drift is observed when data’s statistical properties vary at a different time step and deteriorate the trained model’s accuracy and make them ineffective. However, online machine learning has significant importance to fulfill the demands of the current computing revolution. Moreover, it is essential to understand the existing Concept Drift handling techniques to determine their associated pitfalls and propose robust solutions. This study attempts to summarize and clarify the empirical pieces of evidence of the Concept Drift issue and assess its applicability to meet the current computing revolution. Also, this study provides a few possible research directions and practical implications of Concept Drift handling.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Big data analysis
  • Concept drift
  • Nonstationary environment
  • Adaptive machine learning
  • Online learning
Otwarty dostęp

Impact of lanthanum doped zirconium oxide (LaZrO2) gate dielectric material on FinFET inverter

Data publikacji: 19 Nov 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 10

Abstrakt

Abstract

Fin-typed field effect transistor (FinFET) has considered a suitable device for low power and high-performance applications. The incorporation of gate dielectric lanthanum doped zirconium oxide (LaZrO2) in the 14 nm silicon on insulator (SOI) FinFET not only enhanced effective carrier mobility but also diminished the short channel effects (SCEs). The FinFET embodiment with LaZrO2 has dwindled subthreshold swing (SS), reduced drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL), and raised on-current to off-current ratio as a contrast to SiO2-based FinFET. A remarkable enhancement of 1.18×, 11×, and 1.3× for transconductance (gm), early voltage (VEA), and an intrinsic gain (AV), respectively, have been investigated. Further, LaZrO2-based n-FinFET and p-FinFET devices have devised with equal dimensions. The improved noise margin of 0.375 V using a single-fin FinFET-based inverter circuit has proven the acceptance of this device in a circuit application.

Słowa kluczowe

  • FinFET
  • Inverter
  • Dielectric
  • Subthreshold swing
  • Drain-induced barrier lowering
  • Transconductance
Otwarty dostęp

Compact wideband-printed antenna for sub-6 GHz fifth-generation applications

Data publikacji: 20 Nov 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 10

Abstrakt

Abstract

The design of a compact wideband partial slotted ground rectangular-printed antenna is presented. The design approach utilizing the slotted partial ground plane is much more flexible for improving the antenna performance. A detailed design guideline to estimate the antenna dimensions is given, which is based on mathematical and parametric analysis. The effects of variation of length of the ground and slot position in the ground plane are investigated. The simulation has been performed by using HFSS V20 simulator. The designed antenna is meant for being operated in the C band of super-high-frequency (SHF) spectrum and in the n77 band (3.3-4.2 GHz) and n78 band (3.3-3.8 GHz) of frequency range 1 (FR1) in sub-6 GHz 5G-frequency bands. The designed antenna is showing a wide bandwidth (700 MHz) with a low-reflection coefficient of −31.15 dB. The wide bandwidth and compact size of the antenna makes it suitable for use in sub-6 GHz 5G compact wireless communication systems. The measured results of the antenna prototype are firmly authenticated with simulation estimations.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Rectangular patch antenna (RPA)
  • Sub-6 GHz 5G bands
  • Bandwidth (BW)
  • Reflection coefficient
  • Partial ground (PG)
  • Partial slotted ground (PSG)
  • Flame retardant 4 (FR4)
Otwarty dostęp

The command of comfort in an intelligent building by speech classification and image classification for energy optimization

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 28

Abstrakt

Abstract

Comfort command is a solution to optimize energy in an intelligent building. Our goal is to achieve an optimum and robust system, for the command of comfort. Speech and image classification are considered to be two systems that have worked well for comfort command, but both systems have drawbacks. After several studies, we noted that the inconveniences of the speech classification are solved by adding in parallel a classification of the image and the same thing for the disadvantages of the classification of images that are resolved by adding in parallel a system of speech classification. It means that these two systems work at the same time to achieve a robust and optimum system for comfort command.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Comfort
  • Intelligent building
  • Speech processing
  • Image processing
  • SVM
  • Classification
Otwarty dostęp

The Discriminant Analysis Approach for Evaluating Effectiveness of Learning in an Instructor-Led Virtual Classroom

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 15

Abstrakt

Abstract

The effective learning requires putting down various associations of new ideas to old ones to integrate some innovative thoughts. The learners must change the associations among the things they already know, or even reject some long-held attitude about the world. The choice to the essential reformation is to deform the new information to fit their old ideas or to reject the new information entirely. Learners come to the classroom with their own ideas, some may be correct and some may not be, concerning roughly each topic they are expected to come across. If their perception and misunderstanding are unnoticed or discharged out of control, it affects the learning of a learner. The learners must be encouraged to build up new observation by seeing how such observation helps them make better sense of the world. The objective of this research paper is to put down the fundamentals of learning that promotes effective learning in an instructor-led virtual classroom and to analyze the learners’ learning performance using the Discriminant Analysis, a data mining technique. The Discriminant Analysis uses statistically significant determinants to predict learners’ learning in a classroom.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Cognitive approach
  • Cognitive skills
  • Data mining
  • Discriminant Analysis
  • Effective learning
  • Statistical techniques
Otwarty dostęp

Performance enhancement of in-network probabilistic aggregation (PEPA) for vehicular ad-hoc networks

Data publikacji: 05 Jan 2021
Zakres stron: 1 - 9

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the current scenario of vehicular communication, it is very difficult to believe that the aggregated packet of information is not malicious. The algorithm is developed to allocate probability to the packet transmitted by the cluster head depending upon, the number of vehicles involved in creating a clustered information. The aggregated packet with the highest value of probabilistic correctness is considered by the receiving-end cluster head when multiple packets of similar information with related timestamps are received. The performance of the technique is tested under varying vehicular densities and data-sending rates. This scheme provides robust aggregation performance in comparison to the existing state-of-the-art structured and structure-free aggregation techniques.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Aggregation
  • Broadcast storm
  • Information dissemination
  • MANET
  • Structured aggregation
  • Structure-free aggregation
  • VANET
33 Artykułów

Research-Article

Otwarty dostęp

Modeling and experimental validation of the hysteretic dynamics of shape memory alloy springs

Data publikacji: 28 Jan 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 10

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this work, the hysteretic dynamics of a pseudoelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) spring is modeled and tested. A constitutive model of SMA spring is constructed by combining the theory of mechanical spring and the derived SMA constitutive relation. The SMA spring recovery force is modeled by employing the Euler–Lagrange equation based on a non-convex potential function. A macroscopic differential model is formulated to describe the hysteretic dynamics and the pseudoelasticity of the SMA spring. A theoretical method for estimating the equivalent stretch ratio at a specific temperature of SMA spring is given. Numerical simulations were presented in studying the influence of the stretch ratio at a temperature of 50, 70, and 90°C. The experimental tests are performed and presented together with their numerical counterparts. The comparison is made between numerical and experimental results to validate the proposed model for SMA spring.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Shape memory alloys spring
  • Martensitic transformation
  • Pseudoelasticity
  • Differential model
Otwarty dostęp

Robust single target tracking using determinantal point process observations

Data publikacji: 01 Feb 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 8

Abstrakt

Abstract

The efficiency and robustness of modern visual tracking systems are largely dependent on the object detection system at hand. Bernoulli and Multi-Bernoulli filters have been proposed for visual tracking without explicit detections (image observations). However, these previous approaches do not fully exploit discriminative features for tracking. In this paper, we propose a novel Bernoulli filter with determinantal point processes observations. The proposed observation model can select groups of detections with high detection scores and low correlation among the observed features; thus achieving a robust filter.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Visual tracking
  • Bernoulli filter.
Otwarty dostęp

Study on the suitability of ZnO thin film for dynamic pressure sensing application

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 9

Abstrakt

Abstract

ZnO thin films were prepared by RF reactive magnetron sputtering on phynox substrate at room temperature for four different thicknesses by varying deposition duration. The structural and morphological properties and composition of these films were characterized using XRD, SEM, and EDS, respectively. Suitability of these films for dynamic pressure sensing applications and the effect of film thickness on dynamic pressure sensing were evaluated experimentally using a shock tube equipment. Shock tube test results show the pure dynamic behavior of ZnO films with fast rise and discharge. Sensors with higher film thickness showed improved sensitivity which is on par with commercially available dynamic pressure sensors. This work demonstrates that the cost-effective sensors based on ZnO thin film are capable of sensing dynamic pressures for different pressure ranges.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ZnO
  • Thin film
  • Sputtering
  • Dynamic pressure sensor
  • Shock tube.
Otwarty dostęp

Intelligent agent for formal modelling of temporal multi-agent systems

Data publikacji: 05 Feb 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 13

Abstrakt

Abstract

Software systems are becoming complex and dynamic with the passage of time, and to provide better fault tolerance and resource management they need to have the ability of self-adaptation. Multi-agent systems paradigm is an active area of research for modeling real-time systems. In this research, we have proposed a new agent named SA-ARTIS-agent, which is designed to work in hard real-time temporal constraints with the ability of self-adaptation. This agent can be used for the formal modeling of any self-adaptive real-time multi-agent system. Our agent integrates the MAPE-K feedback loop with ARTIS agent for the provision of self-adaptation. For an unambiguous description, we formally specify our SA-ARTIS-agent using Time-Communicating Object-Z (TCOZ) language. The objective of this research is to provide an intelligent agent with self-adaptive abilities for the execution of tasks with temporal constraints. Previous works in this domain have used Z language which is not expressive to model the distributed communication process of agents. The novelty of our work is that we specified the non-terminating behavior of agents using active class concept of TCOZ and expressed the distributed communication among agents. For communication between active entities, channel communication mechanism of TCOZ is utilized. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed agent using a real-time case study of traffic monitoring system.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Formal methods
  • Self-adaptation
  • Autonomic computing
  • Multi-agent systems
  • Real-time systems
  • TCOZ
Otwarty dostęp

An incremental meter placement method for state estimation considering collinear measurements and high leverage points

Data publikacji: 04 Feb 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 12

Abstrakt

Abstract

The performance of the power system state estimation (SE) is influenced by the configuration of the meters and measurement redundancy. Therefore, the measurement set needs to be updated by installing new SCADA meters and phasor measurement units for improving the quality of the SE solution. However, the potential inconsistency between the existing meters and the new meters should be addressed. Otherwise, the additional meters may lead to numerical problems such as collinearity (linear dependence due to duplicated measurements) and the existence of high leverage points (HLPs) (influential measurements). Hence, this paper proposes an incremental meter placement method. The proposed method utilizes the HLPs and aims to improve the numerical performance of the SE and facilitate the elimination of bad data. The cuckoo search optimization is used for selecting the optimal locations and the numbers of the new meters. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested on UK 18-bus, the IEEE 30-bus, and 118-bus systems and simulation results show improvements in the quality of the SE solution.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Cuckoo search
  • Collinearity
  • High leverage points
  • Phasor measurement unit (PMU)
  • State estimation.
Otwarty dostęp

LiDAR derived terrain wetness indices to infer soil moisture above underground pipelines

Data publikacji: 15 Feb 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 7

Abstrakt

Abstract

Corrosion of external cast-iron pipe surfaces, a major contributor to pipe failure, has been attributed to the free water in the soil surrounding the pipe. Because observation at pipe depth is difficult, a potential proxy is the soil surface moisture. Herein highly accurate elevation data derived from airborne light detection and ranging is used to model the distribution of soil water in urban catchments containing pipe infrastructure. The results are compared with local soil moisture Theta Probe measurements along the pipe. The results show potential to identify wetter spots above underground infrastructure, which may inform its corrosion potential, without digging up the asset.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Pipe corrosion
  • Pipe breaks
  • Topographic wetness index
  • SAGA wetness index
  • Infrastructure assessment
Otwarty dostęp

Forest fire detection using wireless sensor networks

Data publikacji: 18 Apr 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 8

Abstrakt

Abstract

A forest has different types of vegetation like herbs, trees, shrubs and different species of animals. In one way or other, these renewable resources are very essential to mankind. Forest fires are the most common hazards in forests which lead to serious destruction of forest wealth, bio-diversity and natural habitat. Early detection and preventive measures are necessary to protect forests from fires. In order to achieve early detection, there are two most used traditional methods of human surveillance. One is directly through human observation and the other is through distant video surveillance. Doing the observation through distant mode, one can achieve surveillance through automation approach of detection. Automated fire alert detection system proposed in this paper comprises of two sensors, namely smoke and fire. These sensors detect change in a measurable physical quantity and help in the early detection of a forest fire. A key feature of this fire detection system is to alert the user remotely by using a GSM module, whenever a fire is detected.

Słowa kluczowe

  • GSM (global system for mobile communication)
  • Smoke sensor
  • Flame sensor
  • WSN (wireless sensor network)
  • Surveillance
  • RF (radio frequency)
Otwarty dostęp

A novel approach to label road defects in video data: semi-automated video analysis

Data publikacji: 30 Apr 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 9

Abstrakt

Abstract

Road defects like potholes have a major impact on road safety and comfort. Detecting these defects manually is a highly time consuming and expensive task. Previous approaches to detect road events automatically using acceleration sensors and gyro meters showed good results. However, these results could be significantly improved with additional usage of image analysis. A large, labeled image data set is required for training and validation. This paper presents a method to automate parts of the labeling task. The method is based on a simple two step approach: at first, an unsupervised algorithm detects possible events based on the acceleration data and filters those video sequences with defects. Second, a human operator decides based on the short video sequences if the event was due to an existing road defect and labels the corresponding area in an image.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Pothole detection
  • Road defect detection
  • Image labeling
  • Acceleration data processing
  • Sensor fusion
  • Intelligent sensor systems
Otwarty dostęp

A review of privacy-preserving human and human activity recognition

Data publikacji: 25 May 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 13

Abstrakt

Abstract

Many automation technologies using software are making humans convenient. One of these technologies is to collect data through cameras and sensors that are common in personal life and automatically recognize human and human activities. The goal of automation is to analyze the various types of big data that are difficult to perform mechanical data mining. Raw data collected from cameras and sensors are nothing but big data before analysis. In this case, how to protect data by secure storage is the most important issue. However, when the context-aware semantic information such as a specific person and his behavior is extracted from the analysis, the security sensitivity is increased. In other words, the secondary information generated by interpreting and extracting personal location and behavioral information contained in images and videos is linked to other personal information, causing privacy infringement issues. Privacy issues become important because there is a lot of software that everyone can access. Therefore, it is necessary to study privacy protection methods in the automatic recognition of human and human activities. This paper analyzes the cutting-edge research trends, techniques, and issues of privacy-preserving human and human activity recognition.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Human recognition
  • Human activity recognition
  • Privacy protection
  • Machine learning
Otwarty dostęp

Non-destructive, non-invasive, in-line real-time phase-based reflectance for quality monitoring of fruit

Data publikacji: 29 May 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 10

Abstrakt

Abstract

Food quality monitoring in the production process is essential. The control of food quality and freshness is of growing interest for both consumer and food industry. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is popular as it does not need any sample preparation. However, NIR spectroscopy is costly and needs reliable calibration. A non-contact, non-destructive optical process is proposed in this work to monitor the quality of the food. It is shown that the reflected phase information can be used to detect the quality of the fruits. The color and the spectral reflectance change with storage. The changes in the spectral feature due to ripening or decay of apples are used to non-destructively monitor the quality of the fruit. A closed relationship between the reflected phase information and degradation is obtained. The developed model is simple, low cost, and does not need extensive calibration as compared to conventional technologies currently used like NIR besides being robust to skin color or appearances of the fruit. The phase-based reflectance spectroscopy could revolutionize the on/inline quality monitoring of the fruits.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Food quality monitoring
  • Phase-based reflectance spectrocopy
  • Polarization imaging
  • Real-time measurements
Otwarty dostęp

QRS complex detection and R–R interval computation based on discrete wavelet transform

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 11

Abstrakt

Abstract

QRS represented the most important part of ECG signal, so different researches and studies are performed for QRS recognition. In this paper, a new technique by using wavelet transform is used for de-noising ECG signal by using adaptive threshold, then DWT used to separate the high frequency from the low component, then compute the statistical information from low frequencies to be used in threshold computation, Based on these statics features, lower and upper threshold are calculated, which are updated according to number of peaks that are detected until two thresholds give same number of peaks, also the detected peaks are updated according to average R–R time. Results of (EDB) database was (Acc = 99.366%), while (LTSTDB) database was (Acc = 98.89%). The results are compared with other work and it is show that the proposed method gave better performance and can be used for QRS detection.

Słowa kluczowe

  • DWT
  • RR
  • HR
  • QRS
  • LTSTDB
  • EDB
Otwarty dostęp

Sliding mode control design for the attitude and altitude of the quadrotor UAV

Data publikacji: 01 Jul 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 13

Abstrakt

Abstract

Recently, the quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are attracting significant interest from researchers due to its widespread applications, which involve the civilian and military sectors. In this paper, a robust sliding mode control (SMC) algorithm is designed to stabilize the attitude and track the altitude of quadrotor UAV. The switching function in the SMC control law has been replaced by the error function to reduce the chattering influences. The chattering phenomenon is induced by the parameter uncertainties and external disturbances and results in critical issues, for instance, the vibration in the mechanical components. The simulation results of the traditional SMC and feedback linearization (FBL) are used as the benchmark to test and evaluate the performance of the proposed SMC, which proved that the proposed controller outperforms the traditional SMC and FBL controllers.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Quadrotor UAV
  • Sliding mode control
  • Feedback linearization
  • PID control
  • Chattering
Otwarty dostęp

A novel algorithm for estimation of Twitter users location using public available information

Data publikacji: 09 Jul 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 10

Abstrakt

Abstract

Social media networks are an attractive and hot research area in the big data community because of their numerous active users. One of the most widely studied topics in social networks is the prediction from the public available data. Recently, researchers have successfully predicted many statistical and human properties from social media networks using different machine learning algorithms. In this paper, a new efficient and accurate algorithm is proposed to predict the country location of a Twitter user using his or her public information only. The proposed algorithm employs the public information of the Twitter user and that of his or her followers and friends to predict his or her location without using GPS data. A convenient data set of Twitter users is gathered and used to test our proposed algorithm using KNIME software. The proposed algorithm is compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms, and results showed that our proposed algorithm significantly outperforms other location detection algorithms by using Twitter users from different countries.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Twitter
  • Social media
  • KNIME
  • Followers
  • Time zone
  • Location
  • Friends
Otwarty dostęp

Spectral filtering of photovoltaic cells using novel bio-filter: silver-coated Ixora extract using water as a solution

Data publikacji: 31 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 7

Abstrakt

Abstract

Over the years, it has been noticed that there is a rising interest in spectral filtering to increase the overall efficiency or output of photovoltaic solar systems. Meanwhile methods for comparing the performance of spectral filtering and the effects of optical spectral filter design on system performance are not well developed. This research emphasizes on two areas, that is, to screen plant extract to serve as a coating to elongate the life span or improve the efficiency of solar cells, to test for the different spectral incident on solar cells and to apply silver-coated plant extract to filter spectral hitting the PV cells. The parameters (voltage, current, and radiation) obtained during the experiment indicate the benefit of using plant extract to coat the PV cells’ surface. Data are obtained to assess the performance of experimental spectral filters in different spectral filtering configurations. The result shows that the efficiency of the PV cell increased by 8%. This research has shown that these spectra filtering method is viable. Hence, it is recommended that solar companies concentrate on the protective layer to improve solar cell efficiency.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Photovoltaic
  • Bio-filter
  • Spectral filtering
  • Solar energy
  • Energy
Otwarty dostęp

Spectral filtering copper-coated hibiscus-butanol extract for photovoltaic cells

Data publikacji: 31 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 6

Abstrakt

Abstract

The efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) panel was queried in this research. Past research on spectra response has shown that the maximum solar response, i.e. using color filters is 24%. This result is not very good for a PV system exposed to the harsh weather condition in any part of the African continent. In this research, the bio-filter was used to perform spectral filtering of harmful solar radiation hitting the surface of the solar PV panel. The bio-filter was synthesized from the extract of the hibiscus flower. Hibiscus is a common plant found in almost all parts of Africa. The results show that the bio-filter has a relative efficiency of 94%. This makes the product a novel to be adopted in Africa and other tropical belts to elongate the life span and performance of the solar photovoltaic panel.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Solar energy
  • Solar
  • Spectral filtering
  • Photovoltaic cells
  • Bio-filter
Otwarty dostęp

Implementation of a low cost, solar charged RF modem for underwater wireless sensor networks

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 11

Abstrakt

Abstract

Underwater communication (UWC) has become an attractive research field over the past few decades. This is mainly due to the increase in underwater applications such as exploration, monitoring, and warning systems. Traditional communications techniques face many obstacles when used underwater. Optical communications require line of sight which is not always maintained underwater due to turbulence. Acoustic communication does not suffer from that, however, it can only operate with very low rates. While radio frequency (RF) communication can only operate over short distances due to the attenuation from the water, it can deliver relatively high data rates and does not require line of sight nor affected by turbulence. Additionally, it does not suffer much when crossing the air–water boundaries. Moreover, underwater nodes require a new method of powering as it is not feasible to change their batteries when they are depleted. And so, we have investigated underwater solar power harvesters as a means to power the underwater nodes. In this paper, we design, implement, integrate, and test a low cost solar powered RF underwater modem to be used as a building block of an underwater wireless sensor network. The system was tested with multiple nodes to allow multi-hop communications in order to increase the communication distance. Results show that the network operates with a moderate to high throughput from end to end.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Underwater communications
  • Solar power
  • WSN
  • RF transceivers
  • Monocrystalline solar cells
Otwarty dostęp

MDRP: An Energy-Efficient Multi-Disjoint Routing protocol in WSNs for Smart Grids

Data publikacji: 18 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 15

Abstrakt

Abstract

Rapid increase in sensor electronics has expanded the call for sensor networks in IoT-based devices. Smart grid is a part of IoT framework, which can be used to screen and manage traffic congestion, electricity influxes, extreme weather, and so on. This is done through a network of transmission lines, smart sensors, and smart meters. It is required to distribute and accumulate information remotely on timely basis from different stages of the grid. The periodic data from the smart meters are transferred to MDMS through WSN’s. In WSN’s, depletion of energy due to unequal load on the sensors is a serious issue, which is to be addressed as it affects the operations of the entire network. To assist these traffic requirements and to boost the network lifetime, asynchronous work sleep cycle approach can be used to create node connections. In this article, an energy-efficient adaptive fuzzy-based multi-disjoint routing protocol in WSN’s for smart grids abbreviated as (MDRP) is proposed, where the next hop node is decided through fuzzy logic. Once the subsequent node is decided, a spanning tree is constructed with the sink node as its root, which calculates the optimal path cost, to transmit the collected data. Furthermore, the simulation results show that the proposed MDRP performs better in terms of network lifetime, packet delivery ratio, total energy consumption, etc.

Słowa kluczowe

  • WSN in smart grids
  • Work sleep approach
  • Spanning tree
  • Optimal path cost
  • Energy efficiency
Otwarty dostęp

Guaranteed time slot trade-off in QOS improvement with IEEE standard 802.15.4 for wireless sensor networks at the MAC layer

Data publikacji: 18 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 12

Abstrakt

Abstract

The performance of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with IEEE standard 802.15.4 at different types of devices can be improved with the appropriate utilization of guaranteed time slots (GTSs) in superframe at the media access control (MAC) layer. GTS implementation at the MAC layer enhances quality of service (QoS) by providing guarantee for delivery in time to the data collected at real time by the reduced functional device (RFD) from the surroundings to be transmitted to the fully functional device (FFD). Results prove that trade-off has to be done in implementing GTSs for various network performance parameters like queue size, queuing delay, CSMA medium access delay, CSMA transmission failures, and network output load to improve QoS.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Wireless sensor network (WSN)
  • Guaranteed time slot (GTS)
  • IEEE 802.15.4
  • Superframe
  • Fully functional device (FFD)
  • Reduced functional device (RFD)
Otwarty dostęp

Dynamical analysis and controllers performance evaluation for single degree-of-freedom system

Data publikacji: 12 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 12

Abstrakt

Abstract

In automation and mechatronics applications, mass spring damper system (MSDS) plays a significant role in ensuring model serviceability and safety. The system’s dynamic of this mechanical system is quite challenging to control. In this paper, the system is a single degree of freedom (SDOF) spring mass system. The issue of performance evaluation of three controllers, linear proportional integral derivate (LPID), nonlinear PID (NPID), and fuzzy logic controller (FLC), is presented. FLC demands that experience be built on information based on a rule. It has two inputs, one of which is the displacement and the other is the velocity, and force is calculated for forced damped vibration control for a single degree of freedom system. The method used for defuzzification is the center of gravity (COG). However, effective control of a system depends largely on the accuracy of the mathematical model that predicts its dynamics behavior. The mathematical model for the MSDS is based on a set of nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equations to simulate the dynamic accurately. The proposed control schemes are implemented with the aid of MATLAB and SIMULINK to investigate the system performance. The sequence of the three controllers in terms of performance is as follows: the first of them is FLC and then in some dominant cases this is NPID by comparison with the LPID and one without any controller cases. Also, FLC displays more effectiveness and efficiency than the system without this controller after a comparative of system analysis performance evaluation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • FLC
  • LPID
  • NPID
  • MSDS
  • SDOF
  • Mamdani system
  • Defuzzification
Otwarty dostęp

The feasibility of motion sensor-based smart RFID system in improving the power saving

Data publikacji: 18 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 9

Abstrakt

Abstract

RFID (radio frequency identification) implementation in large buildings requires setting up a grid that implies a lot of RFID readers. Although these readers are not power greedy, their usage can affect the electricity bill in the long run. In this paper, we study the worthiness of upgrading to a motion sensor-based smart RFID system, from a power-efficiency point of view. A decision-support protocol is developed for this purpose that considers the occupancy ratio of the environment where the system is implanted in deciding its feasibility, given that the energy drain depends on it. Moreover, we discuss the optimal way for integrating the motion sensor into the RFID system’s architecture, as this insertion is able to highly reduce the power consumption in the standby mode, in exchange for slightly augmenting the drain during the reading mode. Finally, the developed decision-support protocol is demonstrated through an analogy on the studied upgrade to assess its overall feasibility. The overall results confirm the suitability of the upgrade for most environments.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Radio frequency identification
  • Microcontroller
  • Motion sensor
  • Power saving
  • Smart system
Otwarty dostęp

Handling temporal constraints in interaction protocols for intelligent multi-agent systems

Data publikacji: 12 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 15

Abstrakt

Abstract

This research focuses on handling temporal constraints in interaction protocols for multi-agent systems. There is a dire need of standardized interaction protocols that can be used to handle timing aspects in real-time multi-agent system’s negotiation. The most commonly used Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents Protocol lacks the appropriate specification in this regard. In real-time systems timing constraint is a major concern for all of its tasks and goals. Agents require real-time responses and must eliminate the possibility of massive communication between them. The timing specification of these real-time multi-agent systems in which agents communicate with each other to achieve their goals within deadline will be of great value for their correct functioning. A high degree of dependability and predictability is expected from real-time software agents. The basis of our work is the standardized interaction protocols to support the communication between agents in real-time environment and this is possible via message passing. By incorporation of well-defined timing parameters in Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents performatives, we have enabled them to be used in any real-time multi-agent’s communication. We demonstrate the usage and effectiveness of our proposed real-time performatives using a case study of monitoring boats in marine reserves in which the agents interact with each other to accomplish their goals.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Multi-agent systems
  • Real-time systems
  • FIPA performatives
  • Agents communication
  • Real-time communication
  • Interaction protocols
Otwarty dostęp

1/10th scale autonomous vehicle based on convolutional neural network

Data publikacji: 25 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 17

Abstrakt

Abstract

A vehicle capable of using sensors to detect and control its driving actions is called an autonomous vehicle. The development of autonomous vehicles caters to many application areas in the technological advancement of society. This research paper shows a demonstration and implementation of an autonomous vehicle based on a convolutional neural network. The vehicle uses a 1/10th scale RC car as its primary base for the system control with the camera as its primary input. For the computing platform, a Raspberry Pi 4 microprocessor board is used. To enhance the capabilities, the ultrasonic sensor has been implemented in the system as well. The unique aspect of this project is the system design, the CAD modeling, and the track built used to train and test the self-driving capability of the car. The CNN model and the software algorithm also are exclusive to this research project. This research has potential in a variety of application areas in education and also for robotics and autonomous car enthusiasts.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Autonomous vehicle
  • Convolutional neural network
  • Raspberry pi 4
  • Ultrasonic sensor
  • Camera
Otwarty dostęp

IoT enabled sensor node: a tutorial paper

Data publikacji: 31 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 18

Abstrakt

Abstract

A descriptive guide to develop smart sensor nodes for Internet of Things (IoT) application has been presented in the paper. The current technology of low-power wide area network (LPWAN) which transmits data with low power consumption over a wide area has been illustrated in the scope of this project. An overview of the transition of IoT devices from a limited range personal area network to wide area network is justified. A sensor node has been developed and tested to validate the implementation of a LoRa network, which can be an exemplar for sensor nodes for various applications.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Wireless sensor network application
  • IoT
  • LoRa
  • LPP
  • LPWAN
  • Arduino MKR1300
  • OTAA protocol
  • The Things Network (TTN)
  • Adafruit IO
Otwarty dostęp

Development of an automated water management system in orchards in southern Thailand

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 7

Abstrakt

Abstract

Traditional agriculture-based orchards often encounter quality problems that do not meet the market demand. Technology development is required for increasing the quality of the production and reducing the production costs. The objective of this research is to develop an automated water management system to improve production in orchards and implementing them in the field. The proposed water management system contains the equipment for water supply systems, automatic measurement, and control systems. The system was developed first inside a demonstration fruit garden. Afterward, a set of water management systems was installed in the mangosteen and durian gardens of farmers, and the system was controlled via mobile phones. The results are promising and showed that the proposed system might be useful for reducing production costs by reducing labor, water, and electricity costs. Moreover, the farmers were able to produce a higher amount of quality products in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Durian
  • Mangosteen
  • Nakhon Si Thammarat
  • Automatic water management systems
Otwarty dostęp

Indonesian traffic sign detection based on Haar-PHOG features and SVM classification

Data publikacji: 05 Oct 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 15

Abstrakt

Abstract

Segmentation and feature extraction contributes to improved accuracy in traffic sign detection. As traffic signs are often located in complex environments, it is essential to develop feature extraction based on shapes. The Haar–PHOG feature is a development of both HOG and PHOG based on Canny edge detection. One of its advantages is that PHOG feature conducts calculation in four different frequencies of LL, HL, LH, and HH. Results from experiments on four roads in Central Java and Yogyakarta using SVM classification show that the use of the Haar–PHOG feature provides a better result than the use of HOG and PHOG.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Haar–PHOG
  • HOG
  • PHOG
  • SVM
  • Traffic signs
Otwarty dostęp

Salt and sugar detection system using a compact microstrip patch antenna

Data publikacji: 15 Sep 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 9

Abstrakt

Abstract

One of the reasons for many diseases such as diabetes, stroke, high blood pressure, kidney disease, etc., is the excess consumption of salt and sugar in the diet. So, to minimize these health problems, it is important to consume appropriate quantity of salt and sugar in the diet. This paper presents the design and development of a salt and sugar detection system using a low cost compact microstrip patch antenna. The salt and sugar detection system using a compact microstrip antenna is based upon the variation of antenna parameters in the solutions of different concentrations of salt and sugar. The defected ground structure (DGS) is utilized for decreasing the size and improving the performance of the proposed microstrip patch antenna. The antenna is fed by using a microstrip line and it resonates at 2.4 GHz. The designed antenna is simulated and optimized using the computer simulation technology (CST) microwave studio. The antenna with optimized dimensions is fabricated and measured. The measurements of the return loss of the fabricated microstrip patch antenna for various solutions with different concentrations of salt and sugar are performed. The measured results confirm that the proposed compact microstrip patch antenna is suitable to detect the concentration of salt and sugar in the water. From the measured results, it is observed that the return loss of the antenna decreases, when the concentration of salt and sugar is increased. The proposed antenna is also suitable for compact 2.4 GHz wireless local area networks (WLAN) applications.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Compact size
  • Defected ground structure (DGS)
  • Microstrip patch antenna
  • Reflection coefficient
  • Salt and sugar detection
Otwarty dostęp

Gain analysis of high-speed DWDM link with different optical amplification configurations

Data publikacji: 19 Sep 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 8

Abstrakt

Abstract

Evolution of data-hungry devices has prompted the need for an exclusive communication infrastructure that can cater to the exponential increase in the need for high-speed data access. Since optical fiber links are inherently capable of supporting high-transmission data rates, fiber systems will be an integral part of the larger strategy to provide cost-effective high-speed data access to end users. This paper demonstrates the 100 × 40-Gbps dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM)-based 100-km-long fiber link whose performance has been analyzed using various configurations of a hybrid optical amplifier. The performance of the proposed link has been investigated using parameters like gain (dB) and bit error rate (BER). During the analysis, it has been observed that hybrid amplification, i.e., combination semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), and Raman amplifier, delivers overwhelming gain (dB) in comparison to the conventional stand-alone amplifier. Further, it has been seen that among different positional configurations of the amplifier, symmetrically positioned hybrid amplifiers achieved the gain of 18.6 dB, while the SOA link with similar configuration and parameters delivered link gain of merely −2.6 dB. In terms of BER performance, the symmetric hybrid configuration was outstanding with BER of 10−5, while preamplification link BER was merely 10−3, and post amplification being the most undesirable. The proposed link has been designed and investigated using OptiSystemTM 14.2.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Gain analysis
  • EDFA
  • hybrid amplifiers
  • positional configuration
Otwarty dostęp

Concept Drift Evolution In Machine Learning Approaches: A Systematic Literature Review

Data publikacji: 02 Feb 2021
Zakres stron: 1 - 16

Abstrakt

Abstract

Concept Drift’s issue is a decisive problem of online machine learning, which causes massive performance degradation in the analysis. The Concept Drift is observed when data’s statistical properties vary at a different time step and deteriorate the trained model’s accuracy and make them ineffective. However, online machine learning has significant importance to fulfill the demands of the current computing revolution. Moreover, it is essential to understand the existing Concept Drift handling techniques to determine their associated pitfalls and propose robust solutions. This study attempts to summarize and clarify the empirical pieces of evidence of the Concept Drift issue and assess its applicability to meet the current computing revolution. Also, this study provides a few possible research directions and practical implications of Concept Drift handling.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Big data analysis
  • Concept drift
  • Nonstationary environment
  • Adaptive machine learning
  • Online learning
Otwarty dostęp

Impact of lanthanum doped zirconium oxide (LaZrO2) gate dielectric material on FinFET inverter

Data publikacji: 19 Nov 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 10

Abstrakt

Abstract

Fin-typed field effect transistor (FinFET) has considered a suitable device for low power and high-performance applications. The incorporation of gate dielectric lanthanum doped zirconium oxide (LaZrO2) in the 14 nm silicon on insulator (SOI) FinFET not only enhanced effective carrier mobility but also diminished the short channel effects (SCEs). The FinFET embodiment with LaZrO2 has dwindled subthreshold swing (SS), reduced drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL), and raised on-current to off-current ratio as a contrast to SiO2-based FinFET. A remarkable enhancement of 1.18×, 11×, and 1.3× for transconductance (gm), early voltage (VEA), and an intrinsic gain (AV), respectively, have been investigated. Further, LaZrO2-based n-FinFET and p-FinFET devices have devised with equal dimensions. The improved noise margin of 0.375 V using a single-fin FinFET-based inverter circuit has proven the acceptance of this device in a circuit application.

Słowa kluczowe

  • FinFET
  • Inverter
  • Dielectric
  • Subthreshold swing
  • Drain-induced barrier lowering
  • Transconductance
Otwarty dostęp

Compact wideband-printed antenna for sub-6 GHz fifth-generation applications

Data publikacji: 20 Nov 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 10

Abstrakt

Abstract

The design of a compact wideband partial slotted ground rectangular-printed antenna is presented. The design approach utilizing the slotted partial ground plane is much more flexible for improving the antenna performance. A detailed design guideline to estimate the antenna dimensions is given, which is based on mathematical and parametric analysis. The effects of variation of length of the ground and slot position in the ground plane are investigated. The simulation has been performed by using HFSS V20 simulator. The designed antenna is meant for being operated in the C band of super-high-frequency (SHF) spectrum and in the n77 band (3.3-4.2 GHz) and n78 band (3.3-3.8 GHz) of frequency range 1 (FR1) in sub-6 GHz 5G-frequency bands. The designed antenna is showing a wide bandwidth (700 MHz) with a low-reflection coefficient of −31.15 dB. The wide bandwidth and compact size of the antenna makes it suitable for use in sub-6 GHz 5G compact wireless communication systems. The measured results of the antenna prototype are firmly authenticated with simulation estimations.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Rectangular patch antenna (RPA)
  • Sub-6 GHz 5G bands
  • Bandwidth (BW)
  • Reflection coefficient
  • Partial ground (PG)
  • Partial slotted ground (PSG)
  • Flame retardant 4 (FR4)
Otwarty dostęp

The command of comfort in an intelligent building by speech classification and image classification for energy optimization

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 28

Abstrakt

Abstract

Comfort command is a solution to optimize energy in an intelligent building. Our goal is to achieve an optimum and robust system, for the command of comfort. Speech and image classification are considered to be two systems that have worked well for comfort command, but both systems have drawbacks. After several studies, we noted that the inconveniences of the speech classification are solved by adding in parallel a classification of the image and the same thing for the disadvantages of the classification of images that are resolved by adding in parallel a system of speech classification. It means that these two systems work at the same time to achieve a robust and optimum system for comfort command.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Comfort
  • Intelligent building
  • Speech processing
  • Image processing
  • SVM
  • Classification
Otwarty dostęp

The Discriminant Analysis Approach for Evaluating Effectiveness of Learning in an Instructor-Led Virtual Classroom

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2020
Zakres stron: 1 - 15

Abstrakt

Abstract

The effective learning requires putting down various associations of new ideas to old ones to integrate some innovative thoughts. The learners must change the associations among the things they already know, or even reject some long-held attitude about the world. The choice to the essential reformation is to deform the new information to fit their old ideas or to reject the new information entirely. Learners come to the classroom with their own ideas, some may be correct and some may not be, concerning roughly each topic they are expected to come across. If their perception and misunderstanding are unnoticed or discharged out of control, it affects the learning of a learner. The learners must be encouraged to build up new observation by seeing how such observation helps them make better sense of the world. The objective of this research paper is to put down the fundamentals of learning that promotes effective learning in an instructor-led virtual classroom and to analyze the learners’ learning performance using the Discriminant Analysis, a data mining technique. The Discriminant Analysis uses statistically significant determinants to predict learners’ learning in a classroom.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Cognitive approach
  • Cognitive skills
  • Data mining
  • Discriminant Analysis
  • Effective learning
  • Statistical techniques
Otwarty dostęp

Performance enhancement of in-network probabilistic aggregation (PEPA) for vehicular ad-hoc networks

Data publikacji: 05 Jan 2021
Zakres stron: 1 - 9

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the current scenario of vehicular communication, it is very difficult to believe that the aggregated packet of information is not malicious. The algorithm is developed to allocate probability to the packet transmitted by the cluster head depending upon, the number of vehicles involved in creating a clustered information. The aggregated packet with the highest value of probabilistic correctness is considered by the receiving-end cluster head when multiple packets of similar information with related timestamps are received. The performance of the technique is tested under varying vehicular densities and data-sending rates. This scheme provides robust aggregation performance in comparison to the existing state-of-the-art structured and structure-free aggregation techniques.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Aggregation
  • Broadcast storm
  • Information dissemination
  • MANET
  • Structured aggregation
  • Structure-free aggregation
  • VANET

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