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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 1 (2008): Zeszyt 2 (January 2008)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

15 Artykułów
access type Otwarty dostęp

Evolution Of A Suite Of Smart Millimetre Wave Radar Systems For Situational Awareness And Automation In Mines

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 315 - 353

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper defines the issues required for the development of successful visualisation sensors for use in open cut and underground mines. It examines the mine environment and considers both the reflectivity of the rock and attenuation effects of dust and water droplets. Millimetre wave technology, as an alternative to the more commonly used laser and sonar implementations, is selected due to its superior penetration through adverse atmospheric conditions. Of the available radar techniques, frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) is selected as being the most robust. The theoretical performance of a number of 94GHz FMCW millimetre wave radar systems is determined and these confirm the capability of these sensors in the mining environment. The paper describes implementations of FMCW radar sensors for simple ranging, two dimensional line scanning and three dimensional imaging that are based on a common ranging module and in the case of the 2D and 3D applications, a common swash-plate mirror scanner. Data obtained during field trials in mines is presented to justify the selection of this technology

Słowa kluczowe

  • Millimetre wave radar
  • mining
  • range measurement
  • scanning
  • imaging
  • FMCWIX
access type Otwarty dostęp

Refractive Index Sensitivity In Thinned Uv And Arc Induced Long-Period Gratings: A Comparative Study

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 354 - 367

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this work, a comparative study aimed to investigate the effects of cladding stripping on the external refractive index sensitivity in tapered and UV long period gratings is presented. Here, wet chemical etching combined with microscopic analysis allow us to identify the experimental dependence of the surrounding refractive index (SRI) sensitivity on the cladding radius for both grating types. The experimental results reveal that although in both cases a sensitivity enhancement is achieved by reducing the cladding thickness, the tapered devices offer substantially a greater sensitivity gain in respect to UV written devices

Słowa kluczowe

  • Long period gratings
  • fiber optic sensors
  • gratings fabrication
  • chemical etching of gratings
access type Otwarty dostęp

Evolutional Process Of Pavement Roughness Evaluation Benefiting From Sensor Technology

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 370 - 387

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present paper deals with a view of the availability of high-speed sensor profilers, which has given dramatically increased possibilities to analyze imperfections in pavement surfaces such as roughness. Technical parameters of such profilers, for sensing and analyzing pavement surface profile are described. In addition, the main investigation concentrates on the evolutional process of pavement roughness evaluation. For this purpose a high-speed laser profiler is used to sense roughness data on the surface of a road section that is analyzed both using the International Roughness Index (IRI) and the Power Spectral Density (PSD) approach. Based on the analysis results, some interesting options are shown considering pavement performance in terms of roughness

Słowa kluczowe

  • high-speed sensor profiler
  • roughness
  • pavement surface profile
  • IRI
  • PSD
access type Otwarty dostęp

Measuring Flow Parameters Of Particulate And Powdery Solids In Industrial Transportation Processes

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 388 - 402

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper provides an overview of existing technologies to measure flow parameters, such as material velocity and material concentration, in industrial transportation processes of particulate and powdery solids with a focus on pneumatic conveying. Restrictions, advantages and drawbacks of state of the art measurement principles are discussed. We show that capacitance-based sensing with suitable electrode topology allows for non-invasive, low-cost determination of flow parameters. Two industrial applications for material transportation - by means of pneumatic conveying and of screw conveyors - are presented

Słowa kluczowe

  • gas-solid flows
  • material conveying
  • capacitive sensing
access type Otwarty dostęp

Model Order Selection Criterion For Monitoring Haemoglobin Status In Dengue Patients Using Armax Model

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 403 - 419

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper describes the development of linear autoregressive moving average with exogenous input (ARMAX) models to monitor the progression of dengue infection based on hemoglobin status. Three differents ARMAX model order selection criteria namely Final Prediction Error (FPE), Akaike’s Information Criteria (AIC) and Lipschitz number have been evaluated and analyzed. The results showed that Lipschitz number has better accuracy compared to FPE and AIC. Finally based on Lipschitz number, appropriate model orders have been selected to monitor the progression of dengue patients based on hemoglobin status. Further work is to apply this appropriate model orders to nonlinear Autoregressive (NARMAX) model.

access type Otwarty dostęp

Intelligent Structural Elements Covered By Piezoelectric High-Polymer Film

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 420 - 429

Abstrakt

Abstract

If a piezoelectric material is deformed, the local electric field is caused by the electromechanical interaction. When a structural element with surface defects is subjected to the stress, the strain distribution appears also on the opposite surface to the defects. Such localized strain distribution can be measured by the electric potential distribution on a piezoelectric film mounted on the smooth surface. This paper shows that back-surface defects in typical structural elements can be visualized by mounted PVDF thin film

Słowa kluczowe

  • Piezoelectric material
  • surface defects
  • nondestructive evaluation technique
  • structural elements
access type Otwarty dostęp

Nanocrystalline ZnO based MEMS Gas Sensors with CMOS ASIC for Mining Applications

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 430 - 422

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper a nanocrystalline (nc) zinc oxide based hybrid gas sensor with signal conditioning ASIC has been reported for sensing and transmitting the information about methane concentration from the underground coalmine environment. A low power, low temperature nc zinc oxide MEMS based gas sensor has been designed, fabricated and tested for the purpose with a power consumption of ~70mW and sensitivity of 76.6 % at 1.0% methane concentration at a sensor operating temperature of 150°C. For transmitting the output of the gas sensor, a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) chip integrated with a low noise amplifier has been fabricated in 0.3 5 μm CMOS technology to convert the voltage output of the gas sensor to desirable frequency. The power consumption of the chip has been obtained to be around 3mW. The amplifier gain is set suitably ~13 to apply the desirable control voltage (~1.2V-3.2V)to the VCO. The noise of the amplifier has 1/2 been obtained to be around 2μV/Hz . The output frequency of the VCO varies from 20kHz to 100kHz for the change in methane concentration from 0 to 1%. The output of the VCO chip can be applied as a modulating signal to a commercially available transceiver, which transmits the signal to the control room.

access type Otwarty dostęp

Intelligent Method of Teaching Electromagnetics Theory: Measurements under Virtual Environment

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 443 - 458

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper details the development of a computer-assisted laboratory under virtual environment which has been put in place to teach the theoretical and practical aspects of Electromagnetics, without physically using any instruments to do the measurements. The virtual laboratory has allowed us to teach Electromagnetics in a new and effective way, helping our students master this difficult subject. In particular, virtual experiments have been designed which the students perform before attempting to do the corresponding real experiments. These virtual experiments help the students to appreciate the essential features of an experiment without being confused or distracted by the complexity of the real experimental procedures. We believe that learning is favorably augmented by using this innovative way of teaching the laboratory material through a computer-based, flexible and interactive environment of virtual experiments.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Electromagnetics
  • Virtual Laboratory
  • Instrumentation
  • Laplace’s equation
  • Ferromagnetism
  • B-H Characteristics Measurement
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Broadband Spectroscopic Sensor Probe

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 459 - 469

Abstrakt

Abstract

The electrical properties of many materials are closely related to their composition and to their moisture content in particular. For sensor development, characterising the response of a particular volume of material over a broad frequency range is desirable, since separate measurements could generate errors due to spatial variability. A coaxial probe has been designed for measurement of the permittivity of smooth and flat, solid or liquid samples over the frequency range from 1 Hz to 6 GHz. Although the probe is capable of a very wide frequency range, separate instruments are generally required, and here we focus on measurements above 1MHz. We demonstrate measurements in the frequency domain using a vector network analyser, and in the time domain using a broadband oscilloscope. For switching, we employed a coaxial switch and demonstrate how that is included within the instrument calibration. Calibration of the probe used three References: an open circuit, short circuit (indium foil) and a reference liquid, ideally chosen for a permittivity similar to that of the sample. The sample complex permittivity was calculated by a numerical model which used as inputs, the measured reflection coefficient and physical measurements of the probe geometry.

Słowa kluczowe

  • coaxial probe
  • spectroscopy
  • calibration
  • broadband
  • network analyser
access type Otwarty dostęp

Electrical Impedance Response of a Thick-Thin film Hybrid Anodic Nanoporous Alumina Sensor to Methanol Vapors.

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 470 - 479

Abstrakt

Abstract

The response of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous humidity sensor to an organic vapor such as methanol is presented in this paper. Sensors constructed at Northern Illinois University were exposed to various organic vapors. The characteristic response of the sensor to various vapor dilutions was analyzed using real and complex impedance parameters.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Nano-pores
  • hybrid thick film
  • sensors
  • methanol
  • AAO
  • Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy
  • Nyquist Plot
  • Cole-Cole Plot
  • Impedance
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Design Analysis Of Micromirrors In Stacked Configurations With Moving Electrodes

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 480 - 497

Abstrakt

Abstract

Micromirrors fabricated by MEMS technology have demonstrated to be important sensing or actuating components in many industrial and biomedical applications such as laser scanning displays, optical switch matrices, and biomedical imaging systems. In this paper, various actuation mechanisms for micromirrors are described. A new geometric configuration of a stacked micromirror that is actuated by electrostatic force is proposed and analyzed to show its superior performance in terms of deflection angle, actuation voltage, and frequency response

Słowa kluczowe

  • Micromirror
  • MEMS
  • Electrostatic Force Actuation
  • Deflection Angle
  • Endoscope
  • OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography)
  • Stacked Micromirror Configuration
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Novel Method For The Improvement In Thermoelectric Property Of Tin Oxide Thin Films And Its Application In Gas Sensing

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 498 - 511

Abstrakt

Abstract

Tin oxide thin film deposited on to glass substrates by the process of DC reactive magnetron sputtering has been used in our work. These films were characterized for their thermoelectric behavior. Further, a novel method has been developed to enhance the Seebeck coefficient of these films. Prior to the oxide film deposition on the glass substrate, thin metal films have been deposited at the two ends of the sample. High conductivity metals such as chromium, silver and copper were used for this purpose. On characterizing these films for their thermoelectric property, a high Seebeck coefficient of 400 μV/°C has been achieved. In addition to this, we also report the results of the gas sensing behavior of a sensor developed using this film which exhibited a maximum response to acetone gas at a relatively low temperature of 110 °C.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Tin oxide
  • Seebeck coefficient
  • Gas sensor
  • Chromium
  • Acetone
access type Otwarty dostęp

Automatic Adjustment For Laser Systems Using A Stochastic Binary Search Algorithm To Cope With Noisy Sensing Data

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 512 - 533

Abstrakt

Abstract

For laser systems, the adjustment of the optical axes is crucial. However, it is difficult for conventional methods to adjust the optical axes because they require high-precision positioning with μm resolutions and because laser systems have many adjustment points that have an interdependent relationship. We have proposed an automatic adjustment method using genetic algorithms to overcome this problem. However, there are still two problems that need to be solved: (1) long adjustment times, and (2) adjustment precision due to observational noise. In order to solve these problems, we propose a robust and efficient automatic adjustment method for the optical axes of laser systems using a binary search algorithm. Adjustment experiments for optical axes with 4-DOF demonstrate that the adjustment time could be reduced to half the conventional adjustment time with the genetic algorithm. Adjustment precision was enhanced by 60%

Słowa kluczowe

  • Automatic adjustment
  • Laser system
  • Binary search
  • Genetic Algorithm
  • Noisy environments
access type Otwarty dostęp

Enhanced Rssi-Based High Accuracy Real-Time User Location Tracking System For Indoor And Outdoor Environments

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 534 - 548

Abstrakt

Abstract

Existing researches on location tracking focus either entirely on indoor or entirely on outdoor by using different devices and techniques. Several solutions have been proposed to adopt a single location sensing technology that fits in both situations. This paper aims to track a user position in both indoor and outdoor environments by using a single wireless device with minimal tracking error. RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) technique together with enhancement algorithms is proposed to cater this solution. The proposed RSSI-based tracking technique is divided into two main phases, namely the calibration of RSSI coefficients (deterministic phase) and the distance along with position estimation of user location by iterative trilateration (probabilistic phase). A low complexity RSSI smoothing algorithm is implemented to minimize the dynamic fluctuation of radio signal received from each reference node when the target node is moving. Experiment measurements are carried out to analyze the sensitivity of RSSI. The results reveal the feasibility of these algorithms in designing a more accurate real-time position monitoring system

Słowa kluczowe

  • location sensing technology
  • Received Signal Strength Indication
  • deterministic phase
  • iterative trilateration
  • probabilistic phase
  • smoothing algorithm
  • dynamic fluctuation
  • real-time position
access type Otwarty dostęp

Guidance-Based On-Line Motion Planning For Autonomous Highway Overtaking

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 549 - 571

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the context of intelligent transportation, this paper presents a novel on-line trajectorygeneration method for autonomous lane changing. The proposed scheme is guidance based, realtime applicable, and ensures safety and passenger ride comfort. Based on the principles of Rendezvous Guidance, the passing vehicle is guided in real-time to match the position and velocity of a shadow target (i.e., rendezvous with) during the overtaking manoeuvre. The shadow target’s position and velocity are generated based on real-time sensory information gathered about the slower vehicle ahead of the passing vehicle as well as other vehicles which may be travelling in the passing lane. Namely, the guidance principle is also used to prevent any potential collision with these obstacle vehicles. The proposed method can be used as a fully autonomous system or simply as a driver-assistance tool. Extensive simulations and experiments, some of which are presented herein, clearly demonstrate the tangible efficiency of the proposed method.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Intelligent Transportation
  • Autonomous Vehicle Overtaking
  • Collision Avoidance
15 Artykułów
access type Otwarty dostęp

Evolution Of A Suite Of Smart Millimetre Wave Radar Systems For Situational Awareness And Automation In Mines

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 315 - 353

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper defines the issues required for the development of successful visualisation sensors for use in open cut and underground mines. It examines the mine environment and considers both the reflectivity of the rock and attenuation effects of dust and water droplets. Millimetre wave technology, as an alternative to the more commonly used laser and sonar implementations, is selected due to its superior penetration through adverse atmospheric conditions. Of the available radar techniques, frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) is selected as being the most robust. The theoretical performance of a number of 94GHz FMCW millimetre wave radar systems is determined and these confirm the capability of these sensors in the mining environment. The paper describes implementations of FMCW radar sensors for simple ranging, two dimensional line scanning and three dimensional imaging that are based on a common ranging module and in the case of the 2D and 3D applications, a common swash-plate mirror scanner. Data obtained during field trials in mines is presented to justify the selection of this technology

Słowa kluczowe

  • Millimetre wave radar
  • mining
  • range measurement
  • scanning
  • imaging
  • FMCWIX
access type Otwarty dostęp

Refractive Index Sensitivity In Thinned Uv And Arc Induced Long-Period Gratings: A Comparative Study

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 354 - 367

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this work, a comparative study aimed to investigate the effects of cladding stripping on the external refractive index sensitivity in tapered and UV long period gratings is presented. Here, wet chemical etching combined with microscopic analysis allow us to identify the experimental dependence of the surrounding refractive index (SRI) sensitivity on the cladding radius for both grating types. The experimental results reveal that although in both cases a sensitivity enhancement is achieved by reducing the cladding thickness, the tapered devices offer substantially a greater sensitivity gain in respect to UV written devices

Słowa kluczowe

  • Long period gratings
  • fiber optic sensors
  • gratings fabrication
  • chemical etching of gratings
access type Otwarty dostęp

Evolutional Process Of Pavement Roughness Evaluation Benefiting From Sensor Technology

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 370 - 387

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present paper deals with a view of the availability of high-speed sensor profilers, which has given dramatically increased possibilities to analyze imperfections in pavement surfaces such as roughness. Technical parameters of such profilers, for sensing and analyzing pavement surface profile are described. In addition, the main investigation concentrates on the evolutional process of pavement roughness evaluation. For this purpose a high-speed laser profiler is used to sense roughness data on the surface of a road section that is analyzed both using the International Roughness Index (IRI) and the Power Spectral Density (PSD) approach. Based on the analysis results, some interesting options are shown considering pavement performance in terms of roughness

Słowa kluczowe

  • high-speed sensor profiler
  • roughness
  • pavement surface profile
  • IRI
  • PSD
access type Otwarty dostęp

Measuring Flow Parameters Of Particulate And Powdery Solids In Industrial Transportation Processes

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 388 - 402

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper provides an overview of existing technologies to measure flow parameters, such as material velocity and material concentration, in industrial transportation processes of particulate and powdery solids with a focus on pneumatic conveying. Restrictions, advantages and drawbacks of state of the art measurement principles are discussed. We show that capacitance-based sensing with suitable electrode topology allows for non-invasive, low-cost determination of flow parameters. Two industrial applications for material transportation - by means of pneumatic conveying and of screw conveyors - are presented

Słowa kluczowe

  • gas-solid flows
  • material conveying
  • capacitive sensing
access type Otwarty dostęp

Model Order Selection Criterion For Monitoring Haemoglobin Status In Dengue Patients Using Armax Model

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 403 - 419

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper describes the development of linear autoregressive moving average with exogenous input (ARMAX) models to monitor the progression of dengue infection based on hemoglobin status. Three differents ARMAX model order selection criteria namely Final Prediction Error (FPE), Akaike’s Information Criteria (AIC) and Lipschitz number have been evaluated and analyzed. The results showed that Lipschitz number has better accuracy compared to FPE and AIC. Finally based on Lipschitz number, appropriate model orders have been selected to monitor the progression of dengue patients based on hemoglobin status. Further work is to apply this appropriate model orders to nonlinear Autoregressive (NARMAX) model.

access type Otwarty dostęp

Intelligent Structural Elements Covered By Piezoelectric High-Polymer Film

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 420 - 429

Abstrakt

Abstract

If a piezoelectric material is deformed, the local electric field is caused by the electromechanical interaction. When a structural element with surface defects is subjected to the stress, the strain distribution appears also on the opposite surface to the defects. Such localized strain distribution can be measured by the electric potential distribution on a piezoelectric film mounted on the smooth surface. This paper shows that back-surface defects in typical structural elements can be visualized by mounted PVDF thin film

Słowa kluczowe

  • Piezoelectric material
  • surface defects
  • nondestructive evaluation technique
  • structural elements
access type Otwarty dostęp

Nanocrystalline ZnO based MEMS Gas Sensors with CMOS ASIC for Mining Applications

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 430 - 422

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper a nanocrystalline (nc) zinc oxide based hybrid gas sensor with signal conditioning ASIC has been reported for sensing and transmitting the information about methane concentration from the underground coalmine environment. A low power, low temperature nc zinc oxide MEMS based gas sensor has been designed, fabricated and tested for the purpose with a power consumption of ~70mW and sensitivity of 76.6 % at 1.0% methane concentration at a sensor operating temperature of 150°C. For transmitting the output of the gas sensor, a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) chip integrated with a low noise amplifier has been fabricated in 0.3 5 μm CMOS technology to convert the voltage output of the gas sensor to desirable frequency. The power consumption of the chip has been obtained to be around 3mW. The amplifier gain is set suitably ~13 to apply the desirable control voltage (~1.2V-3.2V)to the VCO. The noise of the amplifier has 1/2 been obtained to be around 2μV/Hz . The output frequency of the VCO varies from 20kHz to 100kHz for the change in methane concentration from 0 to 1%. The output of the VCO chip can be applied as a modulating signal to a commercially available transceiver, which transmits the signal to the control room.

access type Otwarty dostęp

Intelligent Method of Teaching Electromagnetics Theory: Measurements under Virtual Environment

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 443 - 458

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper details the development of a computer-assisted laboratory under virtual environment which has been put in place to teach the theoretical and practical aspects of Electromagnetics, without physically using any instruments to do the measurements. The virtual laboratory has allowed us to teach Electromagnetics in a new and effective way, helping our students master this difficult subject. In particular, virtual experiments have been designed which the students perform before attempting to do the corresponding real experiments. These virtual experiments help the students to appreciate the essential features of an experiment without being confused or distracted by the complexity of the real experimental procedures. We believe that learning is favorably augmented by using this innovative way of teaching the laboratory material through a computer-based, flexible and interactive environment of virtual experiments.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Electromagnetics
  • Virtual Laboratory
  • Instrumentation
  • Laplace’s equation
  • Ferromagnetism
  • B-H Characteristics Measurement
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Broadband Spectroscopic Sensor Probe

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 459 - 469

Abstrakt

Abstract

The electrical properties of many materials are closely related to their composition and to their moisture content in particular. For sensor development, characterising the response of a particular volume of material over a broad frequency range is desirable, since separate measurements could generate errors due to spatial variability. A coaxial probe has been designed for measurement of the permittivity of smooth and flat, solid or liquid samples over the frequency range from 1 Hz to 6 GHz. Although the probe is capable of a very wide frequency range, separate instruments are generally required, and here we focus on measurements above 1MHz. We demonstrate measurements in the frequency domain using a vector network analyser, and in the time domain using a broadband oscilloscope. For switching, we employed a coaxial switch and demonstrate how that is included within the instrument calibration. Calibration of the probe used three References: an open circuit, short circuit (indium foil) and a reference liquid, ideally chosen for a permittivity similar to that of the sample. The sample complex permittivity was calculated by a numerical model which used as inputs, the measured reflection coefficient and physical measurements of the probe geometry.

Słowa kluczowe

  • coaxial probe
  • spectroscopy
  • calibration
  • broadband
  • network analyser
access type Otwarty dostęp

Electrical Impedance Response of a Thick-Thin film Hybrid Anodic Nanoporous Alumina Sensor to Methanol Vapors.

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 470 - 479

Abstrakt

Abstract

The response of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous humidity sensor to an organic vapor such as methanol is presented in this paper. Sensors constructed at Northern Illinois University were exposed to various organic vapors. The characteristic response of the sensor to various vapor dilutions was analyzed using real and complex impedance parameters.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Nano-pores
  • hybrid thick film
  • sensors
  • methanol
  • AAO
  • Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy
  • Nyquist Plot
  • Cole-Cole Plot
  • Impedance
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Design Analysis Of Micromirrors In Stacked Configurations With Moving Electrodes

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 480 - 497

Abstrakt

Abstract

Micromirrors fabricated by MEMS technology have demonstrated to be important sensing or actuating components in many industrial and biomedical applications such as laser scanning displays, optical switch matrices, and biomedical imaging systems. In this paper, various actuation mechanisms for micromirrors are described. A new geometric configuration of a stacked micromirror that is actuated by electrostatic force is proposed and analyzed to show its superior performance in terms of deflection angle, actuation voltage, and frequency response

Słowa kluczowe

  • Micromirror
  • MEMS
  • Electrostatic Force Actuation
  • Deflection Angle
  • Endoscope
  • OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography)
  • Stacked Micromirror Configuration
access type Otwarty dostęp

A Novel Method For The Improvement In Thermoelectric Property Of Tin Oxide Thin Films And Its Application In Gas Sensing

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 498 - 511

Abstrakt

Abstract

Tin oxide thin film deposited on to glass substrates by the process of DC reactive magnetron sputtering has been used in our work. These films were characterized for their thermoelectric behavior. Further, a novel method has been developed to enhance the Seebeck coefficient of these films. Prior to the oxide film deposition on the glass substrate, thin metal films have been deposited at the two ends of the sample. High conductivity metals such as chromium, silver and copper were used for this purpose. On characterizing these films for their thermoelectric property, a high Seebeck coefficient of 400 μV/°C has been achieved. In addition to this, we also report the results of the gas sensing behavior of a sensor developed using this film which exhibited a maximum response to acetone gas at a relatively low temperature of 110 °C.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Tin oxide
  • Seebeck coefficient
  • Gas sensor
  • Chromium
  • Acetone
access type Otwarty dostęp

Automatic Adjustment For Laser Systems Using A Stochastic Binary Search Algorithm To Cope With Noisy Sensing Data

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 512 - 533

Abstrakt

Abstract

For laser systems, the adjustment of the optical axes is crucial. However, it is difficult for conventional methods to adjust the optical axes because they require high-precision positioning with μm resolutions and because laser systems have many adjustment points that have an interdependent relationship. We have proposed an automatic adjustment method using genetic algorithms to overcome this problem. However, there are still two problems that need to be solved: (1) long adjustment times, and (2) adjustment precision due to observational noise. In order to solve these problems, we propose a robust and efficient automatic adjustment method for the optical axes of laser systems using a binary search algorithm. Adjustment experiments for optical axes with 4-DOF demonstrate that the adjustment time could be reduced to half the conventional adjustment time with the genetic algorithm. Adjustment precision was enhanced by 60%

Słowa kluczowe

  • Automatic adjustment
  • Laser system
  • Binary search
  • Genetic Algorithm
  • Noisy environments
access type Otwarty dostęp

Enhanced Rssi-Based High Accuracy Real-Time User Location Tracking System For Indoor And Outdoor Environments

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 534 - 548

Abstrakt

Abstract

Existing researches on location tracking focus either entirely on indoor or entirely on outdoor by using different devices and techniques. Several solutions have been proposed to adopt a single location sensing technology that fits in both situations. This paper aims to track a user position in both indoor and outdoor environments by using a single wireless device with minimal tracking error. RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) technique together with enhancement algorithms is proposed to cater this solution. The proposed RSSI-based tracking technique is divided into two main phases, namely the calibration of RSSI coefficients (deterministic phase) and the distance along with position estimation of user location by iterative trilateration (probabilistic phase). A low complexity RSSI smoothing algorithm is implemented to minimize the dynamic fluctuation of radio signal received from each reference node when the target node is moving. Experiment measurements are carried out to analyze the sensitivity of RSSI. The results reveal the feasibility of these algorithms in designing a more accurate real-time position monitoring system

Słowa kluczowe

  • location sensing technology
  • Received Signal Strength Indication
  • deterministic phase
  • iterative trilateration
  • probabilistic phase
  • smoothing algorithm
  • dynamic fluctuation
  • real-time position
access type Otwarty dostęp

Guidance-Based On-Line Motion Planning For Autonomous Highway Overtaking

Data publikacji: 13 Dec 2017
Zakres stron: 549 - 571

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the context of intelligent transportation, this paper presents a novel on-line trajectorygeneration method for autonomous lane changing. The proposed scheme is guidance based, realtime applicable, and ensures safety and passenger ride comfort. Based on the principles of Rendezvous Guidance, the passing vehicle is guided in real-time to match the position and velocity of a shadow target (i.e., rendezvous with) during the overtaking manoeuvre. The shadow target’s position and velocity are generated based on real-time sensory information gathered about the slower vehicle ahead of the passing vehicle as well as other vehicles which may be travelling in the passing lane. Namely, the guidance principle is also used to prevent any potential collision with these obstacle vehicles. The proposed method can be used as a fully autonomous system or simply as a driver-assistance tool. Extensive simulations and experiments, some of which are presented herein, clearly demonstrate the tangible efficiency of the proposed method.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Intelligent Transportation
  • Autonomous Vehicle Overtaking
  • Collision Avoidance

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