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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 2 (2009): Zeszyt 4 (January 2009)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

10 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Adaptive Routing Protocol for Reliable Sensor Network Applications

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 515 - 539

Abstrakt

Abstract

The existing routing protocol for sensor networking can be divided into proactive routing protocol, reactive routing protocol and hybrid routing protocol. Each routing protocol has its merits and shortcomings. The lifetime will end when the working routing protocol can no longer support the whole wireless sensor network. An adaptive method based on redundancy node and dual routing protocol was proposed in the study. Redundancy node, when wireless sensor network is being deployed, can divide the wireless sensor network into operating and sleeping modes, and can use the different routing protocol. Dual routing protocol individually designs two kinds of different routing protocols in the sensor node, using the merits of these two different kinds of routing protocols to accomplish the mission of sending the data. The scenario set up is when the wireless sensor network has been used for a long time; the power kept in these sensor nodes is different. It is possible that some sensor nodes contain lower power because the heavy load of work, and some with more power because of less work load. After we send a query to the source node and unfortunately find out there is more than one wireless sensor in the routing path, and if there is power shortage, we can only query a message to send the sink to the source node. At the meantime, the source node will judge the storing condition of the power in all the sensor nodes when sending the query from the sink to the source node. Then the target wireless sensor will send a broadcast to all the neighbors. If there is a sleeping node in the neighbor and run a second kind of routing protocol, the sleeping wireless sensor will wake up. The woken sensor node will build up a path to ensure the data get sent from the source to the sink. Simulation results showed that the proposed mechanism is about 44% of packet delivery ratio can be increased compared to existing proactive/reactive routing protocol.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Wireless sensor network
  • proactive routing protocol
  • reactive routing protocol
  • network lifetime
Otwarty dostęp

Mechanism Of Trace Level H2S Gas Sensing Using Rf Sputtered SnO2 Thin Films With Cuo Catalytic Overlayer

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 540 - 548

Abstrakt

Abstract

H2S gas sensing response characteristics of bare SnO2 thin films and heterostuctures with nanolayer (10 nm) of Cu and CuO are studied. Changes in resistance values, occurring with integration of Cu and CuO nanolayers on SnO2 is acquired real-time, and compared. Rise in sensor resistance after introduction of Cu and CuO nanolayers on SnO2 sensing layer is understood to enhance the sensing response characteristics. Formation of space charge region between p-type CuO and n-type SnO2 and difference in work-function values between catalyst and sensing layer are shown to govern the increased value of starting resistance. Increase in starting resistance and lowering of resistance in presence of H2S due to spill-over of dissociated H2S gas molecule are playing crucial role in influencing the sensing response.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Thin film
  • HS Gas Sensor
  • Spillover mechanism
  • RF Sputtering
Otwarty dostęp

UHF RFID Metal Tag Applying to License Plate using Metal Shielding and Watertight Methods

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 549 - 563

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper describes a design for RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tag using license plate attached the vehicle bumper in 900 MHz band. The implemented metal tag for a license plate is applied metal shielding method, watertight method of RFID tag, and metal corrosion protection method using silk screen technique. Moreover, its range of the fabricated tag antenna that the license plate and the vehicle bumper were fixed by volt and nut was observed 8.2 m. This measured readable range showed about 5 m above far distance more than the average readable range of commercial tag antenna. The RFID have ability of 0.5 seconds of recognition speed in the evaluation of performance. The tag for license plate will be able to provide to the custom administrator and goods manager in various telemetries services.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Metal Tag
  • UHF RFID
  • Metal Shielding
  • Corrosion Protection
  • Watertight Method
Otwarty dostęp

Crack Identification of a Rotating Shaft with Integrated Wireless Sensor

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 564 - 578

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents a novel real-time crack identification method to determine the position and depth of a transverse open crack on a rotating shaft. A newly developed wireless sensor capable of being mounted directly on the shaft is employed to monitor acceleration at different points of the shaft in a rotating coordinate system. The vibration parameters obtained from the wireless sensors and Finite Element Model provide operational data to perform Modal Analysis with different mock crack positions and depths, and an unique relation between the vibration parameters and crack characteristics is developed by Neural Networks Method working as function approximator to predict the crack size and location on the shaft. The method was experimentally validated and results have shown that the crack detection sensitivity parameters depend on the acceleration signals at different points of the shaft.

Słowa kluczowe

  • rack detection
  • wireless sensor
  • vibration modal analysis
  • finite element method
  • neural Networks
  • rotating shaft
Otwarty dostęp

Modeling and Controller Design for the VVS-400 Pilot Scale Heating and Ventilation System

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 579 - 601

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper, a heating and ventilation model VVS-400 from Instrutek, Larvik, Norway is modeled using ARX model structure and linear black-box technique. The conventional PID controller and artificial Fuzzy controller are designed based on the approximated plant model and real plant model. The approximated plant model is estimated using System Identification approach while the real plant model is developed by interfacing the Real-time Windows Target toolbox in Matlab with real VVS-plant by using data acquisition (DAQ) card PCI-1711. An artificial Fuzzy controller approach is incorporated in two ways which are conventional Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and a replacement of conventional fuzzy controller known as Single input fuzzy logic controller (SIFLC). Simulations and experiment validate the equivalency of both controllers. Results reveal that SIFLC found to be better than FLC due to its less computation time compared to conventional FLC.

Słowa kluczowe

  • System identification
  • estimation
  • ventilation
  • VVS-400
  • Autoregressive with exogenous input (ARX)
  • PID
  • Fuzzy logic controller
  • Single input fuzzy logic controller
Otwarty dostęp

Single Sh-Saw Sensor as a Distributed Sensor Array for Liquids Recognition

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 602 - 611

Abstrakt

Abstract

Basic possibility to use single-channel shear-horizontal surface acoustic waves sensor constructed as a delay line on multilayered structure with 36 YX LiTaO3 substrate for liquids recognition has been proposed. The changes under analytes influence of the sensor pulse responses obtained by transformation to time domain of one of the S-parameters measured in frequency domain have been used as sensor responses. Examples of responses to some liquid analytes have been demonstrated for a sensor based on LiTaO3 – SiO2 – molecularly imprinted polymer layered structure. Qualitative explanation of the result is given by treating such a sensor as a distributed sensor array.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Liquid analyte
  • SH-SAW delay line
  • 36 YX LiTaO substrate
  • wave reflections
  • sensor array
  • S- parameter
  • fast Fourier transform
  • molecularly imprinted polymer
Otwarty dostęp

Performance Analysis of Patient Specific Elman-Chaotic Optimization Model for Fuzzy Based Epilepsy Risk Level Classification from Eeg Signals

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 612 - 635

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper aims to analyze the optimization of Epilepsy risk levels from EEG signals using Fuzzy based Elman-Chaotic Optimization. The EEG (Electroencephalogram) signals of twenty patients are collected from Sri Ramakrishna Hospitals at Coimbatore. The raw EEG signals are sampled and various parameters like energy, energy, variance, peaks, sharp and spike waves, duration, events and covariance. The fuzzy techniques are applied as a first level classifier to classify the risk levels of epilepsy by converting the EEG signal parameters in to code patterns by fuzzy systems. Elman-Chaotic optimization is identified as post classifiers on the classified data to obtain the optimized risk level that characterizes the patient’s epilepsy risk level. This classification provides a better way of treating the epileptic patients. This project aims to safeguard a patient’s life when critical situation occurs. Future scope is to design an embedded system which collects the raw EEG signals from the brain and directly gives the level of epilepsy. It will make the neural surgeons to give appropriate remedial measures.

Słowa kluczowe

  • EEG Signals
  • Epilepsy risk levels
  • Fuzzy Logic
  • Chaotic Optimization
  • Elman Neural Network
Otwarty dostęp

An Intelligent Fuzzy Controller for Air-Condition with Zigbee Sensors

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 636 - 652

Abstrakt

Abstract

In recent years, the research and development of energy-saving control in air-condition system has become a hot spot with the advance of science and technology. In this paper, we proposed a fuzzy control mechanism for air-condition system, which combines the fuzzy control and multi-point sensing technology. When people feel cooler or hotter indoor, the air condition should promptly detect the temperature variance and switch the temperate between hot and cool smoothly. Therein an intelligent fuzzy controller for air-condition with Zigbee sensors is used to provide the comfort and energy-saving benefit. Although traditional control system (shorten as TCS) and the proposed fuzzy control system (named as FCS) have a common goal of temperature control, they differ from each other in temperature switch decision made during the each ambient temperature phases. Under the operating policy to limit the air-condition power on/off power frequency, the simulation result present the FCS energy-saving ratio is about 1.3 times of the TCS. And FCS with 5 minutes control cycle has the best energy-saving rate. It’s 2.7 times of FCS with 10 minutes control cycle for summertime in Taiwan.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Zigbee Sensor
  • Fuzzy Theory
  • Energy Saving
Otwarty dostęp

Optical Fiber Humidity Sensor Based on Lossy Mode Resonances

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 653 - 660

Abstrakt

Abstract

A novel optical fiber humidity sensor based on lossy mode resonances (LMR) has been developed. LMRs are supported here by a thin Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coating fabricated onto an optical fiber core via a sol-gel dip coating. ITO coated optical fiber devices present a resonant maximum absorption peak in the infra-red region which is shifted to higher wavelengths when the refractive index of the medium in contact with the ITO layer is increased. A polymeric structure is deposited onto this ITO using the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique. The refractive index of this polymeric coating is sensitive to changes in the external relative humidity (RH), which permits the fabrication of humidity sensors based on LMRs.The wavelength based fabricated sensors showed a dynamical range of 65 nm when the RH varied in the range from 20 to 80% and it has a good linearity when the RH is higher than 40%, high stability and are highly reproducible.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Optical fiber sensors
  • lossy mode resonance
  • humidity sensor
  • spectroscopic techniques
  • Layer by Layer
  • ITO
Otwarty dostęp

FPGA Based Maximum Power Point Tracker of Partially Shaded Solar Photovoltaic Arrays using Modified Adaptive Perceptive Particle Swarm Optimization

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 661 - 675

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper presents a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based tracker to accurately track the maximum power point (MPP) of a photovoltaic (PV) array. The tracking logic realized on FPGA is based on a modified version of Adaptive Perceptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APPSO) technique. Photovoltaic generation systems use MPP tracker because the photovoltaic array exhibits multiple maxima in the power voltage characteristic under partially shaded conditions. Compared to PSO, the APPSO offers flexibility in the motion dynamics of the particle in the search space through variation in perception radius, number of sampling points per directions, and the number of sampling directions. The APPSO algorithm has been suitably modified to suit to the slight changes in the maximum power point at around the maximum power point. The proposed technique uses only one pair of sensors to control multiple PV arrays. This results in lower cost, higher accuracy and also the algorithm is simple. The implementation of the algorithm on a reconfigurable architecture like FPGA ensures hardware based flexibility in the motion dynamics presented by APPSO. A comparative study is performed to compare the performance of PSO and APPSO with respect to MPP tracking. Compared to PSO that track to the MPP under partial shading conditions and reaches the MPP with 96.41% accuracy, the APPSO can track to the MPP with 97.95% accuracy. The algorithm when realized on an Altera Cyclone EP1C6Q240C8 FPGA consumes 5967 logic blocks.

10 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Adaptive Routing Protocol for Reliable Sensor Network Applications

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 515 - 539

Abstrakt

Abstract

The existing routing protocol for sensor networking can be divided into proactive routing protocol, reactive routing protocol and hybrid routing protocol. Each routing protocol has its merits and shortcomings. The lifetime will end when the working routing protocol can no longer support the whole wireless sensor network. An adaptive method based on redundancy node and dual routing protocol was proposed in the study. Redundancy node, when wireless sensor network is being deployed, can divide the wireless sensor network into operating and sleeping modes, and can use the different routing protocol. Dual routing protocol individually designs two kinds of different routing protocols in the sensor node, using the merits of these two different kinds of routing protocols to accomplish the mission of sending the data. The scenario set up is when the wireless sensor network has been used for a long time; the power kept in these sensor nodes is different. It is possible that some sensor nodes contain lower power because the heavy load of work, and some with more power because of less work load. After we send a query to the source node and unfortunately find out there is more than one wireless sensor in the routing path, and if there is power shortage, we can only query a message to send the sink to the source node. At the meantime, the source node will judge the storing condition of the power in all the sensor nodes when sending the query from the sink to the source node. Then the target wireless sensor will send a broadcast to all the neighbors. If there is a sleeping node in the neighbor and run a second kind of routing protocol, the sleeping wireless sensor will wake up. The woken sensor node will build up a path to ensure the data get sent from the source to the sink. Simulation results showed that the proposed mechanism is about 44% of packet delivery ratio can be increased compared to existing proactive/reactive routing protocol.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Wireless sensor network
  • proactive routing protocol
  • reactive routing protocol
  • network lifetime
Otwarty dostęp

Mechanism Of Trace Level H2S Gas Sensing Using Rf Sputtered SnO2 Thin Films With Cuo Catalytic Overlayer

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 540 - 548

Abstrakt

Abstract

H2S gas sensing response characteristics of bare SnO2 thin films and heterostuctures with nanolayer (10 nm) of Cu and CuO are studied. Changes in resistance values, occurring with integration of Cu and CuO nanolayers on SnO2 is acquired real-time, and compared. Rise in sensor resistance after introduction of Cu and CuO nanolayers on SnO2 sensing layer is understood to enhance the sensing response characteristics. Formation of space charge region between p-type CuO and n-type SnO2 and difference in work-function values between catalyst and sensing layer are shown to govern the increased value of starting resistance. Increase in starting resistance and lowering of resistance in presence of H2S due to spill-over of dissociated H2S gas molecule are playing crucial role in influencing the sensing response.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Thin film
  • HS Gas Sensor
  • Spillover mechanism
  • RF Sputtering
Otwarty dostęp

UHF RFID Metal Tag Applying to License Plate using Metal Shielding and Watertight Methods

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 549 - 563

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper describes a design for RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tag using license plate attached the vehicle bumper in 900 MHz band. The implemented metal tag for a license plate is applied metal shielding method, watertight method of RFID tag, and metal corrosion protection method using silk screen technique. Moreover, its range of the fabricated tag antenna that the license plate and the vehicle bumper were fixed by volt and nut was observed 8.2 m. This measured readable range showed about 5 m above far distance more than the average readable range of commercial tag antenna. The RFID have ability of 0.5 seconds of recognition speed in the evaluation of performance. The tag for license plate will be able to provide to the custom administrator and goods manager in various telemetries services.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Metal Tag
  • UHF RFID
  • Metal Shielding
  • Corrosion Protection
  • Watertight Method
Otwarty dostęp

Crack Identification of a Rotating Shaft with Integrated Wireless Sensor

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 564 - 578

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents a novel real-time crack identification method to determine the position and depth of a transverse open crack on a rotating shaft. A newly developed wireless sensor capable of being mounted directly on the shaft is employed to monitor acceleration at different points of the shaft in a rotating coordinate system. The vibration parameters obtained from the wireless sensors and Finite Element Model provide operational data to perform Modal Analysis with different mock crack positions and depths, and an unique relation between the vibration parameters and crack characteristics is developed by Neural Networks Method working as function approximator to predict the crack size and location on the shaft. The method was experimentally validated and results have shown that the crack detection sensitivity parameters depend on the acceleration signals at different points of the shaft.

Słowa kluczowe

  • rack detection
  • wireless sensor
  • vibration modal analysis
  • finite element method
  • neural Networks
  • rotating shaft
Otwarty dostęp

Modeling and Controller Design for the VVS-400 Pilot Scale Heating and Ventilation System

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 579 - 601

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this paper, a heating and ventilation model VVS-400 from Instrutek, Larvik, Norway is modeled using ARX model structure and linear black-box technique. The conventional PID controller and artificial Fuzzy controller are designed based on the approximated plant model and real plant model. The approximated plant model is estimated using System Identification approach while the real plant model is developed by interfacing the Real-time Windows Target toolbox in Matlab with real VVS-plant by using data acquisition (DAQ) card PCI-1711. An artificial Fuzzy controller approach is incorporated in two ways which are conventional Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and a replacement of conventional fuzzy controller known as Single input fuzzy logic controller (SIFLC). Simulations and experiment validate the equivalency of both controllers. Results reveal that SIFLC found to be better than FLC due to its less computation time compared to conventional FLC.

Słowa kluczowe

  • System identification
  • estimation
  • ventilation
  • VVS-400
  • Autoregressive with exogenous input (ARX)
  • PID
  • Fuzzy logic controller
  • Single input fuzzy logic controller
Otwarty dostęp

Single Sh-Saw Sensor as a Distributed Sensor Array for Liquids Recognition

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 602 - 611

Abstrakt

Abstract

Basic possibility to use single-channel shear-horizontal surface acoustic waves sensor constructed as a delay line on multilayered structure with 36 YX LiTaO3 substrate for liquids recognition has been proposed. The changes under analytes influence of the sensor pulse responses obtained by transformation to time domain of one of the S-parameters measured in frequency domain have been used as sensor responses. Examples of responses to some liquid analytes have been demonstrated for a sensor based on LiTaO3 – SiO2 – molecularly imprinted polymer layered structure. Qualitative explanation of the result is given by treating such a sensor as a distributed sensor array.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Liquid analyte
  • SH-SAW delay line
  • 36 YX LiTaO substrate
  • wave reflections
  • sensor array
  • S- parameter
  • fast Fourier transform
  • molecularly imprinted polymer
Otwarty dostęp

Performance Analysis of Patient Specific Elman-Chaotic Optimization Model for Fuzzy Based Epilepsy Risk Level Classification from Eeg Signals

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 612 - 635

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper aims to analyze the optimization of Epilepsy risk levels from EEG signals using Fuzzy based Elman-Chaotic Optimization. The EEG (Electroencephalogram) signals of twenty patients are collected from Sri Ramakrishna Hospitals at Coimbatore. The raw EEG signals are sampled and various parameters like energy, energy, variance, peaks, sharp and spike waves, duration, events and covariance. The fuzzy techniques are applied as a first level classifier to classify the risk levels of epilepsy by converting the EEG signal parameters in to code patterns by fuzzy systems. Elman-Chaotic optimization is identified as post classifiers on the classified data to obtain the optimized risk level that characterizes the patient’s epilepsy risk level. This classification provides a better way of treating the epileptic patients. This project aims to safeguard a patient’s life when critical situation occurs. Future scope is to design an embedded system which collects the raw EEG signals from the brain and directly gives the level of epilepsy. It will make the neural surgeons to give appropriate remedial measures.

Słowa kluczowe

  • EEG Signals
  • Epilepsy risk levels
  • Fuzzy Logic
  • Chaotic Optimization
  • Elman Neural Network
Otwarty dostęp

An Intelligent Fuzzy Controller for Air-Condition with Zigbee Sensors

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 636 - 652

Abstrakt

Abstract

In recent years, the research and development of energy-saving control in air-condition system has become a hot spot with the advance of science and technology. In this paper, we proposed a fuzzy control mechanism for air-condition system, which combines the fuzzy control and multi-point sensing technology. When people feel cooler or hotter indoor, the air condition should promptly detect the temperature variance and switch the temperate between hot and cool smoothly. Therein an intelligent fuzzy controller for air-condition with Zigbee sensors is used to provide the comfort and energy-saving benefit. Although traditional control system (shorten as TCS) and the proposed fuzzy control system (named as FCS) have a common goal of temperature control, they differ from each other in temperature switch decision made during the each ambient temperature phases. Under the operating policy to limit the air-condition power on/off power frequency, the simulation result present the FCS energy-saving ratio is about 1.3 times of the TCS. And FCS with 5 minutes control cycle has the best energy-saving rate. It’s 2.7 times of FCS with 10 minutes control cycle for summertime in Taiwan.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Zigbee Sensor
  • Fuzzy Theory
  • Energy Saving
Otwarty dostęp

Optical Fiber Humidity Sensor Based on Lossy Mode Resonances

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 653 - 660

Abstrakt

Abstract

A novel optical fiber humidity sensor based on lossy mode resonances (LMR) has been developed. LMRs are supported here by a thin Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coating fabricated onto an optical fiber core via a sol-gel dip coating. ITO coated optical fiber devices present a resonant maximum absorption peak in the infra-red region which is shifted to higher wavelengths when the refractive index of the medium in contact with the ITO layer is increased. A polymeric structure is deposited onto this ITO using the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique. The refractive index of this polymeric coating is sensitive to changes in the external relative humidity (RH), which permits the fabrication of humidity sensors based on LMRs.The wavelength based fabricated sensors showed a dynamical range of 65 nm when the RH varied in the range from 20 to 80% and it has a good linearity when the RH is higher than 40%, high stability and are highly reproducible.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Optical fiber sensors
  • lossy mode resonance
  • humidity sensor
  • spectroscopic techniques
  • Layer by Layer
  • ITO
Otwarty dostęp

FPGA Based Maximum Power Point Tracker of Partially Shaded Solar Photovoltaic Arrays using Modified Adaptive Perceptive Particle Swarm Optimization

Data publikacji: 03 Nov 2017
Zakres stron: 661 - 675

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper presents a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based tracker to accurately track the maximum power point (MPP) of a photovoltaic (PV) array. The tracking logic realized on FPGA is based on a modified version of Adaptive Perceptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APPSO) technique. Photovoltaic generation systems use MPP tracker because the photovoltaic array exhibits multiple maxima in the power voltage characteristic under partially shaded conditions. Compared to PSO, the APPSO offers flexibility in the motion dynamics of the particle in the search space through variation in perception radius, number of sampling points per directions, and the number of sampling directions. The APPSO algorithm has been suitably modified to suit to the slight changes in the maximum power point at around the maximum power point. The proposed technique uses only one pair of sensors to control multiple PV arrays. This results in lower cost, higher accuracy and also the algorithm is simple. The implementation of the algorithm on a reconfigurable architecture like FPGA ensures hardware based flexibility in the motion dynamics presented by APPSO. A comparative study is performed to compare the performance of PSO and APPSO with respect to MPP tracking. Compared to PSO that track to the MPP under partial shading conditions and reaches the MPP with 96.41% accuracy, the APPSO can track to the MPP with 97.95% accuracy. The algorithm when realized on an Altera Cyclone EP1C6Q240C8 FPGA consumes 5967 logic blocks.

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