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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 4 (2011): Zeszyt 3 (January 2011)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1178-5608
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

12 Artykułów
access type Otwarty dostęp

Lactate Detection using Microwave Spectroscopy for In-Situ Medical Applications

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 338 - 352

Abstrakt

Abstract

Lactate is an indicator of neurological impairment during aortic aneurysm surgery, and thus its detection could provide the basis for improved treatment regimes, better quality of care, and enhanced resource efficiency within the UK National Health Service (NHS). This article considers the use of low power microwave sensors to detect varying lactate concentrations in distilled water; sample sizes of 10ml and 0.5ml are considered via two sensor designs. Microwave sensors provide a rapid non-invasive method of material analysis, which is robust and cost-effective, in addition to harbouring huge potential for a wide range of biomedical applications.

Index terms

  • microwave
  • cavity
  • sensor
  • lactate
  • cerebrospinal fluid
access type Otwarty dostęp

Vibration Analysis of Cantilever Smart Structure by using Piezoelectric Smart Material

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 353 - 375

Abstrakt

Abstract

The field of smart structures and smart materials has been an emerging area of research for last few decades. A smart structure would be able to sense the vibration and generate a controlled actuation to it, so the vibration can be minimized. For this purpose, smart materials are used as actuators and sensors. In this paper, some literature review is given about smart structure and smart material. Piezoelectric material is used as smart material and cantilever beam is considered as a smart structure. Different positions are considered for the model analysis. In this case, the modal analysis are found out by using ANSYS and MATLAB.

Index terms

  • Smart structure
  • Smart materials
  • vibration analysis
  • vibration control
  • cantilever beam
  • cantilever plate
access type Otwarty dostęp

Measurement of Stress-Strain Response of a Rammed Earth Prism in Compression Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 376 - 387

Abstrakt

Abstract

A comparative study of strain response and mechanical properties of rammed earth prisms, has been made using Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors (optical) and clip-on extensometer (electro-mechanical). The aim of this study is to address the merits and demerits of traditional extensometer vis-à-vis FBG sensor; a uni-axial compression test has been performed on a rammed earth prism to validate its structural properties from the stress - strain curves obtained by two different methods of measurement. An array of FBG sensors on a single fiber with varying Bragg wavelengths (λB), has been used to spatially resolve the strains along the height of the specimen. It is interesting to note from the obtained stress-strain curves that the initial tangent modulus obtained using the FBG sensor is lower compared to that obtained using clip-on extensometer. The results also indicate that the strains measured by both FBG and extensometer sensor follow the same trend and both the sensors register the maximum strain value at the same time.

Index terms

  • Fiber Bragg grating sensors
  • uni axial compression
  • rammed earth
  • stress strain response
access type Otwarty dostęp

Microwave Signal Propagation on Oil Palm Trees: Measurements and Analysis

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 388 - 401

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents the study of microwave signal attenuation on oil palm trees at 0.9 GHz, 1.8 GHz and 2.3 GHz frequencies. The main objective is to investigate the characteristics of propagation phenomenon by analysing the received signal strength. The experiments were made at the estate where there are straight line uniform canopies of mature oil palm trees. The measurements were carried out on the same transmission paths with different number of trees and height at trunk, leaves and fruits which obstructing the signal paths. The results have shown that excessive attenuation is due to scattering, depolarisation, fluctuation and absorption. It is strongly aggrees with the previous studies. Further studies on other types of vegetation and environments, and its seasonal differences are important as future research.

Index terms

  • Attenuation
  • frequency
  • microwave
  • oil palm tree
  • propagation
access type Otwarty dostęp

Biologically-Inspired Visual Attention Features for a Vehicle Classification Task

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 402 - 423

Abstrakt

Abstract

The continuous rise in the number of vehicles in circulation brings an increasing need for automatically and efficiently recognizing vehicle categories for multiple applications such as optimizing available parking spaces, balancing ferry loads, planning infrastructure and managing traffic, or servicing vehicles. This paper explores the use of human visual attention mechanisms to identify a set of features that allows for fast automated classification of vehicles based on images taken from 6 viewpoints. Salient visual features classified with a series of binary support vector machines and complemented by a dissimilarity score achieve average classification rates between 94% and 97.3% for five-category vehicle classification depending on the combination of viewpoints used. The viewpoints that make the most important contribution to the classification are identified in order to decrease the implementation cost. The evaluation of performance against other feature descriptors and various approaches for vehicle classification shows that the proposed solution obtains results comparable to the best ones reported in the literature.

Index terms

  • Visual attention
  • saliency
  • machine learning
  • support vector machines
  • vehicle classification
  • dissimilarity
  • feature extraction
access type Otwarty dostęp

Perfect Tracking Control with Discrete-Time LQR for a Non-Minimum Phase Electro-Hydraulic Actuator System

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 424 - 439

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents a perfect tracking control for discrete-time nonminimum phase of electro-hydraulic servo (EHS) system by adopting a combination of feedback and feedforward controller. A linear-quadratic-regulator (LQR) is firstly design as a feedback controller and a feedforward controller is then proposed to eliminate the phase error emerge by the LQR controller during the tracking control. The feedforward controller is develop by implementing the zero phase error tracking control (ZPETC) technique which the main difficulty arises from the non-minimum phase system is have no stable inverse. Subsequently, the controller is applied to EHS system which is represented in discrete-time model where the model is obtained experimentally using system identification method. The proposed controller design using ZPETC is particularly suited to the various positioning control applications that encounter non-minimum phase problem. It is also shows that the controller offers good performance in reducing phase and gain error that typically occur in positioning or tracking systems.

Index terms

  • Nonminimum phase system
  • linear quadratic control
  • zero phase error tracking control
  • electro hydraulic actuator system
  • perfect tracking control
access type Otwarty dostęp

Accuracy Comparison of ARX and Anfis Model of an Electro-Hydraulic Actuator System

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 440 - 453

Abstrakt

Abstract

Precise control of electro-hydraulic actuator (EHA) system has been an interesting subject due to its nonlinearities and uncertainties characteristics. Good control can be designed when precise model of the system is available. Linear ARX modelling has widely been applied and satisfying result has been obtained, through linearization process. The objective of this paper is to compare ARX model with nonlinear ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) model, which can represent the real EHA system more precisely using same linearized data. Results show that ANFIS model is more accurate in approximation estimation of EHA system than ARX model on linearized data.

Index terms

  • ARX
  • ANFIS
  • electro-hydraulic
  • linearization
  • nonlinear
access type Otwarty dostęp

Virtual Figure Presentation using Pressure-Slippage-Generation Tactile Mouse

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 454 - 466

Abstrakt

Abstract

Since our tactile mouse can generate not only distributed pressure but also slippage force, it is expected that it can enhance the reality degree of virtual reality generated by it compared to conventional tactile displays. In previous works, this tactile mouse was effective for edge tracing of virtual figures. However, advanced tests are required using psychophysical experiments to evaluate this tactile display. In this paper, four virtual relief-like figures, a triangle, square, pentagon and circle, are presented using the tactile mouse. These virtual figures have a constant height of around 1 mm against the background. To evaluate the effectiveness of combined presentation of pressure and slippage, not only pressure but also tangential force is generated on the tactile pad on which an operator puts his finger in combined presentation tests when the mouse cursor travels on the figure. In a series of experiments, five male subjects judge which figure is presented. It is found that the percentage of correct answers is increased in the combined presentation when the circle and pentagon are presented. Therefore, the combined presentation provides plain virtual sensation to allow the operator to more easily understand the sensation.

Index terms

  • Tactile Sensing
  • Virtual Reality
  • Figure Presentation
  • Pressure-slippage
  • Mouse
access type Otwarty dostęp

0.35 μm CMOS Optical Sensor for an Integrated Transimpedance Circuit

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 467 - 481

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents an integrated optical receiver which consists of an integrated photodetector, and a transimpedance circuit. A series inductive peaking is used for enhancing the bandwidth. The proposed structure operates at a data rate of 10 Gb/s with a BER of Iff20 and was implemented in a 0.35 μm CMOS process.

The integrated photodiode has a capacitance of 0.01 pF which permits to the structure to achieve a wide bandwidth (5.75 GHz) with only one inductor before the last stage; hence a smaller silicon area is maintained. The proposed TIA has a gain of36.56 dBΩ (67.57 KΩ), and an input courant noise level of about 25.8 pA/Hz0.5. It consumes a DC power of 87.4 mW from 3.3 V supply voltage.

Index terms

  • CMOS technology
  • Integrated photodiode
  • SML photodiode
  • Transimpedance
  • bandwidth enhancement
  • shunt and series peaking;
access type Otwarty dostęp

Implementation of a Simple Wireless Sensor Node for the Detection of Gaseous Substances Leakage

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 482 - 495

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper presents the steps involved in implementing a customizable wireless sensor node for the detection of gaseous substances leakage in both internal and external environments. The node consists of various modules namely, sensors, signal conditioning, computational unit, wireless communication and power supply. The measurand to be measured are carbon dioxide, oxygen, relative humidity and temperature. A computational analysis is performed using a nano-watt PIC18LF4620 microcontroller and the wireless communication is realized through a MRF24J40MA Zigbee module. The results obtained prove that the sensor node possess good features such as, low cost, simple to use, minimal power consumption, long network range and compatibility with analog/digital sensors. The simple construction procedures create the possibility of implementing such customizable sensor node for the different environmental monitoring applications.

Index terms

  • Wireless Sensor Node
  • Gaseous substances
  • PIC18LF4620
  • MRF24J40- Zigbee
  • Carbon dioxide
access type Otwarty dostęp

Versatile Sensor Platform for Autonomous Sensing in Automotive Applications

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 496 - 507

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents the development of a versatile sensor platform used for autonomous data acquisition. The key advantages of the platform are its compact design, implemented onboard sensors, standard interfaces to connect application specific sensors and subsequently simple installation and low costs for the preparation of a measurement task. The paper provides details of the platform design and key characteristics. Practical exemplary applications in the field of automotive sensing, covering thermal management related and passenger comfort related measurement tasks, are presented.

Index terms

  • sensor platform
  • onboard sensing
  • autonomous sensing
  • automotive application
access type Otwarty dostęp

Edge Extraction using Image and Three-Axis Tactile Data

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 508 - 526

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper describes a hand-arm system equipped with optical three-axis tactile sensors and a binocular vision sensor. The vision compensates for the limitations of tactile information and tactile sensing, and vice versa. The tactile sensor can obtain geometrical data as real scale, while image data requires calibration to obtain length as a metric unit. Even if stereovision is used, we cannot obtain sufficient precision. In the evaluation test, the robotic hand equipped with tactile sensors traces an object including convex and concave portions to evaluate edge trace precision. Error of distance obtained by the binocular vision is around ± 10 mm when distance between the camera and object is around 600 mm. When the hand-arm robot touches the convex portion of the object, size data obtained by the vision is modified within ± 0.5 mm accuracy. Since the robotic finger is too thick to touch the bottom of the concave, size data of the concave portion obtained by tactile sensing includes relatively large error of around 4 mm. However, the robot finger can follow the contour with ± 0.5 mm accuracy except for the bottom portion. Therefore, vision sensing is not sufficient for precise edge exploration and modification based on tactile sensing is required.

Index terms

  • Tactile Exploration
  • Edge Extraction
  • Image Data
  • Hand-arm Robot
  • Calibration
12 Artykułów
access type Otwarty dostęp

Lactate Detection using Microwave Spectroscopy for In-Situ Medical Applications

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 338 - 352

Abstrakt

Abstract

Lactate is an indicator of neurological impairment during aortic aneurysm surgery, and thus its detection could provide the basis for improved treatment regimes, better quality of care, and enhanced resource efficiency within the UK National Health Service (NHS). This article considers the use of low power microwave sensors to detect varying lactate concentrations in distilled water; sample sizes of 10ml and 0.5ml are considered via two sensor designs. Microwave sensors provide a rapid non-invasive method of material analysis, which is robust and cost-effective, in addition to harbouring huge potential for a wide range of biomedical applications.

Index terms

  • microwave
  • cavity
  • sensor
  • lactate
  • cerebrospinal fluid
access type Otwarty dostęp

Vibration Analysis of Cantilever Smart Structure by using Piezoelectric Smart Material

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 353 - 375

Abstrakt

Abstract

The field of smart structures and smart materials has been an emerging area of research for last few decades. A smart structure would be able to sense the vibration and generate a controlled actuation to it, so the vibration can be minimized. For this purpose, smart materials are used as actuators and sensors. In this paper, some literature review is given about smart structure and smart material. Piezoelectric material is used as smart material and cantilever beam is considered as a smart structure. Different positions are considered for the model analysis. In this case, the modal analysis are found out by using ANSYS and MATLAB.

Index terms

  • Smart structure
  • Smart materials
  • vibration analysis
  • vibration control
  • cantilever beam
  • cantilever plate
access type Otwarty dostęp

Measurement of Stress-Strain Response of a Rammed Earth Prism in Compression Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 376 - 387

Abstrakt

Abstract

A comparative study of strain response and mechanical properties of rammed earth prisms, has been made using Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors (optical) and clip-on extensometer (electro-mechanical). The aim of this study is to address the merits and demerits of traditional extensometer vis-à-vis FBG sensor; a uni-axial compression test has been performed on a rammed earth prism to validate its structural properties from the stress - strain curves obtained by two different methods of measurement. An array of FBG sensors on a single fiber with varying Bragg wavelengths (λB), has been used to spatially resolve the strains along the height of the specimen. It is interesting to note from the obtained stress-strain curves that the initial tangent modulus obtained using the FBG sensor is lower compared to that obtained using clip-on extensometer. The results also indicate that the strains measured by both FBG and extensometer sensor follow the same trend and both the sensors register the maximum strain value at the same time.

Index terms

  • Fiber Bragg grating sensors
  • uni axial compression
  • rammed earth
  • stress strain response
access type Otwarty dostęp

Microwave Signal Propagation on Oil Palm Trees: Measurements and Analysis

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 388 - 401

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents the study of microwave signal attenuation on oil palm trees at 0.9 GHz, 1.8 GHz and 2.3 GHz frequencies. The main objective is to investigate the characteristics of propagation phenomenon by analysing the received signal strength. The experiments were made at the estate where there are straight line uniform canopies of mature oil palm trees. The measurements were carried out on the same transmission paths with different number of trees and height at trunk, leaves and fruits which obstructing the signal paths. The results have shown that excessive attenuation is due to scattering, depolarisation, fluctuation and absorption. It is strongly aggrees with the previous studies. Further studies on other types of vegetation and environments, and its seasonal differences are important as future research.

Index terms

  • Attenuation
  • frequency
  • microwave
  • oil palm tree
  • propagation
access type Otwarty dostęp

Biologically-Inspired Visual Attention Features for a Vehicle Classification Task

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 402 - 423

Abstrakt

Abstract

The continuous rise in the number of vehicles in circulation brings an increasing need for automatically and efficiently recognizing vehicle categories for multiple applications such as optimizing available parking spaces, balancing ferry loads, planning infrastructure and managing traffic, or servicing vehicles. This paper explores the use of human visual attention mechanisms to identify a set of features that allows for fast automated classification of vehicles based on images taken from 6 viewpoints. Salient visual features classified with a series of binary support vector machines and complemented by a dissimilarity score achieve average classification rates between 94% and 97.3% for five-category vehicle classification depending on the combination of viewpoints used. The viewpoints that make the most important contribution to the classification are identified in order to decrease the implementation cost. The evaluation of performance against other feature descriptors and various approaches for vehicle classification shows that the proposed solution obtains results comparable to the best ones reported in the literature.

Index terms

  • Visual attention
  • saliency
  • machine learning
  • support vector machines
  • vehicle classification
  • dissimilarity
  • feature extraction
access type Otwarty dostęp

Perfect Tracking Control with Discrete-Time LQR for a Non-Minimum Phase Electro-Hydraulic Actuator System

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 424 - 439

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents a perfect tracking control for discrete-time nonminimum phase of electro-hydraulic servo (EHS) system by adopting a combination of feedback and feedforward controller. A linear-quadratic-regulator (LQR) is firstly design as a feedback controller and a feedforward controller is then proposed to eliminate the phase error emerge by the LQR controller during the tracking control. The feedforward controller is develop by implementing the zero phase error tracking control (ZPETC) technique which the main difficulty arises from the non-minimum phase system is have no stable inverse. Subsequently, the controller is applied to EHS system which is represented in discrete-time model where the model is obtained experimentally using system identification method. The proposed controller design using ZPETC is particularly suited to the various positioning control applications that encounter non-minimum phase problem. It is also shows that the controller offers good performance in reducing phase and gain error that typically occur in positioning or tracking systems.

Index terms

  • Nonminimum phase system
  • linear quadratic control
  • zero phase error tracking control
  • electro hydraulic actuator system
  • perfect tracking control
access type Otwarty dostęp

Accuracy Comparison of ARX and Anfis Model of an Electro-Hydraulic Actuator System

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 440 - 453

Abstrakt

Abstract

Precise control of electro-hydraulic actuator (EHA) system has been an interesting subject due to its nonlinearities and uncertainties characteristics. Good control can be designed when precise model of the system is available. Linear ARX modelling has widely been applied and satisfying result has been obtained, through linearization process. The objective of this paper is to compare ARX model with nonlinear ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) model, which can represent the real EHA system more precisely using same linearized data. Results show that ANFIS model is more accurate in approximation estimation of EHA system than ARX model on linearized data.

Index terms

  • ARX
  • ANFIS
  • electro-hydraulic
  • linearization
  • nonlinear
access type Otwarty dostęp

Virtual Figure Presentation using Pressure-Slippage-Generation Tactile Mouse

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 454 - 466

Abstrakt

Abstract

Since our tactile mouse can generate not only distributed pressure but also slippage force, it is expected that it can enhance the reality degree of virtual reality generated by it compared to conventional tactile displays. In previous works, this tactile mouse was effective for edge tracing of virtual figures. However, advanced tests are required using psychophysical experiments to evaluate this tactile display. In this paper, four virtual relief-like figures, a triangle, square, pentagon and circle, are presented using the tactile mouse. These virtual figures have a constant height of around 1 mm against the background. To evaluate the effectiveness of combined presentation of pressure and slippage, not only pressure but also tangential force is generated on the tactile pad on which an operator puts his finger in combined presentation tests when the mouse cursor travels on the figure. In a series of experiments, five male subjects judge which figure is presented. It is found that the percentage of correct answers is increased in the combined presentation when the circle and pentagon are presented. Therefore, the combined presentation provides plain virtual sensation to allow the operator to more easily understand the sensation.

Index terms

  • Tactile Sensing
  • Virtual Reality
  • Figure Presentation
  • Pressure-slippage
  • Mouse
access type Otwarty dostęp

0.35 μm CMOS Optical Sensor for an Integrated Transimpedance Circuit

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 467 - 481

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents an integrated optical receiver which consists of an integrated photodetector, and a transimpedance circuit. A series inductive peaking is used for enhancing the bandwidth. The proposed structure operates at a data rate of 10 Gb/s with a BER of Iff20 and was implemented in a 0.35 μm CMOS process.

The integrated photodiode has a capacitance of 0.01 pF which permits to the structure to achieve a wide bandwidth (5.75 GHz) with only one inductor before the last stage; hence a smaller silicon area is maintained. The proposed TIA has a gain of36.56 dBΩ (67.57 KΩ), and an input courant noise level of about 25.8 pA/Hz0.5. It consumes a DC power of 87.4 mW from 3.3 V supply voltage.

Index terms

  • CMOS technology
  • Integrated photodiode
  • SML photodiode
  • Transimpedance
  • bandwidth enhancement
  • shunt and series peaking;
access type Otwarty dostęp

Implementation of a Simple Wireless Sensor Node for the Detection of Gaseous Substances Leakage

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 482 - 495

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper presents the steps involved in implementing a customizable wireless sensor node for the detection of gaseous substances leakage in both internal and external environments. The node consists of various modules namely, sensors, signal conditioning, computational unit, wireless communication and power supply. The measurand to be measured are carbon dioxide, oxygen, relative humidity and temperature. A computational analysis is performed using a nano-watt PIC18LF4620 microcontroller and the wireless communication is realized through a MRF24J40MA Zigbee module. The results obtained prove that the sensor node possess good features such as, low cost, simple to use, minimal power consumption, long network range and compatibility with analog/digital sensors. The simple construction procedures create the possibility of implementing such customizable sensor node for the different environmental monitoring applications.

Index terms

  • Wireless Sensor Node
  • Gaseous substances
  • PIC18LF4620
  • MRF24J40- Zigbee
  • Carbon dioxide
access type Otwarty dostęp

Versatile Sensor Platform for Autonomous Sensing in Automotive Applications

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 496 - 507

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents the development of a versatile sensor platform used for autonomous data acquisition. The key advantages of the platform are its compact design, implemented onboard sensors, standard interfaces to connect application specific sensors and subsequently simple installation and low costs for the preparation of a measurement task. The paper provides details of the platform design and key characteristics. Practical exemplary applications in the field of automotive sensing, covering thermal management related and passenger comfort related measurement tasks, are presented.

Index terms

  • sensor platform
  • onboard sensing
  • autonomous sensing
  • automotive application
access type Otwarty dostęp

Edge Extraction using Image and Three-Axis Tactile Data

Data publikacji: 01 Sep 2011
Zakres stron: 508 - 526

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper describes a hand-arm system equipped with optical three-axis tactile sensors and a binocular vision sensor. The vision compensates for the limitations of tactile information and tactile sensing, and vice versa. The tactile sensor can obtain geometrical data as real scale, while image data requires calibration to obtain length as a metric unit. Even if stereovision is used, we cannot obtain sufficient precision. In the evaluation test, the robotic hand equipped with tactile sensors traces an object including convex and concave portions to evaluate edge trace precision. Error of distance obtained by the binocular vision is around ± 10 mm when distance between the camera and object is around 600 mm. When the hand-arm robot touches the convex portion of the object, size data obtained by the vision is modified within ± 0.5 mm accuracy. Since the robotic finger is too thick to touch the bottom of the concave, size data of the concave portion obtained by tactile sensing includes relatively large error of around 4 mm. However, the robot finger can follow the contour with ± 0.5 mm accuracy except for the bottom portion. Therefore, vision sensing is not sufficient for precise edge exploration and modification based on tactile sensing is required.

Index terms

  • Tactile Exploration
  • Edge Extraction
  • Image Data
  • Hand-arm Robot
  • Calibration

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