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Tom 13 (2013): Zeszyt 4 (October 2013)
Zeszyt Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

Tom 13 (2013): Zeszyt 3 (July 2013)

Tom 13 (2013): Zeszyt 2 (April 2013)

Tom 13 (2013): Zeszyt 1 (January 2013)

Tom 12 (2012): Zeszyt 4 (October 2012)

Tom 12 (2012): Zeszyt 3 (July 2012)

Tom 12 (2012): Zeszyt 2 (April 2012)

Tom 12 (2012): Zeszyt 1 (January 2012)

Tom 11 (2011): Zeszyt 4 (August 2011)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8733
ISSN
1642-3402
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 13 (2013): Zeszyt 1 (January 2013)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8733
ISSN
1642-3402
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

14 Artykułów

Review

Otwarty dostęp

Glutamine as a Feed Supplement for Piglets: a Review / Glutamina jako dodatek do paszy dla prosiąt: przegląd

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 5 - 152

Abstrakt

Abstract

Weaning is a crucial moment in a piglet’s life. It is characterized by a generally low nutrient intake and adverse changes in the small intestinal mucosa. Proper feeding is therefore necessary to ensure normal development of the gastrointestinal tract. One substance that could provide intestinal epithelial cells with necessary energy is the amino acid glutamine. It improves epithelium structure and accelerates the growth of intestinal villi in which nutrients are absorbed, thus improving feed utilization and growth performance in piglets. The effect of glutamine on intestinal microflora also improves animal health. In addition to liver and kidneys, small intestine is the main site of glutamine metabolism, which leads to the synthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides and of the important antioxidant glutathione. Glutamine is also a precursor for the synthesis of proline and arginine, the components of body proteins. Glutamine downregulates the expression of genes responsible for oxidative stress and immune activation, and increases the expression of genes that are necessary for cell growth and removal of oxidants. Due to these properties, glutamine is considered an essential amino acid in diets for weaned piglets.

Słowa kluczowe

  • L-glutamine
  • piglet rearing
  • digestive tract
Otwarty dostęp

The Usefulness of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Modern Poultry Nutrition: a Review / Przydatność prebiotyków i probiotyków w nowoczesnym żywieniu drobiu – przegląd

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 17 - 32

Abstrakt

Abstract

A probiotic is a culture of live microorganisms that can manipulate and maintain a beneficial microflora in the gut. Prebiotics are nondigestible feed ingredients that can positively affect the animal organism by stimulating the activity and growth of beneficial native bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and eliminate the pathogenic ones. Some studies have shown their beneficial effects when they have been used separately or simultaneously in the form of synbiotics, to obtain enhanced mutual effect. These supplements were proposed with success as alternatives to antibiotic growth-promoting feed additives but further studies are needed to better understand their mode of action and effects. This review article presents growing interest in using these antibiotic alternatives, the potential mechanism of their action in the live organism, and discusses some recent data on the effects of these supplements in poultry nutrition.

Keywords

  • probiotic
  • prebiotic
  • synbiotic
  • poultry
  • laying hens
  • broilers

Genetics and farm animal breeding

Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of the Possibility of Improving the Indicators of Pork Quality Through Selection with Particular Consideration of Intramuscular Fat (MF) Content / Analiza możliwości poprawy wskaźników jakości wieprzowiny na drodze selekcji ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem zawartości tłuszczu śródmięśniowego (IMF)

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 33 - 44

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to estimate coefficients of heritability for intramuscular fat (IMF) content and other fattening, slaughter and meat quality traits of the pig breeds raised in Poland. In addition, genetic correlations were estimated between IMF content and a group of fattening, slaughter and meat quality traits, which enables this parameter to be included in the BLUP estimation of breeding value. The experiment used Polish Landrace (PL), Polish Large White (PLW), Puławska, Hampshire, Duroc, Pietrain and line 990 animals. A total of 4430 gilts of these breeds, tested at Pig Performance Testing Stations (SKURTCh), were investigated. Heritability of IMF was at intermediate level for the two most common breeds raised in Poland (h2 = .318 for PLW, h2 = .291 for PL). In the group of meat quality traits, high heritability was noted for meat colour lightness (L*) measured by Minolta (from h2 = .453 to h2 = .572). No relationships were found between IMF level and indicators of fattening performance. The highest value observed in this group of traits concerned the genetic relationship with daily feed intake (rG = .227) for the entire group of animals. For the PLW and PL breeds, these relationships were with feed conversion (kg/kg gain) (rG = .151 and rG = .167, respectively). One of the higher relationships observed were genetic correlations with water holding capacity (above rG = -.3) and, for the PLW and PL breeds, with meat redness (a*), which amounted to rG = .155 and rG = .143, respectively.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pigs
  • heritability
  • genetic correlations
  • intramuscular fat
  • performance
  • meat quality

The biology, physiology and reproduction of animals

Otwarty dostęp

Morphometric Characteristics of the Reproductive System in Polish Large White and Polish Landrace Gilts at 100 Kg Body Weight / Charakterystyka morfometryczna układu rozrodczego loszek wielkiej białej polskiej i polskiej białej zwisłouchej przy masie ciała 100 kg

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 45 - 53

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study involved an analysis of the developmental stage of reproductive organs collected at slaughter from 160 gilts (Polish Large White (PLW), n = 80; Polish Landrace (PL), n = 80) at 100 kg body weight. Due to a large variation in slaughter age (140-190 days), three groups of animals were set up: A (less than 160 days), B (160 to 180 days) and C (more than 180 days). PL gilts reached their slaughter weight earlier than PLW gilts (P≤0.05). Uterine weight increased with the age of animals but due to high variability and large deviations from the mean value, statistically significant differences were demonstrated only between gilt groups A and B for both breeds together (120.57 g vs. 148.83 g; P≤0.05). Larger differences related to the age of the gilts were found for cervical length between the groups compared (P≤0.01). The total length of the right and left uterine horns showed a significant increase with age in PLW gilts (P≤0.05). The ratio between uterine weight without ligament and the length of uterine horns (g/cm) was significantly higher in group B than in group A in gilts of both breeds together (P≤0.05), which might indicate thickening of the uterine walls. Uterine capacity was significantly higher in older animals yet due to a large variability of this trait, no significant differences between the groups were shown. The length and diameter of oviducts, the weight of each ovary, their sum and dimensions did not reveal any consistent changes associated with the age or breed of pigs. However, the size of the ovaries determined volumetrically and reported as the volume of ovaries in gilts of both breeds was significantly larger in group B compared with C (P≤0.01). No significant differences related to the studied traits were stated between PLW and PL prepubertal gilts. However, the effect of age on morphometric development of the reproductive system was more pronounced in PLW than in PL gilts.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pig
  • gilts
  • age
  • reproductive tract
  • morphometric measures
Otwarty dostęp

Circadian Activity of Dairy Ewes Kept Indoors / Aktywność dobowa maciorek mlecznych utrzymywanych w chowie alkierzowym

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 55 - 62

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to characterize the activity of Polish Milk Sheep 05 ewes housed in the indoor system. One group of 28 animals was observed. The observations lasted 227 hours and were conducted during day and night. The activity of each ewe was recorded every 10 minutes. The observed sheep rested for most of the day. Their activity increased at dawn, during milking (and feeding) and after green forage was provided in the afternoon. The time of feeding was mostly dependent on human activities. Rumination always occurred after the feed was offered. Sheep mainly slept lying down after milking and at night. REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep was observed. There were statistically significant (P≤0.05) differences in individual forms of behaviour (moving, standing, lying, feeding and ruminating) between different times of the day. In conclusion, the activity pattern of the indoor-housed ewes resembled that of pastured ruminants, but it was also strongly influenced by farm staff (milking, feeding, etc.).

Keywords

  • daily activity
  • behaviour
  • ruminant
  • feeding pattern

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Inulin and Garlic Supplementation in Pig Diets / Efektywność dodatku inuliny i czosnku w żywieniu tuczników

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 63 - 71

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of supplementing inulin and inulin with garlic extract to pig diets on performance, carcass traits, blood metabolic profile and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle. The experiment was carried out on 48 crossbred [(PL × PLW) × Duroc] fattening pigs with an initial body weight of 30.0 ± 0.5 kg, which were allocated to 3 groups: I (control), II (3% inulin) and III (3% inulin + 500 ml garlic extract added to 1000 l of drinking water). The pigs whose diets were supplemented with inulin or inulin and garlic achieved significantly (P≤0.05) higher daily weight gains compared to control. Supplemental inulin and water extract of garlic significantly (P≤0.05) lowered cholesterol content in blood and longissimus muscle. The highest level of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids was established in the longissimus muscle from pigs in group III.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pig
  • inulin
  • garlic
  • blood
  • fatty acids
Otwarty dostęp

The Effect of Different Forms of Sunflower Oil and Protein Sources in the Diet on Pancreatic Juice Secretion and Pancreatic Enzymes Activity in Sheep / Wpływ formy oleju słonecznikowego oraz źródła białka w dawce na sekrecję soku trzustkowego oraz aktywność enzymów trzustkowych u owiec

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 73 - 83

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of various forms of sunflower oil in the diet with protein degraded at different rates in the rumen on pancreatic juice secretion and activity. The experiment was conducted on 24 adult Corriedale rams weighing about 40 ± 1.5 kg, catheterized in the pancreatic and bile ducts and fistulated in the duodenum. The animals were fed diets consisting of meadow hay, potato starch, different degradable protein (casein or maize gluten, a source of zein) and different forms of sunflower oil (calcium salts, seeds and oil). It was stated that addition of various forms of fat to the diet did not significantly influence the secretion of pancreatic juice, regardless of the source of protein. However, sunflower seeds and oil used in the diet had a significant effect on bile secretion, protein content, proteolytic activity of trypsin and plasma lipid indices. No significant differences were observed in the lipolytic activity of the pancreatic juice, although lipase activity was higher when zein was used as the main protein source. It was concluded that dietary addition of certain combinations of protected or unprotected sunflower oil and different degradable protein may improve pancreatic activity and probably affect plasma lipid indices in sheep.

Keywords

  • sheep
  • sunflower oil
  • zein
  • casein
  • secretion of pancreatic juice
  • pancreatic enzymes
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Dietary Acidifier on Growth, Mortality, Post-Slaughter Parameters and Meat Composition of Broiler Chickens / Wpływ zakwaszacza diety na masę ciała, śmiertelność, wydajność rzeźną i skład mięsa kurcząt rzeźnych

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 85 - 96

Abstrakt

Abstract

An experiment with 608 broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary acidifier level on body weight, feed consumption and conversion, mortality, dressing percentage, postmortem carcass traits, tissue composition of breast and leg muscles, and plasma chemical parameters. Feeding the acidifier to chickens at 3, 6 and 9 g/kg of the diet reduced the pH of starter and grower diets from 6.90 to 5.89, and from 6.28 to 5.73, respectively. Compared to the control group, dietary acidification significantly increased body weight of chickens by 6.2, 8.2 and 8.2% at 21 days of age, and by 2.7, 3.6 and 3.7% at 42 days of age, respectively (P<0.01). Mortality decreased from 2.58% in the control group to 0.00-0.59% in the experimental groups (P<0.01). Acidification of the diets increased EEI-index from 327 (control group) to 348 points in the experimental group supplemented with 9% (9 g/kg) acidifier, but had no significant effect on feed consumption and feed conversion ratio among treatments. The relative weight of breast and leg muscles, gizzard, liver and carcass depot fat was not affected by dietary treatments. Breast muscles represented 27.7% (control group) and 27.9% (experimental groups) of the carcass weight. Leg muscles made up 21.5% and 20.7% of the carcass weight, respectively. There were no significant differences in chemical composition of breast and leg muscles, including dry matter, protein and fat content. No significant differences between the control and experimental chickens were noted for determined blood plasma constituents, glucose, total protein, triglycerides, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein. The results suggested that organic acid acidifier used in this experiment at the rates of 3 to 9 g/kg diet has a growth enhancing and mortality reducing effect in broiler chickens, with no significant influence on carcass yield, proportion of individual carcass parts and blood plasma constituents. It seems that the amount of 6g of the applied acidifier per kilogram of feed may be recommended as the optimum dietary level if protein in the diet does not exceed 200-230 g crude protein per kilogram of diet.

Keywords

  • broiler chicken
  • dietary acidifier
  • growth performance
  • mortality
  • carcass indices
  • meat composition
  • blood plasma parameters
Otwarty dostęp

Feeding Corn Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) And Its Effect On Egg Quality And Performance Of Laying Hens / Zastosowanie DDGS z kukurydzy w żywieniu kur niosek i jego wpływ na jakość jaj i wyniki produkcyjne

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 97 - 107

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of corn DDGS as a feed ingredient on egg quality and performance of laying hens. The experiment was conducted in three feeding groups of 100 hens each (10 replicates of 10 layers). ISA Brown laying hens were administered a feed mixture containing 15% (E1) or 20% (E2) corn DDGS for 18 weeks. The hens from the control group (C) received a standard diet based on soybean meal as the main protein source only. Laying performance, average egg weight, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio were recorded over the study period. Egg quality traits (egg weight, thick albumen quality, yolk colour, yolk content, shell content and shell thickness) were evaluated twice: at the start and at the end of the experiment. On both dates, all daily laid eggs from each group were analysed, i.e. 90, 93 and 92 eggs from groups C, E1 and E2, respectively at 31 weeks, and 92, 94 and 81 eggs, respectively at 48 weeks of age. Compared to the other groups, the hens from group E2 (20% DDGS) were characterized by a slight - though statistically significant (P≤0.01) - decrease in laying performance and by a higher FCR value. The content of DDGS in the feed mixture had no significant effect on mean egg weight nor on daily feed intake. At the end of the experiment, the eggs laid by the hens from group E2 were characterized by significantly poorer (P≤0.01) albumen and shell quality. Yolk colour in both experimental groups was significantly darker (P≤0.01) than in the C group. The 15% addition of corn distillers dried grains with solubles to feed mixtures for commercial flocks of laying hens is advisable. At corn DDGS addition exceeding 15%, a slight decrease in production results and deterioration in selected parameters of egg quality shall be expected.

Keywords

  • corn DDGS
  • laying hens
  • egg production
  • egg quality

Environment, hygiene and animal production technology

Otwarty dostęp

Influence of Wind on Air Movement in a Free-Stall Barn During the Summer Period / Wpływ wiatru na ruch powietrza w oborze wolnostanowiskowej w okresie letnim

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 109 - 119

Abstrakt

Abstract

Use of natural ventilation in the barn should lead to optimal microclimatic conditions over the entire space. In the summer, especially during hot weather, higher air velocity cools cows, which helps to avoid heat stress. The paper presents the results of studies on the evolution of air movement in a modernized free-stall barn of the Fermbet type with the natural ventilation system during the summer period. Based on measurements of velocity and direction of air flow (inside and outside the barn) and observations of smoke indicator, the movement of air masses in different parts of the barn was identified. Significant variations of air flow at different levels of the barn were found. These differences deviate from the accepted patterns of natural ventilation, which can be found in the literature. The range of a draught and stagnant air along with the conditions in which they are built was determined. On this basis, recommendations regarding the location of barns on the plots and the improvement of ventilation in summer were made.

Keywords

  • summer
  • wind
  • ventilation
  • dairy cows
  • free-stall barn
Otwarty dostęp

The Effect of Carcass Conformation Class (Europ System) on the Slaughter Quality of Young Crossbred Beef Bulls and Holstein-Friesians / Porównanie wartości rzeźnej buhajków mieszańców mięsnych i holsztyno-fryzów w zależności od klasy uformowania w systemie EUROP

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 121 - 131

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of genotype and carcass conformation class on the slaughter quality of 200 young bulls, including 108 crossbred beef bulls and 92 Holstein- Friesians (HF), aged 21-22 months, selected in the lairage. The lean meat content was estimated and body measurements were taken before slaughter. After slaughter, the carcasses were graded according to the EUROP system, and carcass quality parameters were determined. Intramuscular fat was extracted from samples of m. longissimus dorsi, and the fatty acid profile of extracted fat was determined by gas chromatography. 61.11% carcasses of crossbred beef bulls were graded in the conformation class R, and 56.53% carcasses of Holstein-Friesians were classified as O. The majority of carcasses belonged to fat class 2, which was not consistent with intramuscular fat content. Within the same conformation classes, crossbred beef bulls were characterized by higher slaughter quality than Holstein-Friesian bulls. Meat from hybrid beef bulls had a higher (by 0.42% on average) content of fat with a more desirable composition. Since the population size of beef cattle will probably not increase in the nearest future, efforts should be continued to optimize the production of high-quality beef from dairy cattle herds.

Słowa kluczowe

  • beef bulls
  • slaughter quality
  • EUROP classification
  • fatty acids.
Otwarty dostęp

Oesophagostominae (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) Of Suids From Southern Poland / Oesophagostominae (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) u świniowatych z Polski południowej

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 133 - 141

Abstrakt

Abstract

Until recently, the genus Oesophagostomum was the only Oesophagostominae occurring commonly in both domestic and wild suids of Europe. A few years ago, an alien oesophagostomin nematode Bourgelatia diducta was recorded in the wild boar population from southern Poland, and Vietnamese potbellied pig was blamed for introduction of this Far Eastern parasite. Apart from wild boars kept in captivity for meat production purposes, Vietnamese potbellied pigs can be raised in extensive, organic, or especially agrotourism farms, which constitutes an infection hazard to domestic pigs. The aim of the research was to determine and compare species composition of Oesophagostominae in wild boars from the natural environment, and in domestic pigs from extensively managed farms, located in the area where B. diducta was previously noted for the first time. A postmortem examination of the large intestines of 25 wild boars and 20 domestic pigs, each from different smallholdings, was conducted in the autumn and winter season of 2010- 2011. Oesophagostomum dentatum with coexisting O. quadrispinulatum were ascertained in swine, whereas the sole Bourgelatia diducta was recorded in wild boars. All the parasites occurred commonly in their hosts, with the prevalence of 80, 50 and 32% for O. dentatum, O. quadrispinulatum and B. diducta, respectively. Mean number of worms was many-fold higher in pigs, reaching 181 (range 1 to 2500) specimens in individual host, versus 3 (1-6) parasites in wild boars. A presumable influence of the alien nematode species on the European wild boar population as well as the potential for further spread of the parasite are elucidated

Keywords

  • wild boar
  • domestic pig
  • Oesophagostomum spp.
  • Bourgelatia diducta

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Otwarty dostęp

Validation of a Method for Determining Cholesterol in Egg Yolks/ Walidacja metody oznaczania cholesterolu w żółtkach jaj

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 143 - 153

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to validate a gas chromatographic method for determining cholesterol in egg yolks according to the EN ISO/IEC 17025 standard. Of the two methods, with and without internal standard, the former was characterized by lower uncertainty, with a repeatability of 4% and within-laboratory reproducibility of 6%. The method’s uncertainty (n = 2, P≤0.05), which included sample preparation errors and chromatographic measurement errors, was 10.6%. Mean recovery was 99.9% and limit of quantification was 0.16 mg/g. The coefficient of variation for repeatability, which is calculated during routine analyses, should not exceed the 8% limit of repeatability. The method is reliable, as confirmed by the results of validation, and the procedure is relatively rapid and simple.

Keywords

  • cholesterol
  • egg yolk
  • validation
  • uncertainty
  • gas chromatography
Otwarty dostęp

The Effect of Dietary Fish Oil on the Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition and Oxidative Stability of Goose Leg Muscles / Wpływ oleju rybnego na profil lipidowy i skład kwasów tłuszczowych oraz stabilność oksydacyjną mięśni nóg gęsi

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 155 - 165

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fish oil added to feed mixtures for geese on their growth, lipid profile and antioxidant status of leg muscles. Ninety-six Arzamas geese were randomly divided into two groups and fed from 30 to 60 days of life standard mixtures containing soybean oil (control) or fish oil at 5%. The addition of fish oil to the feed mixtures for geese increased the content of EPA and DHA, and decreased the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in fat of breast muscles compared to birds fed the control mixture. It also resulted in a considerable increase in the content of phospholipids and decreased the content of glycerol, free fatty acids as well as triacylglycerols and esterified cholesterol. The type of fat source had no effect on the content of lipid peroxidation products and the activity of antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords

  • goose
  • fish oil
  • leg muscles
  • lipids
  • fatty acids
  • antioxidation
14 Artykułów

Review

Otwarty dostęp

Glutamine as a Feed Supplement for Piglets: a Review / Glutamina jako dodatek do paszy dla prosiąt: przegląd

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 5 - 152

Abstrakt

Abstract

Weaning is a crucial moment in a piglet’s life. It is characterized by a generally low nutrient intake and adverse changes in the small intestinal mucosa. Proper feeding is therefore necessary to ensure normal development of the gastrointestinal tract. One substance that could provide intestinal epithelial cells with necessary energy is the amino acid glutamine. It improves epithelium structure and accelerates the growth of intestinal villi in which nutrients are absorbed, thus improving feed utilization and growth performance in piglets. The effect of glutamine on intestinal microflora also improves animal health. In addition to liver and kidneys, small intestine is the main site of glutamine metabolism, which leads to the synthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides and of the important antioxidant glutathione. Glutamine is also a precursor for the synthesis of proline and arginine, the components of body proteins. Glutamine downregulates the expression of genes responsible for oxidative stress and immune activation, and increases the expression of genes that are necessary for cell growth and removal of oxidants. Due to these properties, glutamine is considered an essential amino acid in diets for weaned piglets.

Słowa kluczowe

  • L-glutamine
  • piglet rearing
  • digestive tract
Otwarty dostęp

The Usefulness of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Modern Poultry Nutrition: a Review / Przydatność prebiotyków i probiotyków w nowoczesnym żywieniu drobiu – przegląd

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 17 - 32

Abstrakt

Abstract

A probiotic is a culture of live microorganisms that can manipulate and maintain a beneficial microflora in the gut. Prebiotics are nondigestible feed ingredients that can positively affect the animal organism by stimulating the activity and growth of beneficial native bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and eliminate the pathogenic ones. Some studies have shown their beneficial effects when they have been used separately or simultaneously in the form of synbiotics, to obtain enhanced mutual effect. These supplements were proposed with success as alternatives to antibiotic growth-promoting feed additives but further studies are needed to better understand their mode of action and effects. This review article presents growing interest in using these antibiotic alternatives, the potential mechanism of their action in the live organism, and discusses some recent data on the effects of these supplements in poultry nutrition.

Keywords

  • probiotic
  • prebiotic
  • synbiotic
  • poultry
  • laying hens
  • broilers

Genetics and farm animal breeding

Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of the Possibility of Improving the Indicators of Pork Quality Through Selection with Particular Consideration of Intramuscular Fat (MF) Content / Analiza możliwości poprawy wskaźników jakości wieprzowiny na drodze selekcji ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem zawartości tłuszczu śródmięśniowego (IMF)

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 33 - 44

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to estimate coefficients of heritability for intramuscular fat (IMF) content and other fattening, slaughter and meat quality traits of the pig breeds raised in Poland. In addition, genetic correlations were estimated between IMF content and a group of fattening, slaughter and meat quality traits, which enables this parameter to be included in the BLUP estimation of breeding value. The experiment used Polish Landrace (PL), Polish Large White (PLW), Puławska, Hampshire, Duroc, Pietrain and line 990 animals. A total of 4430 gilts of these breeds, tested at Pig Performance Testing Stations (SKURTCh), were investigated. Heritability of IMF was at intermediate level for the two most common breeds raised in Poland (h2 = .318 for PLW, h2 = .291 for PL). In the group of meat quality traits, high heritability was noted for meat colour lightness (L*) measured by Minolta (from h2 = .453 to h2 = .572). No relationships were found between IMF level and indicators of fattening performance. The highest value observed in this group of traits concerned the genetic relationship with daily feed intake (rG = .227) for the entire group of animals. For the PLW and PL breeds, these relationships were with feed conversion (kg/kg gain) (rG = .151 and rG = .167, respectively). One of the higher relationships observed were genetic correlations with water holding capacity (above rG = -.3) and, for the PLW and PL breeds, with meat redness (a*), which amounted to rG = .155 and rG = .143, respectively.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pigs
  • heritability
  • genetic correlations
  • intramuscular fat
  • performance
  • meat quality

The biology, physiology and reproduction of animals

Otwarty dostęp

Morphometric Characteristics of the Reproductive System in Polish Large White and Polish Landrace Gilts at 100 Kg Body Weight / Charakterystyka morfometryczna układu rozrodczego loszek wielkiej białej polskiej i polskiej białej zwisłouchej przy masie ciała 100 kg

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 45 - 53

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study involved an analysis of the developmental stage of reproductive organs collected at slaughter from 160 gilts (Polish Large White (PLW), n = 80; Polish Landrace (PL), n = 80) at 100 kg body weight. Due to a large variation in slaughter age (140-190 days), three groups of animals were set up: A (less than 160 days), B (160 to 180 days) and C (more than 180 days). PL gilts reached their slaughter weight earlier than PLW gilts (P≤0.05). Uterine weight increased with the age of animals but due to high variability and large deviations from the mean value, statistically significant differences were demonstrated only between gilt groups A and B for both breeds together (120.57 g vs. 148.83 g; P≤0.05). Larger differences related to the age of the gilts were found for cervical length between the groups compared (P≤0.01). The total length of the right and left uterine horns showed a significant increase with age in PLW gilts (P≤0.05). The ratio between uterine weight without ligament and the length of uterine horns (g/cm) was significantly higher in group B than in group A in gilts of both breeds together (P≤0.05), which might indicate thickening of the uterine walls. Uterine capacity was significantly higher in older animals yet due to a large variability of this trait, no significant differences between the groups were shown. The length and diameter of oviducts, the weight of each ovary, their sum and dimensions did not reveal any consistent changes associated with the age or breed of pigs. However, the size of the ovaries determined volumetrically and reported as the volume of ovaries in gilts of both breeds was significantly larger in group B compared with C (P≤0.01). No significant differences related to the studied traits were stated between PLW and PL prepubertal gilts. However, the effect of age on morphometric development of the reproductive system was more pronounced in PLW than in PL gilts.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pig
  • gilts
  • age
  • reproductive tract
  • morphometric measures
Otwarty dostęp

Circadian Activity of Dairy Ewes Kept Indoors / Aktywność dobowa maciorek mlecznych utrzymywanych w chowie alkierzowym

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 55 - 62

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to characterize the activity of Polish Milk Sheep 05 ewes housed in the indoor system. One group of 28 animals was observed. The observations lasted 227 hours and were conducted during day and night. The activity of each ewe was recorded every 10 minutes. The observed sheep rested for most of the day. Their activity increased at dawn, during milking (and feeding) and after green forage was provided in the afternoon. The time of feeding was mostly dependent on human activities. Rumination always occurred after the feed was offered. Sheep mainly slept lying down after milking and at night. REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep was observed. There were statistically significant (P≤0.05) differences in individual forms of behaviour (moving, standing, lying, feeding and ruminating) between different times of the day. In conclusion, the activity pattern of the indoor-housed ewes resembled that of pastured ruminants, but it was also strongly influenced by farm staff (milking, feeding, etc.).

Keywords

  • daily activity
  • behaviour
  • ruminant
  • feeding pattern

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Inulin and Garlic Supplementation in Pig Diets / Efektywność dodatku inuliny i czosnku w żywieniu tuczników

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 63 - 71

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of supplementing inulin and inulin with garlic extract to pig diets on performance, carcass traits, blood metabolic profile and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle. The experiment was carried out on 48 crossbred [(PL × PLW) × Duroc] fattening pigs with an initial body weight of 30.0 ± 0.5 kg, which were allocated to 3 groups: I (control), II (3% inulin) and III (3% inulin + 500 ml garlic extract added to 1000 l of drinking water). The pigs whose diets were supplemented with inulin or inulin and garlic achieved significantly (P≤0.05) higher daily weight gains compared to control. Supplemental inulin and water extract of garlic significantly (P≤0.05) lowered cholesterol content in blood and longissimus muscle. The highest level of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids was established in the longissimus muscle from pigs in group III.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pig
  • inulin
  • garlic
  • blood
  • fatty acids
Otwarty dostęp

The Effect of Different Forms of Sunflower Oil and Protein Sources in the Diet on Pancreatic Juice Secretion and Pancreatic Enzymes Activity in Sheep / Wpływ formy oleju słonecznikowego oraz źródła białka w dawce na sekrecję soku trzustkowego oraz aktywność enzymów trzustkowych u owiec

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 73 - 83

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of various forms of sunflower oil in the diet with protein degraded at different rates in the rumen on pancreatic juice secretion and activity. The experiment was conducted on 24 adult Corriedale rams weighing about 40 ± 1.5 kg, catheterized in the pancreatic and bile ducts and fistulated in the duodenum. The animals were fed diets consisting of meadow hay, potato starch, different degradable protein (casein or maize gluten, a source of zein) and different forms of sunflower oil (calcium salts, seeds and oil). It was stated that addition of various forms of fat to the diet did not significantly influence the secretion of pancreatic juice, regardless of the source of protein. However, sunflower seeds and oil used in the diet had a significant effect on bile secretion, protein content, proteolytic activity of trypsin and plasma lipid indices. No significant differences were observed in the lipolytic activity of the pancreatic juice, although lipase activity was higher when zein was used as the main protein source. It was concluded that dietary addition of certain combinations of protected or unprotected sunflower oil and different degradable protein may improve pancreatic activity and probably affect plasma lipid indices in sheep.

Keywords

  • sheep
  • sunflower oil
  • zein
  • casein
  • secretion of pancreatic juice
  • pancreatic enzymes
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Dietary Acidifier on Growth, Mortality, Post-Slaughter Parameters and Meat Composition of Broiler Chickens / Wpływ zakwaszacza diety na masę ciała, śmiertelność, wydajność rzeźną i skład mięsa kurcząt rzeźnych

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 85 - 96

Abstrakt

Abstract

An experiment with 608 broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary acidifier level on body weight, feed consumption and conversion, mortality, dressing percentage, postmortem carcass traits, tissue composition of breast and leg muscles, and plasma chemical parameters. Feeding the acidifier to chickens at 3, 6 and 9 g/kg of the diet reduced the pH of starter and grower diets from 6.90 to 5.89, and from 6.28 to 5.73, respectively. Compared to the control group, dietary acidification significantly increased body weight of chickens by 6.2, 8.2 and 8.2% at 21 days of age, and by 2.7, 3.6 and 3.7% at 42 days of age, respectively (P<0.01). Mortality decreased from 2.58% in the control group to 0.00-0.59% in the experimental groups (P<0.01). Acidification of the diets increased EEI-index from 327 (control group) to 348 points in the experimental group supplemented with 9% (9 g/kg) acidifier, but had no significant effect on feed consumption and feed conversion ratio among treatments. The relative weight of breast and leg muscles, gizzard, liver and carcass depot fat was not affected by dietary treatments. Breast muscles represented 27.7% (control group) and 27.9% (experimental groups) of the carcass weight. Leg muscles made up 21.5% and 20.7% of the carcass weight, respectively. There were no significant differences in chemical composition of breast and leg muscles, including dry matter, protein and fat content. No significant differences between the control and experimental chickens were noted for determined blood plasma constituents, glucose, total protein, triglycerides, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein. The results suggested that organic acid acidifier used in this experiment at the rates of 3 to 9 g/kg diet has a growth enhancing and mortality reducing effect in broiler chickens, with no significant influence on carcass yield, proportion of individual carcass parts and blood plasma constituents. It seems that the amount of 6g of the applied acidifier per kilogram of feed may be recommended as the optimum dietary level if protein in the diet does not exceed 200-230 g crude protein per kilogram of diet.

Keywords

  • broiler chicken
  • dietary acidifier
  • growth performance
  • mortality
  • carcass indices
  • meat composition
  • blood plasma parameters
Otwarty dostęp

Feeding Corn Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) And Its Effect On Egg Quality And Performance Of Laying Hens / Zastosowanie DDGS z kukurydzy w żywieniu kur niosek i jego wpływ na jakość jaj i wyniki produkcyjne

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 97 - 107

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of corn DDGS as a feed ingredient on egg quality and performance of laying hens. The experiment was conducted in three feeding groups of 100 hens each (10 replicates of 10 layers). ISA Brown laying hens were administered a feed mixture containing 15% (E1) or 20% (E2) corn DDGS for 18 weeks. The hens from the control group (C) received a standard diet based on soybean meal as the main protein source only. Laying performance, average egg weight, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio were recorded over the study period. Egg quality traits (egg weight, thick albumen quality, yolk colour, yolk content, shell content and shell thickness) were evaluated twice: at the start and at the end of the experiment. On both dates, all daily laid eggs from each group were analysed, i.e. 90, 93 and 92 eggs from groups C, E1 and E2, respectively at 31 weeks, and 92, 94 and 81 eggs, respectively at 48 weeks of age. Compared to the other groups, the hens from group E2 (20% DDGS) were characterized by a slight - though statistically significant (P≤0.01) - decrease in laying performance and by a higher FCR value. The content of DDGS in the feed mixture had no significant effect on mean egg weight nor on daily feed intake. At the end of the experiment, the eggs laid by the hens from group E2 were characterized by significantly poorer (P≤0.01) albumen and shell quality. Yolk colour in both experimental groups was significantly darker (P≤0.01) than in the C group. The 15% addition of corn distillers dried grains with solubles to feed mixtures for commercial flocks of laying hens is advisable. At corn DDGS addition exceeding 15%, a slight decrease in production results and deterioration in selected parameters of egg quality shall be expected.

Keywords

  • corn DDGS
  • laying hens
  • egg production
  • egg quality

Environment, hygiene and animal production technology

Otwarty dostęp

Influence of Wind on Air Movement in a Free-Stall Barn During the Summer Period / Wpływ wiatru na ruch powietrza w oborze wolnostanowiskowej w okresie letnim

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 109 - 119

Abstrakt

Abstract

Use of natural ventilation in the barn should lead to optimal microclimatic conditions over the entire space. In the summer, especially during hot weather, higher air velocity cools cows, which helps to avoid heat stress. The paper presents the results of studies on the evolution of air movement in a modernized free-stall barn of the Fermbet type with the natural ventilation system during the summer period. Based on measurements of velocity and direction of air flow (inside and outside the barn) and observations of smoke indicator, the movement of air masses in different parts of the barn was identified. Significant variations of air flow at different levels of the barn were found. These differences deviate from the accepted patterns of natural ventilation, which can be found in the literature. The range of a draught and stagnant air along with the conditions in which they are built was determined. On this basis, recommendations regarding the location of barns on the plots and the improvement of ventilation in summer were made.

Keywords

  • summer
  • wind
  • ventilation
  • dairy cows
  • free-stall barn
Otwarty dostęp

The Effect of Carcass Conformation Class (Europ System) on the Slaughter Quality of Young Crossbred Beef Bulls and Holstein-Friesians / Porównanie wartości rzeźnej buhajków mieszańców mięsnych i holsztyno-fryzów w zależności od klasy uformowania w systemie EUROP

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 121 - 131

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of genotype and carcass conformation class on the slaughter quality of 200 young bulls, including 108 crossbred beef bulls and 92 Holstein- Friesians (HF), aged 21-22 months, selected in the lairage. The lean meat content was estimated and body measurements were taken before slaughter. After slaughter, the carcasses were graded according to the EUROP system, and carcass quality parameters were determined. Intramuscular fat was extracted from samples of m. longissimus dorsi, and the fatty acid profile of extracted fat was determined by gas chromatography. 61.11% carcasses of crossbred beef bulls were graded in the conformation class R, and 56.53% carcasses of Holstein-Friesians were classified as O. The majority of carcasses belonged to fat class 2, which was not consistent with intramuscular fat content. Within the same conformation classes, crossbred beef bulls were characterized by higher slaughter quality than Holstein-Friesian bulls. Meat from hybrid beef bulls had a higher (by 0.42% on average) content of fat with a more desirable composition. Since the population size of beef cattle will probably not increase in the nearest future, efforts should be continued to optimize the production of high-quality beef from dairy cattle herds.

Słowa kluczowe

  • beef bulls
  • slaughter quality
  • EUROP classification
  • fatty acids.
Otwarty dostęp

Oesophagostominae (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) Of Suids From Southern Poland / Oesophagostominae (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) u świniowatych z Polski południowej

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 133 - 141

Abstrakt

Abstract

Until recently, the genus Oesophagostomum was the only Oesophagostominae occurring commonly in both domestic and wild suids of Europe. A few years ago, an alien oesophagostomin nematode Bourgelatia diducta was recorded in the wild boar population from southern Poland, and Vietnamese potbellied pig was blamed for introduction of this Far Eastern parasite. Apart from wild boars kept in captivity for meat production purposes, Vietnamese potbellied pigs can be raised in extensive, organic, or especially agrotourism farms, which constitutes an infection hazard to domestic pigs. The aim of the research was to determine and compare species composition of Oesophagostominae in wild boars from the natural environment, and in domestic pigs from extensively managed farms, located in the area where B. diducta was previously noted for the first time. A postmortem examination of the large intestines of 25 wild boars and 20 domestic pigs, each from different smallholdings, was conducted in the autumn and winter season of 2010- 2011. Oesophagostomum dentatum with coexisting O. quadrispinulatum were ascertained in swine, whereas the sole Bourgelatia diducta was recorded in wild boars. All the parasites occurred commonly in their hosts, with the prevalence of 80, 50 and 32% for O. dentatum, O. quadrispinulatum and B. diducta, respectively. Mean number of worms was many-fold higher in pigs, reaching 181 (range 1 to 2500) specimens in individual host, versus 3 (1-6) parasites in wild boars. A presumable influence of the alien nematode species on the European wild boar population as well as the potential for further spread of the parasite are elucidated

Keywords

  • wild boar
  • domestic pig
  • Oesophagostomum spp.
  • Bourgelatia diducta

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Otwarty dostęp

Validation of a Method for Determining Cholesterol in Egg Yolks/ Walidacja metody oznaczania cholesterolu w żółtkach jaj

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 143 - 153

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to validate a gas chromatographic method for determining cholesterol in egg yolks according to the EN ISO/IEC 17025 standard. Of the two methods, with and without internal standard, the former was characterized by lower uncertainty, with a repeatability of 4% and within-laboratory reproducibility of 6%. The method’s uncertainty (n = 2, P≤0.05), which included sample preparation errors and chromatographic measurement errors, was 10.6%. Mean recovery was 99.9% and limit of quantification was 0.16 mg/g. The coefficient of variation for repeatability, which is calculated during routine analyses, should not exceed the 8% limit of repeatability. The method is reliable, as confirmed by the results of validation, and the procedure is relatively rapid and simple.

Keywords

  • cholesterol
  • egg yolk
  • validation
  • uncertainty
  • gas chromatography
Otwarty dostęp

The Effect of Dietary Fish Oil on the Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition and Oxidative Stability of Goose Leg Muscles / Wpływ oleju rybnego na profil lipidowy i skład kwasów tłuszczowych oraz stabilność oksydacyjną mięśni nóg gęsi

Data publikacji: 29 Jan 2013
Zakres stron: 155 - 165

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fish oil added to feed mixtures for geese on their growth, lipid profile and antioxidant status of leg muscles. Ninety-six Arzamas geese were randomly divided into two groups and fed from 30 to 60 days of life standard mixtures containing soybean oil (control) or fish oil at 5%. The addition of fish oil to the feed mixtures for geese increased the content of EPA and DHA, and decreased the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in fat of breast muscles compared to birds fed the control mixture. It also resulted in a considerable increase in the content of phospholipids and decreased the content of glycerol, free fatty acids as well as triacylglycerols and esterified cholesterol. The type of fat source had no effect on the content of lipid peroxidation products and the activity of antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords

  • goose
  • fish oil
  • leg muscles
  • lipids
  • fatty acids
  • antioxidation

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