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Zeszyt Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8733
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 16 (2016): Zeszyt 3 (July 2016)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8733
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

23 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Food-Borne Pathogens and Contaminants in Raw Milk – A Review

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 623 - 639

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the present review is to highlight the threats to human health posed by consumption of milk and dairy products. The interest in drinking raw milk has been growing in some societies as many people believe it has health benefits. Raw milk is promoted as ‘health food’ despite the fact that it poses a realistic microbiological hazard for the consumers’ health or life. Food-borne disease outbreaks associated with Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli, Brucella melitensis, Mycobacterium bovis and tick-borne encephalitis virus have been traced to the consumption of raw milk, however, many other microorganisms that can be present in milk are considered as potential food-borne pathogens to humans. The other common causative agents in food-borne disease outbreaks are bacterial toxins produced by Bacillus, Clostridium and Staphylococcus spp. Some of the milk pathogens harbour antimicrobial resistant genes, which can be transferred to commensal bacteria. Most dangerous are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended spectrum beta lactamase/AmpC gene-carrying bacteria from the family of Enterobacteriaceae, which might negatively affect the treatment of infections in humans. Fungi are not considered as food-borne pathogens for humans, however their secondary metabolites, mycotoxins, constitute a potential threat to public health. Mycotoxins or their metabolites detected so far in milk samples include aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone and its metabolites, fumonisins, de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol and cyclopiazonic acid.

Słowa kluczowe

  • public health
  • milk
  • food-borne pathogens
  • enterotoxins
  • mycotoxins
Otwarty dostęp

Motivation, Stress and Learning – Critical Characteristics that Influence the Horses’ Value and Training Method – A Review

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 641 - 652

Abstrakt

Abstract

Equine husbandry is carried out in an environment unnatural to horses, which enforces their adaptation to artificial conditions. Besides housing conditions, the management and human-horse relationship is very important for both human safety and a high level of animal welfare and performance. This would not be possible if horses were not able to learn. For equestrians, independently of the horse’s use (sport, work, recreation, therapy etc.) the performance is of the highest importance. Deep knowledge about learning mechanisms is essential to maintain high level of horses’ welfare and to achieve effective training. Cognition can be influenced by motivation and stress. Motivational mechanisms are based on positive or negative reinforcement but still it is not known what motivates horses more and how food motivation influences learning. It was already shown that a low level of motivation decreases animal performance. The effect of stress is an increasingly popular research topic. It has been shown that acute stress decreases horses’ learning performance, but the exact standard is still unknown. The Yerkes-Dodson law claims that low and too high arousal decreases learning. What is more, the relation between learning and sex, breed and some temperamental traits has been shown in several studies.

Słowa kluczowe

  • horse
  • learning
  • motivation
  • stress
  • fearfulness
  • behavior
Otwarty dostęp

Avian Crop Function – A Review

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 653 - 678

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this review is to present and discuss the anatomy and physiology of crop in different avian species. The avian crop (ingluvies) present in most omnivorous and herbivorous bird species, plays a major role in feed storage and moistening, as well as functional barrier for pathogens through decreasing pH value by microbial fermentation. Moreover, recent data suggest that this gastrointestinal tract segment may play an important role in the regulation of the innate immune system of birds. In some avian species ingluvies secretes “crop milk” which provides high nutrients and energy content for nestlings growth. The crop has a crucial role in enhancing exogenous enzymes efficiency (for instance phytase and microbial amylase, β-glucanase), as well as the activity of bacteriocins. Thus, ingluvies may have a significant impact on bird performance and health status during all stages of rearing. Efficient use of the crop in case of digesta retention time is essential for birds’ growth performance. Thus, a functionality of the crop is dependent on a number of factors, including age, dietary factors, infections as well as flock management. It is important to expand knowledge about the crop functions to use them effectively in poultry production. Furthermore, more scientific data is needed in the scope of immunological function of the crop as well as its microecosystem for a better understanding of the avian immune system and enhancing the health of the birds.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ingluvies
  • avian crop
  • crop anatomy
  • crop physiology
  • crop microbiology
Otwarty dostęp

Molecular Cytogenetics in the Diagnostics of Balanced Chromosome Mutations in the Pig (Sus scrofa) – A Review

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 679 - 699

Abstrakt

Abstract

Continually improved cytogenetic techniques (differential staining and high resolution banding techniques), complemented with the molecular genetics methods (FISH and PRINS), enable chromosomal mutations to be accurately identified in the karyotype of the pig (Sus scrofa). The major breeding problem are balanced mutations because of their hidden nature, as they affect the animals with normal body conformation (and normal semen parameters in boars), which transfer these aberrations to the next generations and disseminate in the population. This refers to the structural rearrangements (translocations and inversions), causing developmental abnormalities and considerably reducing fertility and productivity parameters in breeding herds, which results in substantial financial losses. Routine karyotype screening using modern cytomolecular diagnostic methods is necessary due to the potential emergence of new mutations and the rapid spread of these genetic defects in the population, especially under artificial insemination conditions.

Słowa kluczowe

  • banding and FISH techniques
  • balanced chromosome mutations
  • meiosis
  • fertility of pigs
Otwarty dostęp

Pedigree Analysis of Mangalica Pig Breeds

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 701 - 709

Abstrakt

Abstract

An effective gene conservation programme requires the knowledge of genetic variability of the population. The genetic structure of Mangalica pig breeds (Blonde, Red and Swallow-bellied) was studied from pedigree records. Herdbook data available up to 2011 of registered Mangalica pig breeds (Blonde, Red and Swallow-bellied) were analysed. The number of complete generations was 6 for Blonde and 5 for Red and Swallow-bellied Mangalica whereas the average complete generation equivalent was between 3.51 and 6.01. The average level of inbreeding of the reference population was low (4.07–5.87%). The investigated breeds could be considered as small populations based on the probability of gene origin. The most important ancestor contributed between 9 and 16% of the gene pool of the reference populations. The longest generation interval was found for the sire-to-son pathways whereas the shortest for dam-to-daughter pathways for each breed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • genetic variability
  • pedigree analysis
  • Mangalica
Otwarty dostęp

The Relevance of Methylation Profiles of Equine ITGAL Gene

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 711 - 720

Abstrakt

Abstract

One of epigenetic features of mammalian genomes is methylation of DNA. This nucleotide modification might exert suppressive effect on gene transcription. We have described putative relevance of methylation of one of immune cells related gene (ITGAL) observed in the set of 11 equine tissues. Comparison between qualitative RT-PCR results and DNA bisulfite sequencing of investigated set of tissues pointed to potential correlations between tissue specific methylation and tissue specific transcription in ITGAL locus. These findings might be important for studies on genetic and epigenetic background of autoimmune disorders in the horse.

Słowa kluczowe

  • DNA methylation
  • transcription
  • horses
Otwarty dostęp

Association of Gene Coding for Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein (MTP) and Meat Texture Characteristic in Pig

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 721 - 729

Abstrakt

Abstract

The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein via participation in transport of neutral lipids between membrane vesicle is essential for assembly of chylomicrons, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). In human and pigs, it has been confirmed that mutations within MTTP locus affected lipid-transfer activity of this protein. The aim of the present study was to establish potential influences of ENSSSCP00000009789.2:p.Leu840Phe polymorphism on a panel of meat texture parameters measured in two muscles: m. longissimus lumborum and m. semimembranosus. The research performed on 410 pigs showed that investigated missense polymorphism was associated with meat texture profile parameters – TPA (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, resilience, chewiness) as well as firmness and toughness estimated in loin muscle. In whole analyzed population, the meat of pigs with CC genotype was characterized by significantly the lowest value of TPA characteristic and this trend was also confirmed in two breeds (Puławska and Large White pigs). In turn, the results obtained for firmness and toughness parameters in longissimus lumborum were not consistent across the different populations studied. Our research, in connection with previous studies, indicated that the MTTP gene may be considered as a candidate gene responsible for pork quality traits and pinpointed a need for further analysis in order to select useful genetic markers associated with meat quality parameters.

Słowa kluczowe

  • gene
  • lipid metabolism
  • polymorphism
  • pork
  • texture parameters
Otwarty dostęp

The use of PCR and Real-Time PCR for Qualitative and Quantitative Determination of Poultry and Chicken Meals

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 731 - 741

Abstrakt

Abstract

European Union regulations (e.g. Commission Regulation (EU) No 56/2013) set restrictions on the use of poultry meals in animal nutrition, which requires the species composition of manufactured feeds to be constantly monitored. The aim of this study is to develop a method for qualitative analysis of poultry meals, enabling the four main poultry species (chicken, turkey, duck, goose) to be detected using one pair of primers, and a method for quantitative determination of chicken meals in poultry meals. The qualitative identification method was developed using PCR technology, whereas qPCR and TaqMan probes were used for quantitative identification. The study was performed with samples of feed mixture containing poultry and chicken meal. The limit of determination was 0.08% and 0.02% for qualitative and quantitative identification, respectively. The results of quantitative determinations obtained for independent DNA isolations from the same samples are repeatable (RSDcT ≤0.46%). The determined concentrations are accurate (Dc ≤11.23% for c ≥0.06). The identification of target sequences in both tests is good enough for commercial applications.

Słowa kluczowe

  • poultry meal
  • species identification
  • PCR
  • real-time PCR
  • mitochondrial DNA
Otwarty dostęp

Factors Affecting the Hematological Parameters in Different Goat Breeds from Italy

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 743 - 757

Abstrakt

Abstract

Hematological parameters in healthy goats show several variations in relation to breed, age, reproductive status, environmental factors and management conditions. Therefore, there is the need to investigate these factors and how they affect the animal’s hematology. The aims of this study were to establish hematological reference values of five Italian goat breeds at different age classes (1–2, 3–4 and over 5 years) considered in autumn and to evaluate the effects of some factors (breed, age and environmental conditions). Ninety-six dried female Aspromontana goats, 102 Girgentana goats, 99 Messinese goats, 96 Maltese goats and 108 Argentata dell’Etna goats, clinically healthy, were used. Blood samples were collected from each animal and analyzed for Red Blood Cell (RBC), White Blood Cell (WBC), Hemoglobin concentration (Hb), Hematocrit (Hct), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and Platelets (PLT). Statistical analysis showed the effect of breed (P<0.05) on all studied parameters and the effect of age (P<0.05) on: RBC and Hb in Messinese goats; Hct in Girgentana, Maltese and Argentata dell’Etna goats; MCV and MCHC in Argentata dell’Etna goats; WBC in Aspromontana goats; and PLT in Girgentana and Messinese goats. The findings of the present study may serve as reference values for hematology of Italian goat breeds studied in autumn which could help veterinarians to interpret laboratory data appropriately and to monitor animal health status in order to improve the management and conservation of these breeds.

Słowa kluczowe

  • goats
  • age
  • breed
  • hematological parameters
  • reference intervals
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Uterine Inflammatory Status as well as Calcium and Magnesium Concentrations on the Uterine Involution Process in Dairy Cows

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 759 - 768

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was a comparative analysis of uterine horn diameter, calcium and magnesium concentrations in blood serum and uterine washings in cows both with and without endometritis. The study was performed on 28 cows at 5, 22 and 42 DP (day post partum), of which 14 cows had been diagnosed with endometritis and the other 14 had no endometritis. The animals were selected based on clinical symptoms and cytological examination. Uterine horn diameter was determined in both examined groups of cows using an ultrasonographic device. The level of calcium and magnesium in the blood serum and uterine washings, and protein in uterine washings was determined using a BS-160 Mindray analyzer. Uterus diameter was similar in both examined groups of cows only at 5 DP, and on subsequent days of examination this parameter was higher in the endometritis group compared to the control (P<0.001). Calcium levels in the blood serum of cows with endometritis were lower than in cows without endometritis, both at 22 DP (P<0.001) and at 42 DP (P=0.004). The levels of calcium, magnesium and total proteins in uterine washings were higher in cows with endometritis compared to the group without endometritis, both at 22 and at 42 DPP (P<0.001). The results of this study confirm that the process of uterine involution is slower in cows with endometritis compared to cows without endometritis, and the myometrium of inflamed uterus does not utilize sufficient amounts of calcium and magnesium, which means that the concentrations of these elements in uterine fluid are higher than in cows without endometritis.

Słowa kluczowe

  • calcium
  • endometritis
  • magnesium
  • total proteins
  • uterine involution
Otwarty dostęp

In vitro Degradability, Gas Production, and Energy Value of Different Hybrids of Sorghum after Storage in Mini-Silos

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 769 - 777

Abstrakt

Abstract

This experiment compared silages obtained from 3 hybrids of sorghum grown on 2 farms of the Po Valley (one irrigated and one not), in terms of in vitro degradability, gas production (GP), and energy value. Hybrids (forage, sweet or grain genotypes) were sown in experimental plots (3 plots × 3 hybrids), harvested at late-milk stage of maturity, and ensiled into mini-silos (3 silos × 3 hybrids) for 60 d. After ensiling, silages were analyzed for composition and fermentation profile. Two incubations (at 48 h) were carried out to measure NDF degradability (NDFd), GP, and the metabolizable energy (ME) content of silages. Data of silage composition were submitted to ANOVA, considering farm (F), hybrid (H), and F × H interaction as variation sources. Incubation (run) was also considered as a fixed effect in the statistical model for the parameters obtained by in vitro incubation (NDFd, GP, and energy content). On the irrigated farm (Farm 2), the DM contents of silages were higher than those of the non-irrigated one (P<0.001) and the fermentation profile was more favorable. Values of GP at 24 and 48 h and ME content were higher (P<0.05) for silages of Farm 2 in comparison with Farm 1. Within hybrids, the grain sorghum revealed the greatest DM content whereas the forage sorghum, as expected, was the richest in fibrous fraction content, followed by the sweet and grain genotypes (P<0.001). Consequently, values of GP were significantly (P<0.01) influenced by hybrid (167, 200, 215 ml/g DM and 229, 257, 267 ml/g DM for forage, sweet and grain genotypes after 24 and 48 h of incubation, respectively). The F × H interaction was significant for all considered parameters excluding DM, lignin, ash, pH, and in vitro parameters. On the two farms, in general, forage and grain genotypes were largely different, whereas the sweet sorghum was quite similar to the forage in one case or grain in the other. Results of this experiment highlight the large variability of the nutritional values of sorghum hybrids grown in different conditions.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sorghum hybrids
  • sorghum silage
  • degradability
  • gas production
Otwarty dostęp

The Effectiveness of the Use of Oregano and Laurel Essential Oils in Chicken Feeding

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 779 - 796

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of essential oils of oregano, laurel and their combination on growth performance, intestinal microbiota and intestinal morphology as replacers of antibiotic growth promoters, as well as on the antioxidant capacity and mineral content of breast and thigh meat. A total of 256 day-old broiler chickens were randomized into 4 groups with 4 replicates. Control group received a basal corn-soybean diet, whereas the other experimental groups received the basal diet plus 25 mg/kg oregano essential oil, 2.5 mg/kg laurel essential oil or their combination, respectively. Chickens had free access to water and feed. Body weight gain and feed to gain ratio was calculated for the total fattening period and mortality was daily recorded. Intestinal microbiota was enumerated by conventional techniques with selective agar media at the end of the trial at both ileum and caecum. Also, evaluation of intestinal morphology was carried out in small intestine and caecum. At the end of the trial, birds were slaughtered, their carcasses were processed and samples of breast and thigh meat were analyzed for moisture, fat and protein content. Total phenolic content was determined in feeds and breast and thigh meat in order to assess its antioxidant capacity. Mineral content of breast and thigh meat was evaluated by ICP-MS. The results of the trial showed that the group that received oregano or the mixture of oregano and laurel presented better BW and FCR and mortality compared to control group. Bacterial counts for the Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria were higher in the experimental groups compared to the control group at both ileum and caecum, and total coliforms were lower in caecum in the experimental groups compared to control. Higher values for villus height were found for the oregano supplemented groups compared to control or laurel ones. Oregano supplemented groups showed higher antioxidant capacity of breast and thigh meat compared to control and laurel groups, however no changes in mineral content were noted among the different groups. In conclusion, oregano essential oil alone or as a mixture with laurel essential oil can be used to improve growth performance and gut health in broiler chickens.

Słowa kluczowe

  • chicken
  • oregano
  • laurel
  • intestinal bacteria
  • intestinal morphology
  • trace elements
Otwarty dostęp

Effects on Productive Performance, Tibia Calcium and Phosphorous Retention, and Liver Enzymes Activity of Acidified and Alkalinized Diets in Broiler Chicken

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 797 - 809

Abstrakt

Abstract

A 35-day experiment was carried out to study the effects of acidified and alkalinized diets on zootechnical indices, tibial calcium and phosphorous retention, bone mineralization and liver enzymes activity using 250 Ross 308 male broiler chicks. Five treatments consisting of a control diet (CD), CD acidified using 10, 20 and 30 g/kg citric acid (CA) and CD alkalinized with Ca (OH)2 (8.9 g/kg in growth period and 8.6 g/kg in finisher period) were examined in 5 replicates of 10 birds each from day 7 up to day 42 of age. Inclusion of 30 g/kg CA significantly increased body weight, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed efficiency, tibia ash, tibia Ca content, at day 42 of age (P<0.05). Serum alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were elevated in the birds fed with the 30 g/kg CA-treated diet at day 42 of age (P<0.05). Alkalinized diet significantly reduced ADFI, tibia ash, tibial P and Ca contents, bone breaking strength and plasma Ca concentration (P<0.05). It was concluded that the diet acidified with 30 g/kg CA promoted productive performance and tibia mineralization in broiler chicken. Alkalinized diet suppressed growth performance of the birds perhaps through disrupted mineral absorption and altered liver enzymes activity.

Słowa kluczowe

  • citric acid
  • broiler chicken
  • alkalinized diet
  • tibia mineral retention
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Alfalfa Protein Concentrate (APC) Supplementation to Fattener Diets on Performance, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 811 - 823

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to estimate the effects of different levels of alfalfa protein concentrate (APC) supplementation on pig performance, carcass value and meat quality. The experiment was conducted on 50 crossbred pigs (PL × PLW) × Duroc of 29.0±0.5 kg initial body weight, which were divided into four treatment groups. Control (C) group was fed standard mixtures, groups E15 and E30 were fed with 1.5% or 3.0% APC additive, respectively. In group E30P the animals received feed including 3.0% APC for 14 days, followed by 14 treatment-free days. The production results were based on AGD, FCR, FI. Some slaughter traits and carcass value were measured. Determinations were carried out for physicochemical properties of fresh and thermally treated m. longissimus. The tissue samples (backfat, m. longissimus, liver, heart) were collected to analyze the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content. The recorded ADG was by 4.8% higher and FCR by 4.3% lower in E30P group as compared to control. The loin eye area was larger than in group C by 7.0% and by 8.3% in groups E30 and E30P, respectively. Carcass meatiness was also higher in groups E30 and E30P as compared to control, by 5.0% and 5.6%, respectively. The higher (P≤0.05) TPA parameters (hardness, chewiness and gumminess), as compared to control, was characteristic of the meat from animals receiving 3.0% APC. The lowest cholesterol content in the tissue samples (backfat, m. longissimus, liver) was recorded in group E30 (1.01, 0.51, 3.19 mg/g, respectively). Better fatty acid composition in backfat and m. longissimus was observed after 3.0% APC introduction into fatteners diet.

Słowa kluczowe

  • APC
  • lucerne
  • pig
  • carcass
  • meat quality
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of Hot and Sweet Red Peppers (Capsicum annuum) as Feed Supplements on Pigmentation, Sensory Properties and Weight Gain of Rainbow Trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss)

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 825 - 834

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of diets, including 0.5, 2 and 4.4% dried hot or sweet red pepper and a control diet without added red pepper, on pigmentation, sensory properties and weight gain of rainbow trout, with average initial weight of 60 g, for a rearing period of 80 days. Both red pepper types had similar effects on the carotenoid accumulation, weight gain and sensorial properties of the fish (P>0.05). Total carotenoid accumulation in the fish muscle increased significantly with increasing inclusion of red peppers. However, only the diet consisting of 4.4% hot or sweet red pepper provided adequate carotenoid accumulation in the fillet of the fish, that is, the desired colouration in the fish. Fish fed diets containing red peppers exhibited higher appearance and colour scores compared to control group (P<0.05). Irrespective of being hot or sweet, red pepper can be successfully used as an alternative natural carotenoid source in rainbow trout diets.

Słowa kluczowe

  • red pepper
  • capsaicin
  • pigmentation
  • rainbow trout
  • sensory quality
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Boswellia serrata Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Gastrointestinal Microflora, and Morphology of Broilers

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 835 - 849

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study aimed to determine the effect of three different levels of Boswellia serrata resin added to broiler diets on the fundamental production parameters, dry matter digestibility, organic matter digestibility, energy digestibility, microbiological condition of the gastrointestinal tract, and histomorphology of the walls of the small intestine. Two hundred Ross 308 chicks were assigned into 4 groups (50 birds of equal body weight) in 5 replications of 10 chicks each (5 females and 5 males). The experiment lasted 6 weeks. The control group (B0) was fed a standard mixture, without supplementation, whereas in groups B1.5, B2, and B2.5, the Boswellia serrata resin was added at the levels of 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5% of the complete feed mixture, respectively. The dietary supplementation with 2.0 and 2.5% of Boswellia serrata resin contributed to a significant increase in the length of the duodenum and total intestine and in the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter in feed. In these groups, the values of FCR and EEI were positively influenced (P<0.05) and an improvement in the structure of the jejunal wall was also recorded (P<0.05). An increase in the count of Lactobacillus and Enterococcus in the intestinal contents in broilers fed with the Boswellia serrata resin supplemented diets was observed. In conclusion, the Boswellia serrata resin can be considered as an effective feed additive, which stimulates production and has a positive effect on intestinal microflora and morphology of broilers.

Słowa kluczowe

  • broiler
  • production performance
  • intestine
  • digestibility
  • resin
Otwarty dostęp

Length of Life and Milk Production Efficiency in Cows with Varying Lactation Persistency

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 851 - 862

Abstrakt

Abstract

A total of 2,484 lactations in 760 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows were analysed. Calculations were made of length of life, length of productive life, total number of days in milk, number of calvings, ratio of days in milk to length of productive life, lifetime milk yield (kg), daily yield at the peak of lactation (kg) and lactation persistency as the percentage difference between daily milk production in the 2nd and 10th month in milk. The cows were divided into three groups according to lactation persistency (decrease in production): group I – up to 30%, group II – 30.1–50% and group III – over 50%. Lactation persistency significantly influenced (P≤0.01) length of life and efficiency of milk production in the analysed cow population. Cows with yield over 30 kg at the peak of lactation followed by a moderate decrease (40%) lived longest (over 6 years) and produced the most milk (nearly 28,000 kg). Yield of primiparous cows at the peak of lactation and its course were found to have a significant effect on length of life and lifetime milk production. The long period of high peak yield (over 30 kg of milk) in the primiparous cows in group I (with the best lactation persistency) in the long term proved to be detrimental, as these cows had the shortest productive life (2.3 lactations on average) and lifetime milk yield about 4,000 kg lower than in the cows in groups II and II (with the poorer lactation persistency).

Słowa kluczowe

  • dairy production
  • lactation persistency
  • length of cows’ life
  • lifetime milk yield
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of the Age on the Evaluation of Horse Conformation and Movement

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 863 - 870

Abstrakt

Abstract

The evaluation of horse conformation is a changeable characteristic and knowledge of its character is essential in horse breeding. The effect of the age was investigated based on the analysis of a subjective evaluation of eight conformation and movement traits according to the 70 points scale of registered 857 Polish Trakehner. The analysis of variance included fixed effects of sex (mares and stallions), age (up to 1 year, yearlings, 2-year-old, 3-year-old and older) and the kind of breeder (private/national) and the random effect of the sire. The effect of the sire was statistically significant for all traits. The effect of the sex was significant only for the movement traits – the walk and canter in stallions reached higher notes. The effect of the kind of breeder was also statistically significant but only for the movement traits. The considered effect of the age was the most surprising result as it was statistically significant for all traits, but the only differences between age classes were found between very young horses (up to 1 year) and all other groups. The phenotypic correlations between traits suggest that traits such as overall impression, type, trunk and limbs (feet and legs) are overvalued in the youngest group of horses.

Słowa kluczowe

  • conformation and movement traits
  • horse
  • age effect
Otwarty dostęp

Changes in Milk Yield and Quality During Lactation in Polish Red and White-Backed Cows Included in the Genetic Resources Conservation Programme in Comparison with the Simmental Breed

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 871 - 886

Abstrakt

Abstract

Milk yield and quality was assessed in cows raised on low-input farms (traditional feeding), i.e. two breeds covered by genetic resources conservation (RP and BG) and the SM breed. The reference group was PHF HO cows from an intensive milk production system (PMR feeding). A total of 1,212 milk samples were collected from three periods of lactation: I (up to 120 days), II (121–200) and II (over 200). The milk was analysed for content of fat, protein, casein, lactose, dry matter, non-fat dry matter and the protein-to-fat ratio, coagulation time, heat stability and the percentage of fat globules in different size ranges. Fatty acid profile and cholesterol content were determined in a representative number of 180 milk samples. Daily yield in the native breeds in the third phase of lactation was 9.6 and 8.7 kg, which was slightly over 55% of their yield in phase I, compared to 66% in the SM and 73.4% in the reference group (PHF HO). The increase in fat and protein (including casein) in the milk during lactation was much higher in the native breeds, so its energy value in phase II of lactation was 11% higher in the BG cows and 9% higher in RP, but only 4% higher in the SM with regard to phase I of lactation. The milk fat from the Polish Red cows had the highest proportion of PUFA in each phase of lactation, including CLA, and the highest PUFA/SFA ratio. Over the course of lactation the percentage of large fat globules in the milk decreased, particularly in the native breeds (P≤0.01), while in the SM the differences were much smaller and statistically insignificant. Lactation persistency in both native breeds raised in a low-input system was worse than in the SM, but the increase in basic components during lactation was markedly higher, while that of cholesterol was lower.

Słowa kluczowe

  • native breeds
  • dairy cattle
  • lactation persistency
  • milk quality
Otwarty dostęp

Impact of Barn Orientation on Insolation and Temperature of Stalls Surface

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 887 - 896

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of free-stall barn orientation relative to cardinal points on the insolation area and on the surface temperature of selected stalls in the summer period. The results of the experimental research were subjected to model analysis of the distribution of area of insolation into a barn. The studies showed that the surface of insolated stalls is heated to a temperature of 40°C, and in extreme cases up to 58°C. Taking into account the body temperature of cows (38–39°C), it can be concluded that the heat transfer from animals’ body to the environment, and thus the possibility of their cooling, were difficult. This is confirmed by observations of the behaviour of cows obtained from the video monitoring. Large differences were found in thermal conditions in the southern and northern stall areas, which in the midday hours were up to 10°C. The impact of clouds occurring during observations, included in the studies, contributed to the reduction of temperature of the stalls surface. During hot weather, short, ten-minute appearance of clouds, caused a decrease of the temperature of stalls surface by approx. 2.5°C. On this basis, it can be concluded that the use of shadings in building environment in the noon hours could limit the heating up of stalls and thus contribute to improving the living conditions of cows in barn.

Słowa kluczowe

  • welfare
  • barn
  • dairy cattle
  • insolation
  • temperature
Otwarty dostęp

Correlations between Vitelline Membrane Strength and Selected Physical Parameters of Poultry Eggs

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 897 - 907

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the strength of vitelline membrane and its correlation with other morphological traits and the viscosity of egg yolk of different poultry species: goose, turkey, Muscovy duck, chicken, guinea fowl and Japanese quail. Vitelline membrane strength (VMS) was defined as work and force after the deformation of yolk at 6 mm. Bird species affected the VMS of egg yolk. The lowest strength was measured for the vitelline membrane of goose egg yolk. There were no apparent differences in the strength of vitelline membrane for ducks, guinea fowl, chickens and Japanese quail. In contrast, the vitelline membrane of turkey egg yolk appeared to be of the highest strength. Statistically significant positive correlations were observed between VMS and yolk index, while there was no correlation between the weight of the eggs and egg yolk. The work deformation of yolk was positively correlated with the viscosity of poultry egg yolk.

Słowa kluczowe

  • egg yolk
  • vitelline membrane strength
  • yolk index
  • viscosity
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of Caponization on Growth Performance, Carcass and Meat Quality of Mos Breed Capons Reared in Free-Range Production System

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 909 - 929

Abstrakt

Abstract

The effects of caponization on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty acid profile of breast and drumstick of Mos and Sasso genotypes, reared in free-range production system were examined. A total of 47 birds of Mos breed (19 Castrated and 25 Entire) and 37 of Sasso X-44 (18 Castrated and 19 Entire) slaughtered at 32 weeks were used in this trial. The growth of broilers and the differences between genotypes and caponization effects were modelled by Weibull-growth equation. Capon’s growth was higher than that obtained by roosters and Sasso weight was greater than Mos results (P<0.05). For both genotypes the chemical composition of breast and drumstick cuts showed significantly higher values of intramuscular fat (P<0.0001) and lesser values of moisture (P<0.0001) in capons in comparison with intact ones. In Mos breed, capons exhibited significantly (P<0.0001) higher values of breast and drumstick luminosity and yellowness, as well as lower values of redness. Regarding Warner-Braztler test (WB), there were no significant differences (P>0.05) by caponization effect, but hardness measured using textural profile analysis was lesser in meat from capons. Finally castration of animals led to important modifications in the intramuscular fat because meat from capons showed significantly lower values for total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA ). Nutritional indices were also more favorable in capon’s meat, so overall fatty acid profile of capons was desirable from the viewpoint of human nutrition.

Słowa kluczowe

  • capons
  • free range
  • meat quality
  • fatty acid
  • Weibull-growth equation
Otwarty dostęp

Nutritional Composition of Frozen Fillets from Pangasius Catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) and Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis nilotcus) Imported to European Countries

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 931 - 950

Abstrakt

Abstract

The proximate composition, fatty acids and amino acids profile as well as mineral composition of frozen fillets from Pangasius catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) imported to Poland (PP), Germany (PG) and Ukraine (PU) and fillets from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotcus) imported to Poland (TP) and Germany (TG) were investigated. PU contained ten times more fat than PG and PP. Tilapia fillets contained higher levels of n-3 fatty acids and showed more preferable n-6/n-3 ratio than pangasius fillets. The fillets of PG contained higher levels of protein and essential amino acids than PU and PP, however the amino acids composition of pangasius and tilapia fillets was similar for all specimens. The fillets of PP and PU contained significantly higher amounts of sodium than other studied groups, which suggests that they were subjected to additional treatment to increase their water holding capacity. The results show significant differences in the nutritional composition of pangasius depending on their place of import, thus it was recommended that more information regarding the nutritional composition of the frozen fillets sold through self-service freezers should be provided for the final consumer.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pangasius
  • tilapia
  • amino acids
  • fatty acids
  • minerals
23 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Food-Borne Pathogens and Contaminants in Raw Milk – A Review

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 623 - 639

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the present review is to highlight the threats to human health posed by consumption of milk and dairy products. The interest in drinking raw milk has been growing in some societies as many people believe it has health benefits. Raw milk is promoted as ‘health food’ despite the fact that it poses a realistic microbiological hazard for the consumers’ health or life. Food-borne disease outbreaks associated with Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli, Brucella melitensis, Mycobacterium bovis and tick-borne encephalitis virus have been traced to the consumption of raw milk, however, many other microorganisms that can be present in milk are considered as potential food-borne pathogens to humans. The other common causative agents in food-borne disease outbreaks are bacterial toxins produced by Bacillus, Clostridium and Staphylococcus spp. Some of the milk pathogens harbour antimicrobial resistant genes, which can be transferred to commensal bacteria. Most dangerous are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended spectrum beta lactamase/AmpC gene-carrying bacteria from the family of Enterobacteriaceae, which might negatively affect the treatment of infections in humans. Fungi are not considered as food-borne pathogens for humans, however their secondary metabolites, mycotoxins, constitute a potential threat to public health. Mycotoxins or their metabolites detected so far in milk samples include aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone and its metabolites, fumonisins, de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol and cyclopiazonic acid.

Słowa kluczowe

  • public health
  • milk
  • food-borne pathogens
  • enterotoxins
  • mycotoxins
Otwarty dostęp

Motivation, Stress and Learning – Critical Characteristics that Influence the Horses’ Value and Training Method – A Review

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 641 - 652

Abstrakt

Abstract

Equine husbandry is carried out in an environment unnatural to horses, which enforces their adaptation to artificial conditions. Besides housing conditions, the management and human-horse relationship is very important for both human safety and a high level of animal welfare and performance. This would not be possible if horses were not able to learn. For equestrians, independently of the horse’s use (sport, work, recreation, therapy etc.) the performance is of the highest importance. Deep knowledge about learning mechanisms is essential to maintain high level of horses’ welfare and to achieve effective training. Cognition can be influenced by motivation and stress. Motivational mechanisms are based on positive or negative reinforcement but still it is not known what motivates horses more and how food motivation influences learning. It was already shown that a low level of motivation decreases animal performance. The effect of stress is an increasingly popular research topic. It has been shown that acute stress decreases horses’ learning performance, but the exact standard is still unknown. The Yerkes-Dodson law claims that low and too high arousal decreases learning. What is more, the relation between learning and sex, breed and some temperamental traits has been shown in several studies.

Słowa kluczowe

  • horse
  • learning
  • motivation
  • stress
  • fearfulness
  • behavior
Otwarty dostęp

Avian Crop Function – A Review

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 653 - 678

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this review is to present and discuss the anatomy and physiology of crop in different avian species. The avian crop (ingluvies) present in most omnivorous and herbivorous bird species, plays a major role in feed storage and moistening, as well as functional barrier for pathogens through decreasing pH value by microbial fermentation. Moreover, recent data suggest that this gastrointestinal tract segment may play an important role in the regulation of the innate immune system of birds. In some avian species ingluvies secretes “crop milk” which provides high nutrients and energy content for nestlings growth. The crop has a crucial role in enhancing exogenous enzymes efficiency (for instance phytase and microbial amylase, β-glucanase), as well as the activity of bacteriocins. Thus, ingluvies may have a significant impact on bird performance and health status during all stages of rearing. Efficient use of the crop in case of digesta retention time is essential for birds’ growth performance. Thus, a functionality of the crop is dependent on a number of factors, including age, dietary factors, infections as well as flock management. It is important to expand knowledge about the crop functions to use them effectively in poultry production. Furthermore, more scientific data is needed in the scope of immunological function of the crop as well as its microecosystem for a better understanding of the avian immune system and enhancing the health of the birds.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ingluvies
  • avian crop
  • crop anatomy
  • crop physiology
  • crop microbiology
Otwarty dostęp

Molecular Cytogenetics in the Diagnostics of Balanced Chromosome Mutations in the Pig (Sus scrofa) – A Review

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 679 - 699

Abstrakt

Abstract

Continually improved cytogenetic techniques (differential staining and high resolution banding techniques), complemented with the molecular genetics methods (FISH and PRINS), enable chromosomal mutations to be accurately identified in the karyotype of the pig (Sus scrofa). The major breeding problem are balanced mutations because of their hidden nature, as they affect the animals with normal body conformation (and normal semen parameters in boars), which transfer these aberrations to the next generations and disseminate in the population. This refers to the structural rearrangements (translocations and inversions), causing developmental abnormalities and considerably reducing fertility and productivity parameters in breeding herds, which results in substantial financial losses. Routine karyotype screening using modern cytomolecular diagnostic methods is necessary due to the potential emergence of new mutations and the rapid spread of these genetic defects in the population, especially under artificial insemination conditions.

Słowa kluczowe

  • banding and FISH techniques
  • balanced chromosome mutations
  • meiosis
  • fertility of pigs
Otwarty dostęp

Pedigree Analysis of Mangalica Pig Breeds

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 701 - 709

Abstrakt

Abstract

An effective gene conservation programme requires the knowledge of genetic variability of the population. The genetic structure of Mangalica pig breeds (Blonde, Red and Swallow-bellied) was studied from pedigree records. Herdbook data available up to 2011 of registered Mangalica pig breeds (Blonde, Red and Swallow-bellied) were analysed. The number of complete generations was 6 for Blonde and 5 for Red and Swallow-bellied Mangalica whereas the average complete generation equivalent was between 3.51 and 6.01. The average level of inbreeding of the reference population was low (4.07–5.87%). The investigated breeds could be considered as small populations based on the probability of gene origin. The most important ancestor contributed between 9 and 16% of the gene pool of the reference populations. The longest generation interval was found for the sire-to-son pathways whereas the shortest for dam-to-daughter pathways for each breed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • genetic variability
  • pedigree analysis
  • Mangalica
Otwarty dostęp

The Relevance of Methylation Profiles of Equine ITGAL Gene

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 711 - 720

Abstrakt

Abstract

One of epigenetic features of mammalian genomes is methylation of DNA. This nucleotide modification might exert suppressive effect on gene transcription. We have described putative relevance of methylation of one of immune cells related gene (ITGAL) observed in the set of 11 equine tissues. Comparison between qualitative RT-PCR results and DNA bisulfite sequencing of investigated set of tissues pointed to potential correlations between tissue specific methylation and tissue specific transcription in ITGAL locus. These findings might be important for studies on genetic and epigenetic background of autoimmune disorders in the horse.

Słowa kluczowe

  • DNA methylation
  • transcription
  • horses
Otwarty dostęp

Association of Gene Coding for Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein (MTP) and Meat Texture Characteristic in Pig

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 721 - 729

Abstrakt

Abstract

The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein via participation in transport of neutral lipids between membrane vesicle is essential for assembly of chylomicrons, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). In human and pigs, it has been confirmed that mutations within MTTP locus affected lipid-transfer activity of this protein. The aim of the present study was to establish potential influences of ENSSSCP00000009789.2:p.Leu840Phe polymorphism on a panel of meat texture parameters measured in two muscles: m. longissimus lumborum and m. semimembranosus. The research performed on 410 pigs showed that investigated missense polymorphism was associated with meat texture profile parameters – TPA (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, resilience, chewiness) as well as firmness and toughness estimated in loin muscle. In whole analyzed population, the meat of pigs with CC genotype was characterized by significantly the lowest value of TPA characteristic and this trend was also confirmed in two breeds (Puławska and Large White pigs). In turn, the results obtained for firmness and toughness parameters in longissimus lumborum were not consistent across the different populations studied. Our research, in connection with previous studies, indicated that the MTTP gene may be considered as a candidate gene responsible for pork quality traits and pinpointed a need for further analysis in order to select useful genetic markers associated with meat quality parameters.

Słowa kluczowe

  • gene
  • lipid metabolism
  • polymorphism
  • pork
  • texture parameters
Otwarty dostęp

The use of PCR and Real-Time PCR for Qualitative and Quantitative Determination of Poultry and Chicken Meals

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 731 - 741

Abstrakt

Abstract

European Union regulations (e.g. Commission Regulation (EU) No 56/2013) set restrictions on the use of poultry meals in animal nutrition, which requires the species composition of manufactured feeds to be constantly monitored. The aim of this study is to develop a method for qualitative analysis of poultry meals, enabling the four main poultry species (chicken, turkey, duck, goose) to be detected using one pair of primers, and a method for quantitative determination of chicken meals in poultry meals. The qualitative identification method was developed using PCR technology, whereas qPCR and TaqMan probes were used for quantitative identification. The study was performed with samples of feed mixture containing poultry and chicken meal. The limit of determination was 0.08% and 0.02% for qualitative and quantitative identification, respectively. The results of quantitative determinations obtained for independent DNA isolations from the same samples are repeatable (RSDcT ≤0.46%). The determined concentrations are accurate (Dc ≤11.23% for c ≥0.06). The identification of target sequences in both tests is good enough for commercial applications.

Słowa kluczowe

  • poultry meal
  • species identification
  • PCR
  • real-time PCR
  • mitochondrial DNA
Otwarty dostęp

Factors Affecting the Hematological Parameters in Different Goat Breeds from Italy

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 743 - 757

Abstrakt

Abstract

Hematological parameters in healthy goats show several variations in relation to breed, age, reproductive status, environmental factors and management conditions. Therefore, there is the need to investigate these factors and how they affect the animal’s hematology. The aims of this study were to establish hematological reference values of five Italian goat breeds at different age classes (1–2, 3–4 and over 5 years) considered in autumn and to evaluate the effects of some factors (breed, age and environmental conditions). Ninety-six dried female Aspromontana goats, 102 Girgentana goats, 99 Messinese goats, 96 Maltese goats and 108 Argentata dell’Etna goats, clinically healthy, were used. Blood samples were collected from each animal and analyzed for Red Blood Cell (RBC), White Blood Cell (WBC), Hemoglobin concentration (Hb), Hematocrit (Hct), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and Platelets (PLT). Statistical analysis showed the effect of breed (P<0.05) on all studied parameters and the effect of age (P<0.05) on: RBC and Hb in Messinese goats; Hct in Girgentana, Maltese and Argentata dell’Etna goats; MCV and MCHC in Argentata dell’Etna goats; WBC in Aspromontana goats; and PLT in Girgentana and Messinese goats. The findings of the present study may serve as reference values for hematology of Italian goat breeds studied in autumn which could help veterinarians to interpret laboratory data appropriately and to monitor animal health status in order to improve the management and conservation of these breeds.

Słowa kluczowe

  • goats
  • age
  • breed
  • hematological parameters
  • reference intervals
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Uterine Inflammatory Status as well as Calcium and Magnesium Concentrations on the Uterine Involution Process in Dairy Cows

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 759 - 768

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was a comparative analysis of uterine horn diameter, calcium and magnesium concentrations in blood serum and uterine washings in cows both with and without endometritis. The study was performed on 28 cows at 5, 22 and 42 DP (day post partum), of which 14 cows had been diagnosed with endometritis and the other 14 had no endometritis. The animals were selected based on clinical symptoms and cytological examination. Uterine horn diameter was determined in both examined groups of cows using an ultrasonographic device. The level of calcium and magnesium in the blood serum and uterine washings, and protein in uterine washings was determined using a BS-160 Mindray analyzer. Uterus diameter was similar in both examined groups of cows only at 5 DP, and on subsequent days of examination this parameter was higher in the endometritis group compared to the control (P<0.001). Calcium levels in the blood serum of cows with endometritis were lower than in cows without endometritis, both at 22 DP (P<0.001) and at 42 DP (P=0.004). The levels of calcium, magnesium and total proteins in uterine washings were higher in cows with endometritis compared to the group without endometritis, both at 22 and at 42 DPP (P<0.001). The results of this study confirm that the process of uterine involution is slower in cows with endometritis compared to cows without endometritis, and the myometrium of inflamed uterus does not utilize sufficient amounts of calcium and magnesium, which means that the concentrations of these elements in uterine fluid are higher than in cows without endometritis.

Słowa kluczowe

  • calcium
  • endometritis
  • magnesium
  • total proteins
  • uterine involution
Otwarty dostęp

In vitro Degradability, Gas Production, and Energy Value of Different Hybrids of Sorghum after Storage in Mini-Silos

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 769 - 777

Abstrakt

Abstract

This experiment compared silages obtained from 3 hybrids of sorghum grown on 2 farms of the Po Valley (one irrigated and one not), in terms of in vitro degradability, gas production (GP), and energy value. Hybrids (forage, sweet or grain genotypes) were sown in experimental plots (3 plots × 3 hybrids), harvested at late-milk stage of maturity, and ensiled into mini-silos (3 silos × 3 hybrids) for 60 d. After ensiling, silages were analyzed for composition and fermentation profile. Two incubations (at 48 h) were carried out to measure NDF degradability (NDFd), GP, and the metabolizable energy (ME) content of silages. Data of silage composition were submitted to ANOVA, considering farm (F), hybrid (H), and F × H interaction as variation sources. Incubation (run) was also considered as a fixed effect in the statistical model for the parameters obtained by in vitro incubation (NDFd, GP, and energy content). On the irrigated farm (Farm 2), the DM contents of silages were higher than those of the non-irrigated one (P<0.001) and the fermentation profile was more favorable. Values of GP at 24 and 48 h and ME content were higher (P<0.05) for silages of Farm 2 in comparison with Farm 1. Within hybrids, the grain sorghum revealed the greatest DM content whereas the forage sorghum, as expected, was the richest in fibrous fraction content, followed by the sweet and grain genotypes (P<0.001). Consequently, values of GP were significantly (P<0.01) influenced by hybrid (167, 200, 215 ml/g DM and 229, 257, 267 ml/g DM for forage, sweet and grain genotypes after 24 and 48 h of incubation, respectively). The F × H interaction was significant for all considered parameters excluding DM, lignin, ash, pH, and in vitro parameters. On the two farms, in general, forage and grain genotypes were largely different, whereas the sweet sorghum was quite similar to the forage in one case or grain in the other. Results of this experiment highlight the large variability of the nutritional values of sorghum hybrids grown in different conditions.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sorghum hybrids
  • sorghum silage
  • degradability
  • gas production
Otwarty dostęp

The Effectiveness of the Use of Oregano and Laurel Essential Oils in Chicken Feeding

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 779 - 796

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of essential oils of oregano, laurel and their combination on growth performance, intestinal microbiota and intestinal morphology as replacers of antibiotic growth promoters, as well as on the antioxidant capacity and mineral content of breast and thigh meat. A total of 256 day-old broiler chickens were randomized into 4 groups with 4 replicates. Control group received a basal corn-soybean diet, whereas the other experimental groups received the basal diet plus 25 mg/kg oregano essential oil, 2.5 mg/kg laurel essential oil or their combination, respectively. Chickens had free access to water and feed. Body weight gain and feed to gain ratio was calculated for the total fattening period and mortality was daily recorded. Intestinal microbiota was enumerated by conventional techniques with selective agar media at the end of the trial at both ileum and caecum. Also, evaluation of intestinal morphology was carried out in small intestine and caecum. At the end of the trial, birds were slaughtered, their carcasses were processed and samples of breast and thigh meat were analyzed for moisture, fat and protein content. Total phenolic content was determined in feeds and breast and thigh meat in order to assess its antioxidant capacity. Mineral content of breast and thigh meat was evaluated by ICP-MS. The results of the trial showed that the group that received oregano or the mixture of oregano and laurel presented better BW and FCR and mortality compared to control group. Bacterial counts for the Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria were higher in the experimental groups compared to the control group at both ileum and caecum, and total coliforms were lower in caecum in the experimental groups compared to control. Higher values for villus height were found for the oregano supplemented groups compared to control or laurel ones. Oregano supplemented groups showed higher antioxidant capacity of breast and thigh meat compared to control and laurel groups, however no changes in mineral content were noted among the different groups. In conclusion, oregano essential oil alone or as a mixture with laurel essential oil can be used to improve growth performance and gut health in broiler chickens.

Słowa kluczowe

  • chicken
  • oregano
  • laurel
  • intestinal bacteria
  • intestinal morphology
  • trace elements
Otwarty dostęp

Effects on Productive Performance, Tibia Calcium and Phosphorous Retention, and Liver Enzymes Activity of Acidified and Alkalinized Diets in Broiler Chicken

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 797 - 809

Abstrakt

Abstract

A 35-day experiment was carried out to study the effects of acidified and alkalinized diets on zootechnical indices, tibial calcium and phosphorous retention, bone mineralization and liver enzymes activity using 250 Ross 308 male broiler chicks. Five treatments consisting of a control diet (CD), CD acidified using 10, 20 and 30 g/kg citric acid (CA) and CD alkalinized with Ca (OH)2 (8.9 g/kg in growth period and 8.6 g/kg in finisher period) were examined in 5 replicates of 10 birds each from day 7 up to day 42 of age. Inclusion of 30 g/kg CA significantly increased body weight, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed efficiency, tibia ash, tibia Ca content, at day 42 of age (P<0.05). Serum alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were elevated in the birds fed with the 30 g/kg CA-treated diet at day 42 of age (P<0.05). Alkalinized diet significantly reduced ADFI, tibia ash, tibial P and Ca contents, bone breaking strength and plasma Ca concentration (P<0.05). It was concluded that the diet acidified with 30 g/kg CA promoted productive performance and tibia mineralization in broiler chicken. Alkalinized diet suppressed growth performance of the birds perhaps through disrupted mineral absorption and altered liver enzymes activity.

Słowa kluczowe

  • citric acid
  • broiler chicken
  • alkalinized diet
  • tibia mineral retention
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Alfalfa Protein Concentrate (APC) Supplementation to Fattener Diets on Performance, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 811 - 823

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to estimate the effects of different levels of alfalfa protein concentrate (APC) supplementation on pig performance, carcass value and meat quality. The experiment was conducted on 50 crossbred pigs (PL × PLW) × Duroc of 29.0±0.5 kg initial body weight, which were divided into four treatment groups. Control (C) group was fed standard mixtures, groups E15 and E30 were fed with 1.5% or 3.0% APC additive, respectively. In group E30P the animals received feed including 3.0% APC for 14 days, followed by 14 treatment-free days. The production results were based on AGD, FCR, FI. Some slaughter traits and carcass value were measured. Determinations were carried out for physicochemical properties of fresh and thermally treated m. longissimus. The tissue samples (backfat, m. longissimus, liver, heart) were collected to analyze the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content. The recorded ADG was by 4.8% higher and FCR by 4.3% lower in E30P group as compared to control. The loin eye area was larger than in group C by 7.0% and by 8.3% in groups E30 and E30P, respectively. Carcass meatiness was also higher in groups E30 and E30P as compared to control, by 5.0% and 5.6%, respectively. The higher (P≤0.05) TPA parameters (hardness, chewiness and gumminess), as compared to control, was characteristic of the meat from animals receiving 3.0% APC. The lowest cholesterol content in the tissue samples (backfat, m. longissimus, liver) was recorded in group E30 (1.01, 0.51, 3.19 mg/g, respectively). Better fatty acid composition in backfat and m. longissimus was observed after 3.0% APC introduction into fatteners diet.

Słowa kluczowe

  • APC
  • lucerne
  • pig
  • carcass
  • meat quality
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of Hot and Sweet Red Peppers (Capsicum annuum) as Feed Supplements on Pigmentation, Sensory Properties and Weight Gain of Rainbow Trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss)

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 825 - 834

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of diets, including 0.5, 2 and 4.4% dried hot or sweet red pepper and a control diet without added red pepper, on pigmentation, sensory properties and weight gain of rainbow trout, with average initial weight of 60 g, for a rearing period of 80 days. Both red pepper types had similar effects on the carotenoid accumulation, weight gain and sensorial properties of the fish (P>0.05). Total carotenoid accumulation in the fish muscle increased significantly with increasing inclusion of red peppers. However, only the diet consisting of 4.4% hot or sweet red pepper provided adequate carotenoid accumulation in the fillet of the fish, that is, the desired colouration in the fish. Fish fed diets containing red peppers exhibited higher appearance and colour scores compared to control group (P<0.05). Irrespective of being hot or sweet, red pepper can be successfully used as an alternative natural carotenoid source in rainbow trout diets.

Słowa kluczowe

  • red pepper
  • capsaicin
  • pigmentation
  • rainbow trout
  • sensory quality
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Boswellia serrata Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Gastrointestinal Microflora, and Morphology of Broilers

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 835 - 849

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study aimed to determine the effect of three different levels of Boswellia serrata resin added to broiler diets on the fundamental production parameters, dry matter digestibility, organic matter digestibility, energy digestibility, microbiological condition of the gastrointestinal tract, and histomorphology of the walls of the small intestine. Two hundred Ross 308 chicks were assigned into 4 groups (50 birds of equal body weight) in 5 replications of 10 chicks each (5 females and 5 males). The experiment lasted 6 weeks. The control group (B0) was fed a standard mixture, without supplementation, whereas in groups B1.5, B2, and B2.5, the Boswellia serrata resin was added at the levels of 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5% of the complete feed mixture, respectively. The dietary supplementation with 2.0 and 2.5% of Boswellia serrata resin contributed to a significant increase in the length of the duodenum and total intestine and in the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter in feed. In these groups, the values of FCR and EEI were positively influenced (P<0.05) and an improvement in the structure of the jejunal wall was also recorded (P<0.05). An increase in the count of Lactobacillus and Enterococcus in the intestinal contents in broilers fed with the Boswellia serrata resin supplemented diets was observed. In conclusion, the Boswellia serrata resin can be considered as an effective feed additive, which stimulates production and has a positive effect on intestinal microflora and morphology of broilers.

Słowa kluczowe

  • broiler
  • production performance
  • intestine
  • digestibility
  • resin
Otwarty dostęp

Length of Life and Milk Production Efficiency in Cows with Varying Lactation Persistency

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 851 - 862

Abstrakt

Abstract

A total of 2,484 lactations in 760 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows were analysed. Calculations were made of length of life, length of productive life, total number of days in milk, number of calvings, ratio of days in milk to length of productive life, lifetime milk yield (kg), daily yield at the peak of lactation (kg) and lactation persistency as the percentage difference between daily milk production in the 2nd and 10th month in milk. The cows were divided into three groups according to lactation persistency (decrease in production): group I – up to 30%, group II – 30.1–50% and group III – over 50%. Lactation persistency significantly influenced (P≤0.01) length of life and efficiency of milk production in the analysed cow population. Cows with yield over 30 kg at the peak of lactation followed by a moderate decrease (40%) lived longest (over 6 years) and produced the most milk (nearly 28,000 kg). Yield of primiparous cows at the peak of lactation and its course were found to have a significant effect on length of life and lifetime milk production. The long period of high peak yield (over 30 kg of milk) in the primiparous cows in group I (with the best lactation persistency) in the long term proved to be detrimental, as these cows had the shortest productive life (2.3 lactations on average) and lifetime milk yield about 4,000 kg lower than in the cows in groups II and II (with the poorer lactation persistency).

Słowa kluczowe

  • dairy production
  • lactation persistency
  • length of cows’ life
  • lifetime milk yield
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of the Age on the Evaluation of Horse Conformation and Movement

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 863 - 870

Abstrakt

Abstract

The evaluation of horse conformation is a changeable characteristic and knowledge of its character is essential in horse breeding. The effect of the age was investigated based on the analysis of a subjective evaluation of eight conformation and movement traits according to the 70 points scale of registered 857 Polish Trakehner. The analysis of variance included fixed effects of sex (mares and stallions), age (up to 1 year, yearlings, 2-year-old, 3-year-old and older) and the kind of breeder (private/national) and the random effect of the sire. The effect of the sire was statistically significant for all traits. The effect of the sex was significant only for the movement traits – the walk and canter in stallions reached higher notes. The effect of the kind of breeder was also statistically significant but only for the movement traits. The considered effect of the age was the most surprising result as it was statistically significant for all traits, but the only differences between age classes were found between very young horses (up to 1 year) and all other groups. The phenotypic correlations between traits suggest that traits such as overall impression, type, trunk and limbs (feet and legs) are overvalued in the youngest group of horses.

Słowa kluczowe

  • conformation and movement traits
  • horse
  • age effect
Otwarty dostęp

Changes in Milk Yield and Quality During Lactation in Polish Red and White-Backed Cows Included in the Genetic Resources Conservation Programme in Comparison with the Simmental Breed

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 871 - 886

Abstrakt

Abstract

Milk yield and quality was assessed in cows raised on low-input farms (traditional feeding), i.e. two breeds covered by genetic resources conservation (RP and BG) and the SM breed. The reference group was PHF HO cows from an intensive milk production system (PMR feeding). A total of 1,212 milk samples were collected from three periods of lactation: I (up to 120 days), II (121–200) and II (over 200). The milk was analysed for content of fat, protein, casein, lactose, dry matter, non-fat dry matter and the protein-to-fat ratio, coagulation time, heat stability and the percentage of fat globules in different size ranges. Fatty acid profile and cholesterol content were determined in a representative number of 180 milk samples. Daily yield in the native breeds in the third phase of lactation was 9.6 and 8.7 kg, which was slightly over 55% of their yield in phase I, compared to 66% in the SM and 73.4% in the reference group (PHF HO). The increase in fat and protein (including casein) in the milk during lactation was much higher in the native breeds, so its energy value in phase II of lactation was 11% higher in the BG cows and 9% higher in RP, but only 4% higher in the SM with regard to phase I of lactation. The milk fat from the Polish Red cows had the highest proportion of PUFA in each phase of lactation, including CLA, and the highest PUFA/SFA ratio. Over the course of lactation the percentage of large fat globules in the milk decreased, particularly in the native breeds (P≤0.01), while in the SM the differences were much smaller and statistically insignificant. Lactation persistency in both native breeds raised in a low-input system was worse than in the SM, but the increase in basic components during lactation was markedly higher, while that of cholesterol was lower.

Słowa kluczowe

  • native breeds
  • dairy cattle
  • lactation persistency
  • milk quality
Otwarty dostęp

Impact of Barn Orientation on Insolation and Temperature of Stalls Surface

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 887 - 896

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of free-stall barn orientation relative to cardinal points on the insolation area and on the surface temperature of selected stalls in the summer period. The results of the experimental research were subjected to model analysis of the distribution of area of insolation into a barn. The studies showed that the surface of insolated stalls is heated to a temperature of 40°C, and in extreme cases up to 58°C. Taking into account the body temperature of cows (38–39°C), it can be concluded that the heat transfer from animals’ body to the environment, and thus the possibility of their cooling, were difficult. This is confirmed by observations of the behaviour of cows obtained from the video monitoring. Large differences were found in thermal conditions in the southern and northern stall areas, which in the midday hours were up to 10°C. The impact of clouds occurring during observations, included in the studies, contributed to the reduction of temperature of the stalls surface. During hot weather, short, ten-minute appearance of clouds, caused a decrease of the temperature of stalls surface by approx. 2.5°C. On this basis, it can be concluded that the use of shadings in building environment in the noon hours could limit the heating up of stalls and thus contribute to improving the living conditions of cows in barn.

Słowa kluczowe

  • welfare
  • barn
  • dairy cattle
  • insolation
  • temperature
Otwarty dostęp

Correlations between Vitelline Membrane Strength and Selected Physical Parameters of Poultry Eggs

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 897 - 907

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the strength of vitelline membrane and its correlation with other morphological traits and the viscosity of egg yolk of different poultry species: goose, turkey, Muscovy duck, chicken, guinea fowl and Japanese quail. Vitelline membrane strength (VMS) was defined as work and force after the deformation of yolk at 6 mm. Bird species affected the VMS of egg yolk. The lowest strength was measured for the vitelline membrane of goose egg yolk. There were no apparent differences in the strength of vitelline membrane for ducks, guinea fowl, chickens and Japanese quail. In contrast, the vitelline membrane of turkey egg yolk appeared to be of the highest strength. Statistically significant positive correlations were observed between VMS and yolk index, while there was no correlation between the weight of the eggs and egg yolk. The work deformation of yolk was positively correlated with the viscosity of poultry egg yolk.

Słowa kluczowe

  • egg yolk
  • vitelline membrane strength
  • yolk index
  • viscosity
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of Caponization on Growth Performance, Carcass and Meat Quality of Mos Breed Capons Reared in Free-Range Production System

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 909 - 929

Abstrakt

Abstract

The effects of caponization on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty acid profile of breast and drumstick of Mos and Sasso genotypes, reared in free-range production system were examined. A total of 47 birds of Mos breed (19 Castrated and 25 Entire) and 37 of Sasso X-44 (18 Castrated and 19 Entire) slaughtered at 32 weeks were used in this trial. The growth of broilers and the differences between genotypes and caponization effects were modelled by Weibull-growth equation. Capon’s growth was higher than that obtained by roosters and Sasso weight was greater than Mos results (P<0.05). For both genotypes the chemical composition of breast and drumstick cuts showed significantly higher values of intramuscular fat (P<0.0001) and lesser values of moisture (P<0.0001) in capons in comparison with intact ones. In Mos breed, capons exhibited significantly (P<0.0001) higher values of breast and drumstick luminosity and yellowness, as well as lower values of redness. Regarding Warner-Braztler test (WB), there were no significant differences (P>0.05) by caponization effect, but hardness measured using textural profile analysis was lesser in meat from capons. Finally castration of animals led to important modifications in the intramuscular fat because meat from capons showed significantly lower values for total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA ). Nutritional indices were also more favorable in capon’s meat, so overall fatty acid profile of capons was desirable from the viewpoint of human nutrition.

Słowa kluczowe

  • capons
  • free range
  • meat quality
  • fatty acid
  • Weibull-growth equation
Otwarty dostęp

Nutritional Composition of Frozen Fillets from Pangasius Catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) and Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis nilotcus) Imported to European Countries

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 931 - 950

Abstrakt

Abstract

The proximate composition, fatty acids and amino acids profile as well as mineral composition of frozen fillets from Pangasius catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) imported to Poland (PP), Germany (PG) and Ukraine (PU) and fillets from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotcus) imported to Poland (TP) and Germany (TG) were investigated. PU contained ten times more fat than PG and PP. Tilapia fillets contained higher levels of n-3 fatty acids and showed more preferable n-6/n-3 ratio than pangasius fillets. The fillets of PG contained higher levels of protein and essential amino acids than PU and PP, however the amino acids composition of pangasius and tilapia fillets was similar for all specimens. The fillets of PP and PU contained significantly higher amounts of sodium than other studied groups, which suggests that they were subjected to additional treatment to increase their water holding capacity. The results show significant differences in the nutritional composition of pangasius depending on their place of import, thus it was recommended that more information regarding the nutritional composition of the frozen fillets sold through self-service freezers should be provided for the final consumer.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pangasius
  • tilapia
  • amino acids
  • fatty acids
  • minerals

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