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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8733
ISSN
1642-3402
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 14 (2014): Zeszyt 1 (January 2014)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8733
ISSN
1642-3402
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

18 Artykułów

Review

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of sow prolificacy and nutrition on preand postnatal growth of progeny – a review

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 3 - 15

Abstrakt

Abstract

Weakened growth and development of embryos as well as of fetuses or their organs (IUGR) show a relationship with increasing sow fertility. When aiming to increase birth weight in piglets and reduce within-litter variation in piglet body weight, efforts should be made to maintain a favourable maternal environment (uterus-placenta-embryo). Intrauterine undernutrition can be limited through the hormonal and/or nutritional treatment of pregnant sows. This has an effect on prenatal myogenesis, resulting in better development of skeletal muscles, higher birth weight of piglets, and progression in postnatal growth rate.

Keywords

  • sows
  • prolificacy
  • feeding
  • IUGR
Otwarty dostęp

Nutritional and immunomodulatory function of methionine in poultry diets – a review

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 17 - 32

Abstrakt

Abstract

Methionine (Met) plays many important metabolic functions in humans and animals, and therefore may be classified as a functional amino acid (AA). Functional AAs are defined as those AAs that participate in and regulate key metabolic pathways to improve health, survival, growth, development, and reproduction of organisms. As the first-limiting AA in poultry diets, Met affects poultry production parameters such as body weight gains, feed conversion ratio and carcass quality. The results of many experiments on chickens fed diets with different levels of Met (from 0.3 to 1.2% in the starter period, and from 0.3 to 0.9% in the grower period) indicate that commercial broiler chickens do not require more than 0.50 and 0.38% Met in starter and grower diets, respectively, for optimum growth and feed efficiency, whereas higher inclusion rates of Met are needed to stimulate immune responses. The results of recent experiments on chickens are insufficient to define the optimal dietary levels of Met, which has been shown to exert immunostimulatory activity. A few experiments on layer hens have demonstrated that Met requirements for immune competence are higher than for optimum production, but the inclusion levels of this AA needed to stimulate the immune system of birds have not been defined. In the absence of such research, it remains unknown whether feeding growing turkeys diets supplemented with Met above NCR recommendations, as suggested by B.U.T. (British United Turkeys), stimulates the immune system of birds.

Keywords

  • methionine
  • metabolism
  • poultry nutrition
  • innate immunity
  • immune function

Genetics and farm animal breeding

Otwarty dostęp

Polymorphic linker histone H1 variants in breeding and conservative duck populations

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 33 - 42

Abstrakt

Abstract

A purpose of this study was to evaluate genetic diversity in duck populations based on polymorphic variants (H1.a, H1.b and H1.z) of linker histone H1. The study was performed using conservative brown-feathered Khaki Campbell (Kh1) and Orpington (Or) populations and white-feathered Pekin (P77) duck breeding line. While no significant distortion between both brown-feathered duck populations was noted (P>0.05), the allele frequencies at histone H1 polymorphic loci were found to differ significantly between brown-feathered and white-feathered duck flocks (P<0.001). While the alleles a1, b1 and z1 were detected in all three duck lines, the alleles a2 and b2 missed in the line P77 were found in the Kh1 and Or populations. A rare allele z2 not detected in a homozygous state during screening our duck populations was found to occur only in heterozygous P77 duck individuals (z1z2). After a purpose mating of these heterozygous P77 birds, the homozygous individuals (z2) were obtained in their offspring. The uneven distribution of the alleles for polymorphic histone H1 variants among duck populations seems to suggest that they are not functionally equivalent and, therefore, might have a differential influence on chromatin structure and/or function leading to line-specific phenotypic effects in duck.

Słowa kluczowe

  • duck
  • histone H1.a
  • histone H1.b
  • histone H1.z
  • polymorphism
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic parameters of carcass traits in ducks from a crossbred population

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 43 - 53

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate coefficients of heritability as well as genetic and phenotypic correlations among body weight and carcass traits. The dataset contained records of 387 birds from the second crossbred generation. The following traits were recorded: body weight (BW) at 11 weeks, carcass weight (CW), breast muscle weight including superficial and deep muscle (BMW), leg muscle weight including thigh and shank (LMW), wings weight (WW), skin with subcutaneous fat weight (SW), abdominal fat weight (AFW), skeleton with the back muscle and inedible elements (SBM), and liver weight (LW). Estimates of variance components were obtained by the average information - REML algorithm in the ASReml package. Very high slaughter yield (74.90%) was obtained. Generally, the coefficients of heritability were high. The highest one of 0.75 was estimated for body weight at 11 weeks. High coefficients of h2 were estimated for breast muscle weight (0.69), wings weight (0.70), carcass weight (0.65), skin with subcutaneous fat weight (0.57) and skeleton with the back muscle (0.58), whereas h2 of liver weight was 0.29. Both phenotypic and genetic relationships between the recorded traits were usually positive. Generally, it seems that the crossbreeding scheme can be perceived as a suitable proposal for the breeding practice.

Słowa kluczowe

  • body weight
  • carcass traits
  • correlations
  • crossbreeding
  • heritability
Otwarty dostęp

Comparison of different polynomial functions in Random Regression Model for milk production traits of Iranian Holstein dairy cattle

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 55 - 68

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this research was to compare different polynomial functions including Legendre polynomials (LP), Wilmink (WRR) and Ali-Schaeffer (ARR) functions, in random regression model (RRM) for estimation of genetic parameters for milk production traits of Iranian Holstein dairy cattle. For this purpose the performance records obtained from test-day (TD) regarding milk yield, fat and protein contents of the cows calving for the first time were used. The numbers of records for the above mentioned traits were 701212, 657004, and 560775, respectively. These records were collected from the years 2006 to 2010 by the National Breeding Center of Iran. The genetic parameters were estimated using Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) method by applying RRM. Residual variances were considered homogeneous over the lactation period. To compare the model, different criteria (-2Logl, AIC, BIC and RV) were used for considered traits. Based on the results obtained, for all traits, RRM with LP function (2,5) were chosen as the best model. Considering residual variance (RV), LP (2,2) was proved to be a model which has the lowest performance, while using -2Logl, AIC, BIC criteria, RRM with ARR function was the worst model. According to the results, it is recommended to use LP with low orders for the additive genetic effects and with more orders for the permanent environment effects in the RRM for Iranian Holstein cattle. Permanent environment variance was higher in early lactation than during lactation and additive genetic variance in the early lactation was lower than at the end of lactation. Heritability range of milk yield, fat and protein contents was estimated to be from 0.08 to 0.23, 0.05 to 0.20 and 0.08 to 0.14, respectively. Phenotypic variance of the considered traits during lactation was not constant and it was higher at the beginning and the end of lactation. The additive genetic correlation between adjacent test days was higher than between distant test days.

Keywords

  • dairy cattle
  • random regression model
  • test-day
  • genetic parameters

The biology, physiology and reproduction of animals

Otwarty dostęp

The effect of parity and date of service on the reproductive performance of Polish Large White × Polish Landrace (PLW × PL) crossbred sows

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 69 - 79

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the influence of the month of insemination on the reproductive performance of crossbred sows in moderate climates. The research material consisted of 309 primiparous and 625 multiparous (PLW×PL) sows kept on an industrial-scale farm. Analysis included 2457 litters obtained during a five-year period from 2006 to 2011. Statistically, the lowest number of piglets born alive and weaned was observed as a result of summer month insemination (July, August, September) compared to the winter months (February, March) (P≤0.01 and P≤0.05). Inseminations in the first four months of the year resulted in a higher number of piglets born alive in second and following parities (P≤0.01). Statistically significant differences in litter size due to the month of insemination were observed for sows in parities 4 and 5-11 (P≤0.01 and P≤0.05). The shortest farrowing interval was demonstrated for sows inseminated in November, the longest in January, March (P≤0.01) and April, July (P≤0.05). The results indicate that the insemination month of the sow may affect some reproductive parameters.

Keywords

  • month
  • insemination
  • reproductive performance
  • crossbred sows
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Biolactin administered per os on survivability and body weight of piglets

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 81 - 88

Abstrakt

Abstract

Prolactin (PRL) is a protein hormone synthesized in and secreted predominantly by lactotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland. This hormone has been found to stimulate the immune system in animals. Because prolactin secreted in milk by the mother’s body is often insufficient, the administration of exogenous prolactin may significantly contribute to improving the health and growth of piglets. The aim of the study was to determine the dose of prolactin administered to newborn piglets to improve their survivability and growth rate. The study used Biolactin solution, produced on a semi-technical scale by FZNP Biochefa, which was administered per os to newborn piglets at a dose of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg PRL/kg body weight. NaCl physiological saline was used as a control. The number of piglets born alive, piglet body weight and mortality from birth to 21 and 28 days of age (weaning) were monitored. The study involved 98 litters (1197 piglets), which were divided into 3 experimental and 3 control groups. The experiment showed a positive effect of exogenous prolactin administered to newborn piglets on reducing their mortality and on increasing their birth to weaning growth rate. A dose of 0.5 mg PRL/kg body weight turned out to be optimal.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pigs
  • piglets
  • prolactin
  • growth rate
  • mortality

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of restricted feeding in the far-off period on performance and metabolic status of dairy cows

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 89 - 100

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate experimentally the effects of restricted or ad libitum feeding in the far-off period on performance of dairy cows. Two groups of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows having 19 animals in each group were allotted to two planes of nutrition in the far-off period from -56 to -22 days. The ADLIB group was fed ad libitum (DMI 12.9 kg) while in the RES group the dry matter intake was restricted by 3 kg DM compared to the average dry matter during the last 7 days in the ADLIB group. Average daily energy intake decreased from 8.90 UFL in the ADLIB to 6.83 UFL in the RES group. In the close-up period and after parturition, the cows of both groups were given the same diet. In restrictively fed cows, there was a tendency to a greater decrease in BCS during both the dry period (P=0.09) and lactation (P=0.07). After parturition milk production, fertility indices and blood concentration of IGF-1, insulin and glucose were not significantly affected by the far-off treatment. In the RES group, lower BHBA 3 days before calving and on day 5 of lactation and lower NEFA on day 28 of lactation were recorded. Also in this group higher levels of glucose 3 days before calving, triiodothyronine (T3) on days -30 and 5, and thyroxine (T4) on days -3 and 28 were observed. It is concluded that restricted feeding in the far-off period positively affected blood indicators of lipomobilization during the transition period, but had little effect on performance of lactating cows. In spite of low energy, high-fibre diet offered ad libitum in the faroff period resulted in the energy overfeeding compared to the INRA system recommendation.

Keywords

  • dairy cow
  • energy intake
  • body condition score
  • fertility
  • metabolic profile
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of species-specific probiotic addition to milk replacer on calf health and performance during the first month of life

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 101 - 115

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the administration of a species-specific probiotic (Lactobacillus animalis SB310, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei SB137 and Bacillus coagulans SB117 in a 30:35:35 ratio, respectively; 1.8 × 1010 CFU/g of powder) on gut microbial balance, immune response and growth performance of Holstein female calves during the first month of life. Twenty-two calves were divided into two experimental groups from 2 to 28 days of life: control (C), fed with milk replacer and concentrate as a basal diet, and treatment (T), fed C diet plus 1 g/calf/day of probiotic powder for the first month of age. Faecal and blood samples were individually collected and analysed weekly. Individual faecal score was recorded daily and general health score was calculated at the end of the trial. Cell-mediated immune response was evaluated by skin test at 7 and 28 days of life. Milk replacer and concentrate intake were recorded daily, while body weight and biometrical parameters were recorded at 2, 8, 14, 21 and 28 days of life, thus average daily gain and feed conversion rate were calculated. During the first week of treatment, lower blood eosinophil percentage (0.05% vs. 0.22%; P≤0.01) was found in T group, while basophils were higher in T than C group at the end of the trial (0.21% vs. 0.16%; P≤0.05). Higher faecal lactic acid bacteria (LAB)/E. coli ratio on day 28 of life (3.73 log CFU/g vs. 2.02 log CFU/g; P≤0.05) and lower incidence of diarrhoea were found in the treated group (63.30% vs. 70.71%; P=0.05). Body weight (48.92 kg vs. 46.92 kg; P≤0.05), total concentrate intake (14.77 kg vs. 12.56 kg on dry matter basis; P≤0.05), and heart girth (81.16 cm vs. 78.49 cm; P≤0.05) were significantly higher in T group. The administration of the probiotic during the first month of life improved gut microbiota and increased the growth performance and some biometric parameters of calves.

Keywords

  • calf
  • health status
  • growth performance
  • intestinal microbial balance
  • species-specific probiotic
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of increased content of animal protein in feed mixtures based on extruded rice on rearing performance and blood parameters of piglets

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 117 - 126

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three feed mixtures based on various feed components, including extruded rice, and differing in the source and level of animal protein on rearing performance and biochemical and haematological blood parameters of piglets in the peri-weaning period. The experiments covered 96 piglets, crosses of PIC hybrid sows with a P76 boar that were divided into three experimental groups. The piglets from group I received a prestarter diet based on extruded wheat and protein of both plant and animal origin, whilst those from groups II and III were fed prestarter diets containing: group II - extruded rice (protein as in group I), and group III - extruded rice with protein components of exclusively animal origin. The addition of extruded rice and the increased content of animal protein in feed mixture improved the rearing performance of piglets (higher body weight gains and more efficient feed conversion ratio). The feeding of piglets with the diets containing extruded rice and increased animal protein components (III group) was also observed to stimulate lipid metabolism, which resulted in reduced plasma levels of LDL-cholesterol and in increased percentage of HDL-cholesterol, which contributed to increased blood levels of urea compared to the other experimental groups.

Słowa kluczowe

  • piglets
  • rice
  • blood
  • haematology
  • biochemistry
  • production indices
  • animal protein
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of copper glycinate chelate on biomechanical, morphometric and chemical properties of chicken femur

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 127 - 139

Abstrakt

Abstract

The effect of Cu in the form of glycinate chelate, added to chicken feed mixtures, on biomechanical, morphometric and chemical parameters of chicken femur bones was evaluated at 6 weeks of age. Three hundred one-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were divided into 6 groups each in 5 repetitions of 10 chicks. The basal feed mixtures contained: starter 6.1 mg·kg-1 Cu, grower 6.21 mg·kg-1 Cu, finisher 5.91 mg·kg-1 Cu. In the experiment 8, 4 or 2 mg·kg-1 of copper were added to the premix (containing no Cu) in the form of copper sulfate (S-Cu) or as copper glycinate chelate (Gly-Cu). The highest cortical index and maximum elastic strength towards bone weight were observed when S-Cu was added to the mixture at 25% of the requirement. Higher values of the maximum elastic strength were recorded in groups receiving 100% and 50% Gly-Cu compared to the group fed with 100% and 25% S-Cu. In chickens receiving Gly-Cu significantly higher Ix values were recorded in comparison with the group receiving 50% S-Cu. As an alternative to iron sulfate Ross 308 broiler chickens can be fed with Fe in the form of copper glycinate chelate. The use of chelate in the amount limited to 10 or 20 mg·kg-1 did not result in worse physicochemical, strength and morphometric parameters of chicken femurs compared to the recommended dose (40 mg·kg-1).

Słowa kluczowe

  • chicken
  • glycinate chelate
  • bone parameters

Environment, hygiene and animal production technology

Otwarty dostęp

Ammonia emissions from dairy cattle manure under variable ventilation rates

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 141 - 151

Abstrakt

Abstract

The effect of variable ventilation rates on ammonia emission rates from manure was determined through mass flow measurements in a laboratory test unit and the possibility of reducing ammonia emissions by regulating the intensity of the ventilation in cowsheds. The air exchange rate represents an important determinant of ammonia emissions. A 4.5 times increase in ventilation rate causes ammonia emission to increase by 1.7-2.5 times. The effect of ventilation rate on ammonia emission from manure was found to increase under the condition of extremely high airflow rates, i.e. over 250 m3 h-1 m-2. Under the recommended ventilation rate of 105-420 m3 h-1 per cow, ammonia emission will vary from 2016 to 3195 mg h-1, respectively. The ammonia emissions can be significantly reduced in dairy cattle barns by reducing ventilation rates provided the air quality indicators remain in conformity with the requirements. The ammonia emissions can also be reduced in barns by controlling and diverting air flows inside the barns by preventing the clean air from reaching fresh manure as much as possible while reducing the vertical concentration gradient of ammonia.

Keywords

  • cattle barn
  • manure
  • ventilation rate
  • ammonia emission
Otwarty dostęp

Ammonia concentrations in a free-stall dairy barn

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 153 - 166

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper presents the results of research on indoor ammonia (NH3) concentrations in the air in a free-stall barn. The differences in measurement results mainly depended on the season and weather conditions. The study also showed a significant correlation (P<0.01) between the NH3 concentration and temperature, relative humidity and air movement velocity inside the barn. The lowest NH3 concentration was recorded in the summer (0.0 ppm) in the presence of high air temperatures, low humidity and increased exchange of ventilated air. In winter during severe frosts, highest ammonia concentration (8.0 ppm) was noted, caused by limited ventilation. The highest daily ammonia concentration was usually recorded during the night. This was due to increased relative air humidity and low air velocities. It was concluded that the average level of ammonia of 2.73 ppm during the entire year was significantly below values defined as harmful for animals and people.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ammonia concentration
  • indoor air quality
  • indoor bioenvironment
  • dairy barn
Otwarty dostęp

Ultrastructure of the eggshell of selected Palaeognathae species – a comparative analysis

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 167 - 178

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study aimed at comparative analysis of the eggshell ultrastructure, indicating differences and similarities in its structure depending on the bird species. The study was carried out in ostrich, emu and rhea breeding flocks. The birds were kept under open system. The ostrich flock comprised 6 females and 3 males, the emu flock included 22 birds with equal sex ratio, while the rhea flock consisted of 16 females and 4 males. Emus and rheas were 5 years old and in their 3rd laying year, whereas ostriches were 4 years old and in their 2nd laying year. The analysis of eggshell ultrastructure and porosity was performed on the post-hatching eggshells being obtained after the incubation of eggs from around peak laying period of these birds. In total, 27 eggshells were evaluated, 9 of each species. Analysis of the ultrastructure of ostrich, emu and rhea eggshells showed their different architecture being dependent on the bird species. The cuticle in ostrich eggs adhered firmly to the vertical crystal layer, it mainly occurred around pore canal orifices in rhea eggs, while only its residual presence was observed in emu eggs. The percentage of the vertical crystal layer was similar in the ostrich and rhea eggshells (2-3%) but significantly higher in the emu eggshells (9%). The largest number of mammillae per unit of inner eggshell surface area was recorded in emus, while the broadest palisades in rheas. The ostrich eggshells were shown to be characterised by the least number of pores per unit of surface area, with significantly narrower pore canals.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ostrich
  • emu
  • rhea
  • eggshell ultrastructure
  • eggshell porosity
Otwarty dostęp

Preliminary study on serological, molecular, histological and clinical evidence of Chlamydia spp. in Polish swine herds

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 179 - 187

Abstrakt

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to assess the occurrence of Chlamydia spp. in Polish swine herds by using serological, molecular, and histological methods as well as by clinical manifestation of the suspected infection when reproductive disorders were taken into account. The seroprevalence among examined animals was 5.65% (96/1698), whereas molecular assessment of the pathogen was negative (0/298). The results of our investigation showed that Chlamydia spp. infection in swine may be suspected more often based on clinical manifestation or histological examination than serological or molecular methods.

Keywords

  • Chlamydia spp.
  • swine
  • seroprevalence
  • PCR
  • histology
Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of factors increasing the probability of fur chewing in chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) raised under farm conditions

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 189 - 195

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the extent of fur chewing problems on chinchilla farms. The research was based on a 20-question survey addressed to breeders. A total of 47 anonymous questionnaires were answered. Results showed that the problem of fur chewing was found in as many as 85% of the farms but the proportion of affected animals was usually low (mean±SE: 3.5±0.55%). To determine the relationship between herd size and the extent of the problem, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated to be r = -0.315 (P≤0.05), possibly indicating the problem to be more severe on smaller farms. No correlation was found between fur chewing and the type of fodder (pellets from different producers), temperature, humidity, type of cage equipment or frequency of dust baths. Moreover, the level of fur-biting animals kept on a deep-litter floor was estimated at 1.7% while the level of those kept on a wire floor and in a mixed system was 2.8-times higher (P≤0.05). The fact that 37.5% of the respondents perceived the predisposition to fur chewing to be hereditary was an important observation suggesting a direction for further research. A considerable proportion of those surveyed (37.5%) also pointed to a greater excitability among fur chewers. To sum up, results of the present study revealed that keeping animals on litter reduces the incidence of fur chewing. Breeders’ observations also suggest that fur biting may be determined genetically and/or connected with impulsive-compulsive disorders; however, more detailed studies are necessary to confirm these hypotheses.

Słowa kluczowe

  • chinchilla
  • fur chewing
  • stereotypical behaviour
  • impulsive-compulsive disorder

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Otwarty dostęp

The properties of fermented beef products ripened as entire primal cuts of m. semitendinosus, m. semimembranosus and mm. psoas major and minor

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 197 - 212

Abstrakt

Abstract

The physico-chemical, biochemical and microbiological changes in raw fermented beef products, manufactured from semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM), psoas major and minor (PM) muscles during ripening were evaluated. The accumulation of free fatty acids (1550, 2660, 1850 mg/kg) and the increase of lactobacilli (about 0.2 log cfu/g) had an effect on the pH. The low pH (4.9) reduced the coagulase-negative cocci population (0.2 log cfu/g) and affected the free amine groups content (185.2 and 25 μM Gly/kg) in the PM with the lowest fat content (2.9%). At the end of the ripening process the ST contained a similar quantity of water, protein, fat and proteolysis products as the SM, however small peptides were generated in all products. The release of volatile compounds could be affected by the drying mainly due to the increase of fat (free fatty acid transformations) and activity of bacterial cells (amino acid transformations, fermentation under aerobic or anaerobic conditions). The results of a two-way analysis of variance for physico-chemical, biochemical and microbiological attributes showed that all the analysed factors significantly influenced the level of the evaluated variables in the ST, SM and PM products (P<0.01) excluding the type of product and its effect on the fat, ash, 2-phenylethylamine and putrescine content, pH and the coagulase-negative cocci count in the ST and SM. The interactions between the type of product and the ripening period were highly significant, with the exception of the yeasts and the LAB, existing in the external and internal layer of the products.

Keywords

  • beef
  • microflora
  • ripening
  • volatile compounds
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of selenium supplementation in pig feed on slaughter value and physicochemical and sensory characteristics of meat

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 213 - 222

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to examine the assimilability of organic and inorganic selenium supplied as an additive to pig feed. The influence of both selenium forms on pig slaughter value as well as on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of meat was also examined (experiment I). An attempt to establish the distribution of selenium in the body of experimental fatteners was made (experiment II). Experiment I was performed on 20 carcasses of crossbred pigs of (Polish Large White × Polish Landrace) × Duroc genotype and experiment II was carried out on 45 samples of longissimus and semimembranosus muscles taken from fatteners of the same genotype (PLW × PL × Duroc). The results obtained indicated that selenium supplementation in the diet had no impact on slaughter performance, meat quality and most physicochemical and sensory characteristics of meat. Selenium was found to have no significant effect on meat colour. The meat water holding capacity (WHC) was lower in the group of pigs fed organic selenium. The highest selenium concentration was found in the semimembranosus muscle of fatteners receiving the inorganic selenium additive.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pigs
  • selenium
  • assimilability
  • meat quality
18 Artykułów

Review

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of sow prolificacy and nutrition on preand postnatal growth of progeny – a review

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 3 - 15

Abstrakt

Abstract

Weakened growth and development of embryos as well as of fetuses or their organs (IUGR) show a relationship with increasing sow fertility. When aiming to increase birth weight in piglets and reduce within-litter variation in piglet body weight, efforts should be made to maintain a favourable maternal environment (uterus-placenta-embryo). Intrauterine undernutrition can be limited through the hormonal and/or nutritional treatment of pregnant sows. This has an effect on prenatal myogenesis, resulting in better development of skeletal muscles, higher birth weight of piglets, and progression in postnatal growth rate.

Keywords

  • sows
  • prolificacy
  • feeding
  • IUGR
Otwarty dostęp

Nutritional and immunomodulatory function of methionine in poultry diets – a review

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 17 - 32

Abstrakt

Abstract

Methionine (Met) plays many important metabolic functions in humans and animals, and therefore may be classified as a functional amino acid (AA). Functional AAs are defined as those AAs that participate in and regulate key metabolic pathways to improve health, survival, growth, development, and reproduction of organisms. As the first-limiting AA in poultry diets, Met affects poultry production parameters such as body weight gains, feed conversion ratio and carcass quality. The results of many experiments on chickens fed diets with different levels of Met (from 0.3 to 1.2% in the starter period, and from 0.3 to 0.9% in the grower period) indicate that commercial broiler chickens do not require more than 0.50 and 0.38% Met in starter and grower diets, respectively, for optimum growth and feed efficiency, whereas higher inclusion rates of Met are needed to stimulate immune responses. The results of recent experiments on chickens are insufficient to define the optimal dietary levels of Met, which has been shown to exert immunostimulatory activity. A few experiments on layer hens have demonstrated that Met requirements for immune competence are higher than for optimum production, but the inclusion levels of this AA needed to stimulate the immune system of birds have not been defined. In the absence of such research, it remains unknown whether feeding growing turkeys diets supplemented with Met above NCR recommendations, as suggested by B.U.T. (British United Turkeys), stimulates the immune system of birds.

Keywords

  • methionine
  • metabolism
  • poultry nutrition
  • innate immunity
  • immune function

Genetics and farm animal breeding

Otwarty dostęp

Polymorphic linker histone H1 variants in breeding and conservative duck populations

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 33 - 42

Abstrakt

Abstract

A purpose of this study was to evaluate genetic diversity in duck populations based on polymorphic variants (H1.a, H1.b and H1.z) of linker histone H1. The study was performed using conservative brown-feathered Khaki Campbell (Kh1) and Orpington (Or) populations and white-feathered Pekin (P77) duck breeding line. While no significant distortion between both brown-feathered duck populations was noted (P>0.05), the allele frequencies at histone H1 polymorphic loci were found to differ significantly between brown-feathered and white-feathered duck flocks (P<0.001). While the alleles a1, b1 and z1 were detected in all three duck lines, the alleles a2 and b2 missed in the line P77 were found in the Kh1 and Or populations. A rare allele z2 not detected in a homozygous state during screening our duck populations was found to occur only in heterozygous P77 duck individuals (z1z2). After a purpose mating of these heterozygous P77 birds, the homozygous individuals (z2) were obtained in their offspring. The uneven distribution of the alleles for polymorphic histone H1 variants among duck populations seems to suggest that they are not functionally equivalent and, therefore, might have a differential influence on chromatin structure and/or function leading to line-specific phenotypic effects in duck.

Słowa kluczowe

  • duck
  • histone H1.a
  • histone H1.b
  • histone H1.z
  • polymorphism
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic parameters of carcass traits in ducks from a crossbred population

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 43 - 53

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate coefficients of heritability as well as genetic and phenotypic correlations among body weight and carcass traits. The dataset contained records of 387 birds from the second crossbred generation. The following traits were recorded: body weight (BW) at 11 weeks, carcass weight (CW), breast muscle weight including superficial and deep muscle (BMW), leg muscle weight including thigh and shank (LMW), wings weight (WW), skin with subcutaneous fat weight (SW), abdominal fat weight (AFW), skeleton with the back muscle and inedible elements (SBM), and liver weight (LW). Estimates of variance components were obtained by the average information - REML algorithm in the ASReml package. Very high slaughter yield (74.90%) was obtained. Generally, the coefficients of heritability were high. The highest one of 0.75 was estimated for body weight at 11 weeks. High coefficients of h2 were estimated for breast muscle weight (0.69), wings weight (0.70), carcass weight (0.65), skin with subcutaneous fat weight (0.57) and skeleton with the back muscle (0.58), whereas h2 of liver weight was 0.29. Both phenotypic and genetic relationships between the recorded traits were usually positive. Generally, it seems that the crossbreeding scheme can be perceived as a suitable proposal for the breeding practice.

Słowa kluczowe

  • body weight
  • carcass traits
  • correlations
  • crossbreeding
  • heritability
Otwarty dostęp

Comparison of different polynomial functions in Random Regression Model for milk production traits of Iranian Holstein dairy cattle

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 55 - 68

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this research was to compare different polynomial functions including Legendre polynomials (LP), Wilmink (WRR) and Ali-Schaeffer (ARR) functions, in random regression model (RRM) for estimation of genetic parameters for milk production traits of Iranian Holstein dairy cattle. For this purpose the performance records obtained from test-day (TD) regarding milk yield, fat and protein contents of the cows calving for the first time were used. The numbers of records for the above mentioned traits were 701212, 657004, and 560775, respectively. These records were collected from the years 2006 to 2010 by the National Breeding Center of Iran. The genetic parameters were estimated using Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) method by applying RRM. Residual variances were considered homogeneous over the lactation period. To compare the model, different criteria (-2Logl, AIC, BIC and RV) were used for considered traits. Based on the results obtained, for all traits, RRM with LP function (2,5) were chosen as the best model. Considering residual variance (RV), LP (2,2) was proved to be a model which has the lowest performance, while using -2Logl, AIC, BIC criteria, RRM with ARR function was the worst model. According to the results, it is recommended to use LP with low orders for the additive genetic effects and with more orders for the permanent environment effects in the RRM for Iranian Holstein cattle. Permanent environment variance was higher in early lactation than during lactation and additive genetic variance in the early lactation was lower than at the end of lactation. Heritability range of milk yield, fat and protein contents was estimated to be from 0.08 to 0.23, 0.05 to 0.20 and 0.08 to 0.14, respectively. Phenotypic variance of the considered traits during lactation was not constant and it was higher at the beginning and the end of lactation. The additive genetic correlation between adjacent test days was higher than between distant test days.

Keywords

  • dairy cattle
  • random regression model
  • test-day
  • genetic parameters

The biology, physiology and reproduction of animals

Otwarty dostęp

The effect of parity and date of service on the reproductive performance of Polish Large White × Polish Landrace (PLW × PL) crossbred sows

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 69 - 79

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the influence of the month of insemination on the reproductive performance of crossbred sows in moderate climates. The research material consisted of 309 primiparous and 625 multiparous (PLW×PL) sows kept on an industrial-scale farm. Analysis included 2457 litters obtained during a five-year period from 2006 to 2011. Statistically, the lowest number of piglets born alive and weaned was observed as a result of summer month insemination (July, August, September) compared to the winter months (February, March) (P≤0.01 and P≤0.05). Inseminations in the first four months of the year resulted in a higher number of piglets born alive in second and following parities (P≤0.01). Statistically significant differences in litter size due to the month of insemination were observed for sows in parities 4 and 5-11 (P≤0.01 and P≤0.05). The shortest farrowing interval was demonstrated for sows inseminated in November, the longest in January, March (P≤0.01) and April, July (P≤0.05). The results indicate that the insemination month of the sow may affect some reproductive parameters.

Keywords

  • month
  • insemination
  • reproductive performance
  • crossbred sows
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Biolactin administered per os on survivability and body weight of piglets

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 81 - 88

Abstrakt

Abstract

Prolactin (PRL) is a protein hormone synthesized in and secreted predominantly by lactotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland. This hormone has been found to stimulate the immune system in animals. Because prolactin secreted in milk by the mother’s body is often insufficient, the administration of exogenous prolactin may significantly contribute to improving the health and growth of piglets. The aim of the study was to determine the dose of prolactin administered to newborn piglets to improve their survivability and growth rate. The study used Biolactin solution, produced on a semi-technical scale by FZNP Biochefa, which was administered per os to newborn piglets at a dose of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg PRL/kg body weight. NaCl physiological saline was used as a control. The number of piglets born alive, piglet body weight and mortality from birth to 21 and 28 days of age (weaning) were monitored. The study involved 98 litters (1197 piglets), which were divided into 3 experimental and 3 control groups. The experiment showed a positive effect of exogenous prolactin administered to newborn piglets on reducing their mortality and on increasing their birth to weaning growth rate. A dose of 0.5 mg PRL/kg body weight turned out to be optimal.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pigs
  • piglets
  • prolactin
  • growth rate
  • mortality

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of restricted feeding in the far-off period on performance and metabolic status of dairy cows

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 89 - 100

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate experimentally the effects of restricted or ad libitum feeding in the far-off period on performance of dairy cows. Two groups of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows having 19 animals in each group were allotted to two planes of nutrition in the far-off period from -56 to -22 days. The ADLIB group was fed ad libitum (DMI 12.9 kg) while in the RES group the dry matter intake was restricted by 3 kg DM compared to the average dry matter during the last 7 days in the ADLIB group. Average daily energy intake decreased from 8.90 UFL in the ADLIB to 6.83 UFL in the RES group. In the close-up period and after parturition, the cows of both groups were given the same diet. In restrictively fed cows, there was a tendency to a greater decrease in BCS during both the dry period (P=0.09) and lactation (P=0.07). After parturition milk production, fertility indices and blood concentration of IGF-1, insulin and glucose were not significantly affected by the far-off treatment. In the RES group, lower BHBA 3 days before calving and on day 5 of lactation and lower NEFA on day 28 of lactation were recorded. Also in this group higher levels of glucose 3 days before calving, triiodothyronine (T3) on days -30 and 5, and thyroxine (T4) on days -3 and 28 were observed. It is concluded that restricted feeding in the far-off period positively affected blood indicators of lipomobilization during the transition period, but had little effect on performance of lactating cows. In spite of low energy, high-fibre diet offered ad libitum in the faroff period resulted in the energy overfeeding compared to the INRA system recommendation.

Keywords

  • dairy cow
  • energy intake
  • body condition score
  • fertility
  • metabolic profile
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of species-specific probiotic addition to milk replacer on calf health and performance during the first month of life

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 101 - 115

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the administration of a species-specific probiotic (Lactobacillus animalis SB310, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei SB137 and Bacillus coagulans SB117 in a 30:35:35 ratio, respectively; 1.8 × 1010 CFU/g of powder) on gut microbial balance, immune response and growth performance of Holstein female calves during the first month of life. Twenty-two calves were divided into two experimental groups from 2 to 28 days of life: control (C), fed with milk replacer and concentrate as a basal diet, and treatment (T), fed C diet plus 1 g/calf/day of probiotic powder for the first month of age. Faecal and blood samples were individually collected and analysed weekly. Individual faecal score was recorded daily and general health score was calculated at the end of the trial. Cell-mediated immune response was evaluated by skin test at 7 and 28 days of life. Milk replacer and concentrate intake were recorded daily, while body weight and biometrical parameters were recorded at 2, 8, 14, 21 and 28 days of life, thus average daily gain and feed conversion rate were calculated. During the first week of treatment, lower blood eosinophil percentage (0.05% vs. 0.22%; P≤0.01) was found in T group, while basophils were higher in T than C group at the end of the trial (0.21% vs. 0.16%; P≤0.05). Higher faecal lactic acid bacteria (LAB)/E. coli ratio on day 28 of life (3.73 log CFU/g vs. 2.02 log CFU/g; P≤0.05) and lower incidence of diarrhoea were found in the treated group (63.30% vs. 70.71%; P=0.05). Body weight (48.92 kg vs. 46.92 kg; P≤0.05), total concentrate intake (14.77 kg vs. 12.56 kg on dry matter basis; P≤0.05), and heart girth (81.16 cm vs. 78.49 cm; P≤0.05) were significantly higher in T group. The administration of the probiotic during the first month of life improved gut microbiota and increased the growth performance and some biometric parameters of calves.

Keywords

  • calf
  • health status
  • growth performance
  • intestinal microbial balance
  • species-specific probiotic
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of increased content of animal protein in feed mixtures based on extruded rice on rearing performance and blood parameters of piglets

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 117 - 126

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three feed mixtures based on various feed components, including extruded rice, and differing in the source and level of animal protein on rearing performance and biochemical and haematological blood parameters of piglets in the peri-weaning period. The experiments covered 96 piglets, crosses of PIC hybrid sows with a P76 boar that were divided into three experimental groups. The piglets from group I received a prestarter diet based on extruded wheat and protein of both plant and animal origin, whilst those from groups II and III were fed prestarter diets containing: group II - extruded rice (protein as in group I), and group III - extruded rice with protein components of exclusively animal origin. The addition of extruded rice and the increased content of animal protein in feed mixture improved the rearing performance of piglets (higher body weight gains and more efficient feed conversion ratio). The feeding of piglets with the diets containing extruded rice and increased animal protein components (III group) was also observed to stimulate lipid metabolism, which resulted in reduced plasma levels of LDL-cholesterol and in increased percentage of HDL-cholesterol, which contributed to increased blood levels of urea compared to the other experimental groups.

Słowa kluczowe

  • piglets
  • rice
  • blood
  • haematology
  • biochemistry
  • production indices
  • animal protein
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of copper glycinate chelate on biomechanical, morphometric and chemical properties of chicken femur

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 127 - 139

Abstrakt

Abstract

The effect of Cu in the form of glycinate chelate, added to chicken feed mixtures, on biomechanical, morphometric and chemical parameters of chicken femur bones was evaluated at 6 weeks of age. Three hundred one-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were divided into 6 groups each in 5 repetitions of 10 chicks. The basal feed mixtures contained: starter 6.1 mg·kg-1 Cu, grower 6.21 mg·kg-1 Cu, finisher 5.91 mg·kg-1 Cu. In the experiment 8, 4 or 2 mg·kg-1 of copper were added to the premix (containing no Cu) in the form of copper sulfate (S-Cu) or as copper glycinate chelate (Gly-Cu). The highest cortical index and maximum elastic strength towards bone weight were observed when S-Cu was added to the mixture at 25% of the requirement. Higher values of the maximum elastic strength were recorded in groups receiving 100% and 50% Gly-Cu compared to the group fed with 100% and 25% S-Cu. In chickens receiving Gly-Cu significantly higher Ix values were recorded in comparison with the group receiving 50% S-Cu. As an alternative to iron sulfate Ross 308 broiler chickens can be fed with Fe in the form of copper glycinate chelate. The use of chelate in the amount limited to 10 or 20 mg·kg-1 did not result in worse physicochemical, strength and morphometric parameters of chicken femurs compared to the recommended dose (40 mg·kg-1).

Słowa kluczowe

  • chicken
  • glycinate chelate
  • bone parameters

Environment, hygiene and animal production technology

Otwarty dostęp

Ammonia emissions from dairy cattle manure under variable ventilation rates

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 141 - 151

Abstrakt

Abstract

The effect of variable ventilation rates on ammonia emission rates from manure was determined through mass flow measurements in a laboratory test unit and the possibility of reducing ammonia emissions by regulating the intensity of the ventilation in cowsheds. The air exchange rate represents an important determinant of ammonia emissions. A 4.5 times increase in ventilation rate causes ammonia emission to increase by 1.7-2.5 times. The effect of ventilation rate on ammonia emission from manure was found to increase under the condition of extremely high airflow rates, i.e. over 250 m3 h-1 m-2. Under the recommended ventilation rate of 105-420 m3 h-1 per cow, ammonia emission will vary from 2016 to 3195 mg h-1, respectively. The ammonia emissions can be significantly reduced in dairy cattle barns by reducing ventilation rates provided the air quality indicators remain in conformity with the requirements. The ammonia emissions can also be reduced in barns by controlling and diverting air flows inside the barns by preventing the clean air from reaching fresh manure as much as possible while reducing the vertical concentration gradient of ammonia.

Keywords

  • cattle barn
  • manure
  • ventilation rate
  • ammonia emission
Otwarty dostęp

Ammonia concentrations in a free-stall dairy barn

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 153 - 166

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper presents the results of research on indoor ammonia (NH3) concentrations in the air in a free-stall barn. The differences in measurement results mainly depended on the season and weather conditions. The study also showed a significant correlation (P<0.01) between the NH3 concentration and temperature, relative humidity and air movement velocity inside the barn. The lowest NH3 concentration was recorded in the summer (0.0 ppm) in the presence of high air temperatures, low humidity and increased exchange of ventilated air. In winter during severe frosts, highest ammonia concentration (8.0 ppm) was noted, caused by limited ventilation. The highest daily ammonia concentration was usually recorded during the night. This was due to increased relative air humidity and low air velocities. It was concluded that the average level of ammonia of 2.73 ppm during the entire year was significantly below values defined as harmful for animals and people.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ammonia concentration
  • indoor air quality
  • indoor bioenvironment
  • dairy barn
Otwarty dostęp

Ultrastructure of the eggshell of selected Palaeognathae species – a comparative analysis

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 167 - 178

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study aimed at comparative analysis of the eggshell ultrastructure, indicating differences and similarities in its structure depending on the bird species. The study was carried out in ostrich, emu and rhea breeding flocks. The birds were kept under open system. The ostrich flock comprised 6 females and 3 males, the emu flock included 22 birds with equal sex ratio, while the rhea flock consisted of 16 females and 4 males. Emus and rheas were 5 years old and in their 3rd laying year, whereas ostriches were 4 years old and in their 2nd laying year. The analysis of eggshell ultrastructure and porosity was performed on the post-hatching eggshells being obtained after the incubation of eggs from around peak laying period of these birds. In total, 27 eggshells were evaluated, 9 of each species. Analysis of the ultrastructure of ostrich, emu and rhea eggshells showed their different architecture being dependent on the bird species. The cuticle in ostrich eggs adhered firmly to the vertical crystal layer, it mainly occurred around pore canal orifices in rhea eggs, while only its residual presence was observed in emu eggs. The percentage of the vertical crystal layer was similar in the ostrich and rhea eggshells (2-3%) but significantly higher in the emu eggshells (9%). The largest number of mammillae per unit of inner eggshell surface area was recorded in emus, while the broadest palisades in rheas. The ostrich eggshells were shown to be characterised by the least number of pores per unit of surface area, with significantly narrower pore canals.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ostrich
  • emu
  • rhea
  • eggshell ultrastructure
  • eggshell porosity
Otwarty dostęp

Preliminary study on serological, molecular, histological and clinical evidence of Chlamydia spp. in Polish swine herds

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 179 - 187

Abstrakt

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to assess the occurrence of Chlamydia spp. in Polish swine herds by using serological, molecular, and histological methods as well as by clinical manifestation of the suspected infection when reproductive disorders were taken into account. The seroprevalence among examined animals was 5.65% (96/1698), whereas molecular assessment of the pathogen was negative (0/298). The results of our investigation showed that Chlamydia spp. infection in swine may be suspected more often based on clinical manifestation or histological examination than serological or molecular methods.

Keywords

  • Chlamydia spp.
  • swine
  • seroprevalence
  • PCR
  • histology
Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of factors increasing the probability of fur chewing in chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) raised under farm conditions

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 189 - 195

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the extent of fur chewing problems on chinchilla farms. The research was based on a 20-question survey addressed to breeders. A total of 47 anonymous questionnaires were answered. Results showed that the problem of fur chewing was found in as many as 85% of the farms but the proportion of affected animals was usually low (mean±SE: 3.5±0.55%). To determine the relationship between herd size and the extent of the problem, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated to be r = -0.315 (P≤0.05), possibly indicating the problem to be more severe on smaller farms. No correlation was found between fur chewing and the type of fodder (pellets from different producers), temperature, humidity, type of cage equipment or frequency of dust baths. Moreover, the level of fur-biting animals kept on a deep-litter floor was estimated at 1.7% while the level of those kept on a wire floor and in a mixed system was 2.8-times higher (P≤0.05). The fact that 37.5% of the respondents perceived the predisposition to fur chewing to be hereditary was an important observation suggesting a direction for further research. A considerable proportion of those surveyed (37.5%) also pointed to a greater excitability among fur chewers. To sum up, results of the present study revealed that keeping animals on litter reduces the incidence of fur chewing. Breeders’ observations also suggest that fur biting may be determined genetically and/or connected with impulsive-compulsive disorders; however, more detailed studies are necessary to confirm these hypotheses.

Słowa kluczowe

  • chinchilla
  • fur chewing
  • stereotypical behaviour
  • impulsive-compulsive disorder

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Otwarty dostęp

The properties of fermented beef products ripened as entire primal cuts of m. semitendinosus, m. semimembranosus and mm. psoas major and minor

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 197 - 212

Abstrakt

Abstract

The physico-chemical, biochemical and microbiological changes in raw fermented beef products, manufactured from semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM), psoas major and minor (PM) muscles during ripening were evaluated. The accumulation of free fatty acids (1550, 2660, 1850 mg/kg) and the increase of lactobacilli (about 0.2 log cfu/g) had an effect on the pH. The low pH (4.9) reduced the coagulase-negative cocci population (0.2 log cfu/g) and affected the free amine groups content (185.2 and 25 μM Gly/kg) in the PM with the lowest fat content (2.9%). At the end of the ripening process the ST contained a similar quantity of water, protein, fat and proteolysis products as the SM, however small peptides were generated in all products. The release of volatile compounds could be affected by the drying mainly due to the increase of fat (free fatty acid transformations) and activity of bacterial cells (amino acid transformations, fermentation under aerobic or anaerobic conditions). The results of a two-way analysis of variance for physico-chemical, biochemical and microbiological attributes showed that all the analysed factors significantly influenced the level of the evaluated variables in the ST, SM and PM products (P<0.01) excluding the type of product and its effect on the fat, ash, 2-phenylethylamine and putrescine content, pH and the coagulase-negative cocci count in the ST and SM. The interactions between the type of product and the ripening period were highly significant, with the exception of the yeasts and the LAB, existing in the external and internal layer of the products.

Keywords

  • beef
  • microflora
  • ripening
  • volatile compounds
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of selenium supplementation in pig feed on slaughter value and physicochemical and sensory characteristics of meat

Data publikacji: 13 Feb 2014
Zakres stron: 213 - 222

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to examine the assimilability of organic and inorganic selenium supplied as an additive to pig feed. The influence of both selenium forms on pig slaughter value as well as on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of meat was also examined (experiment I). An attempt to establish the distribution of selenium in the body of experimental fatteners was made (experiment II). Experiment I was performed on 20 carcasses of crossbred pigs of (Polish Large White × Polish Landrace) × Duroc genotype and experiment II was carried out on 45 samples of longissimus and semimembranosus muscles taken from fatteners of the same genotype (PLW × PL × Duroc). The results obtained indicated that selenium supplementation in the diet had no impact on slaughter performance, meat quality and most physicochemical and sensory characteristics of meat. Selenium was found to have no significant effect on meat colour. The meat water holding capacity (WHC) was lower in the group of pigs fed organic selenium. The highest selenium concentration was found in the semimembranosus muscle of fatteners receiving the inorganic selenium additive.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pigs
  • selenium
  • assimilability
  • meat quality

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