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Zeszyt Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8733
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 14 (2014): Zeszyt 3 (July 2014)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8733
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

22 Artykułów

Review

Otwarty dostęp

Changes in Domestic Animals After Endotoxin Administration a Review

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 479 - 489

Abstrakt

Abstract

gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharides are complex glycolipids composed of lipid A, a core polysaccharide, and repeating units of O-specific polysaccharides. Lipid A is associated with the majority of toxic effects of gram-negative bacteria. It interacts with target cells, such as macrophages and activated neutrophils, initiating the inflammatory cascade. The effects of LPS depend mostly on organism reaction to endotoxins, their concentration in blood and also on the state of the animal before the occurrence of endotoxemia. The effect of endotoxin on the reproductive functions of domestic animals has been partly elucidated. This paper presents data on clinical, hematological and biochemical changes in endotoxemia as well as effects of injection of endotoxin in the reproductive systems in boars, rams, and stallions. The results show that these males respond to endotoxins in a similar way, concerning clinical symptoms, body temperature and leukocyte count in blood. Endocrine and seminal changes are different and the range of these changes also depends on the dose and endotoxin exposure time.

Słowa kluczowe

  • endotoxemia
  • clinical symptoms
  • blood parameters
  • hormonal changes
  • semen quality
  • boar
  • ram
  • stallion
Otwarty dostęp

A Review on Effects of Aloe Vera as a Feed Additive in Broiler Chicken Diets

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 491 - 500

Abstrakt

Abstract

Prohibition of application of antibiotic growth promoters in broiler chicken diets has resulted in increased use of herbs as natural additives in broiler feeds over the recent years. Researchers particularly look for herbs that can affect such parameters as growth performance, immune response, or treatment of certain diseases. Aloe vera is a well-known herb characterized by properties such as anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, wound-healing, anti-oxidant, and anti-diabetic effects. During the past years, attention has shifted toward Aloe vera as a natural additive to broiler diets, and studies have shown that Aloe vera can improve immune response and growth performance in broilers. In addition, Aloe vera is an excellent alternative for antibiotic growth promoters and anticoccidial drugs. Since Aloe vera can be used for broilers in the form of gel, powder, ethanolic extract, aqueous extract, and a polysaccharide contained in Aloe vera gel (i.e. acemannan), more studies are required to determine the best form and to compare Aloe vera with other medicinal herbs. This paper reviews effects of Aloe vera on intestinal microflora, growth performance, immune response, and coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

Słowa kluczowe

  • broiler chicken
  • Aloe vera
  • microflora
  • immune system
  • growth performance
  • coccidiosis
Otwarty dostęp

Schmallenberg Virus – A New Risk in Cattle Breeding in Europe

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 501 - 510

Abstrakt

Abstract

Since august 2011 europe has been facing a new virus which attacks the domestic and wild ruminants. The virus was named after the town where the first isolation had been made. The virus in question is transmitted by the biting midges (Culicoides spp.) and it can survive the winter in the bodies of those insects. it is also known that the virus does not endanger human health and it cannot be transferred directly from one animal to another because it is only carried by the vectors.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cattle
  • malformations
  • ruminants
  • Schmallenberg virus

Animal genetics and breeding

Otwarty dostęp

New Polymorphisms in Regulatory Region of CAPN3 Gene with no Effect on Gene Expression in Breast Muscle of Broiler Chickens

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 511 - 524

Abstrakt

Abstract

Calpains are enzymes that belong to calcium-dependent, non-lysosomal cysteine proteases. The CAPN3 gene encodes a major intracellular specific muscle protease with a high capacity for degradation of cytoskeletal and muscle fibre proteins. Therefore, they play an important role in fusion of myoblasts, proliferation, cell growth and migration. In chickens, the gene encoding for calpain 3 is localized on chromosome 5. Due to the function of encoded protein, the CAPN3 has beenchosen as a candidate gene for meat quality in chickens. Consequently, the aim of our study was to identify new polymorphisms in the regulatory region of CAPN3 gene and to investigate their impact on CAPN3 transcript abundance in breast muscles. The experiment used broilers of two genetic lines: fast- and slow-growing. The polymorphisms were identified by screening with High Resolution Melting (HRM) and sequencing based on the Sanger method. The CAPN3 gene expression was conducted by using succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A (SDHA) and 60S ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4) genes as endogenous controls. Four new polymorphisms were found: g.322176G>A in promoter region (GenBank: AADN03004661.1), c.176*C>T, c.144*G>C and c.137*_147*delCAGCCCTGCTT in 3`UTR sequence. The new polymorphisms were identified by using restriction enzymes ScrFI, BslI, AcuI, HpyAV, respectively. The frequency of polymorphisms found in 3`UTR region was similar in both lines. According to polymorphisms identified in 3`UTR region the alleles with deletion, C and C (c.137*_147*del, c.144*G>C and c.176*C>T) were rare. The polymorphism identified in the promoter region and 3`UTR regions changed a few binding sites for transcription factors, but did not alter any binding sites for the other important translation regulators such as miRNA. Analysis of the effect of new polymorphisms on CAPN3 gene expression showed that in fast-growing line the chickens with GG genotype according to polymorphism g.322176G>A inthe promoter region, were characterized by the highest CAPN3 transcript abundance. Other polymorphisms in 3>UTR region seem to have no effect on CAPN3 gene expression.

Słowa kluczowe

  • polymorphism
  • gene expression
  • promoter and 3’UTR region
  • broiler
  • chicken
Otwarty dostęp

New Polymorphisms in Regulatory Regions of Porcine μ-Calpain Gene and Their Association with CAPN1 Transcript Abundance

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 525 - 535

Abstrakt

Abstract

The activity of calpains, in particular μ-calpain, is associated with several processes occurring in muscle tissue postmortem and influences meat quality parameters. Therefore, the CAPN1 gene coding for large subunit of μ-calpain is considered as a candidate gene associated with meat quality traits. The aim of our study was to identify new polymorphisms in regulatory regions of the porcine CAPN1 gene and to estimate their impact on CAPN1 transcript abundance. In the present study, 7 polymorphisms in the porcine CAPN1 gene were identified, of which 5 were localized in introns (g.1195_1197insCCT; g.1429G>A; g. [4479A>G; 4526A>T; 4529_4530delAG]), one in 3’ untranslated region (g.25676C>T) and one microsatellite sequence in promoter region (c.-155- AGGG [3_5]). The analysed populations (a total of 451 gilts representing three pure breeds: Pietrain, P lish Landrace, Polish Large White and one conservation breed Pu.awska) were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium according to mutation g.25676C>T in 3’ untranslated region (all breeds), g.1429G>A (Pu.awska pigs) and g. [4479A>G; 4526A>T; 4529_4530delAG] (PLW pigs). Furthermore, the analysed SNPs in the porcine CAPN1 gene were in linkage disequilibrium (P≤0.05). The CAPN1 transcript abundance was also estimated in two important muscles (m. longissimus dorsi, m. semimembranosus). In longissimus dorsi muscle, a significant effect of c.-155- AGGG [3_5] polymorphism in promoter region on CAPN1 expression levels was determined. The c.-155AGGG [3/3] pigs showed a statistically higher (P≤0.05) expression level of the CAPN1 gene when compared to c.-155AGGG [4/4] homozygotes. The results obtained suggested that detected SNPs within regulatory regions of the CAPN1 gene could be related to transcript level and activity of μ-calpain. The selected polymorphisms areproposed to be associated with meat production traits.

Słowa kluczowe

  • calpain
  • gene
  • polymorphism
  • expression level
  • pig
Otwarty dostęp

The Evaluation of the Value for Sports Purposes of Warm-Blooded Horse Breeds in Poland for the Show Jumping Discipline

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 537 - 543

Abstrakt

Abstract

The scientific objective of the paper was to compare the use value of native and some foreign horse breeds competing in Polish regional show jumping tournaments. A total of 156 horses were analysed including the native breeds Małopolski (m), Wielkopolski (wlkp), Polish Half Bred Horse (pksp), and the foreign breeds Oldenburger (old), Holsteiner (hol) and Dutch Warmblood (kwpn). The competition results with distribution of penalty points as well as pedigree databases of Polish Horse Breeders Association and Polish Equestrian Federation were used. The data obtained was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA-GLM), and the differences between average values were determined with Tukey’s t-test. It was concluded that the native breeds obtained statistically worse results than foreign ones, proportionally to the level of competition difficulty. The proportion of native breeds among the participants of competitions decreased with increasing course difficulty and was statistically significant for the number of eliminations and clear rounds. The results allow a conclusion about the lower use value of native compared to foreign horse breeds for sports purposes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • horse
  • breeding
  • show jumping
  • use value
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic Parameters of First Lactation Milk Yield and Fertility Traits in Brown Swiss Cattle

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 545 - 557

Abstrakt

Abstract

This research was carried out to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for first lactation milk yield (lactation milk yield, 305-day milk yield, lactation length, and dry period) and some fertility traits (calving interval, gestation length and number of services per conception) of Brown swiss cattle reared at konuklar state farm located in konya province, turkey. data were collected on milk yield traits of 3, 769 first lactation Brown Swiss cattle during the period from 1990 to 2008. Variance components, genetic parameters, breeding values, and genetic correlations were estimated using multiple trait derivative free restricted maximum likelihood (mtdfreml) fitting an animal model. Heritability estimates were 0.26, 0.25, 0.10, 0.06, 0.07, 0.06 and 0.03 for lactation milk yield (lmy), 305-day milk yield (305 dmy), lactation length (ll), dry period (dp), calving interval (ci), gestation length (Gl), and number of services per conception (nsc), respectively. Genetic correlations between milk yield and fertility traits ranged from 0.31 to 0.95 and phenotypic correlations ranged from –0.026 to 0.75. Breeding values were estimated and used to characterize genetic trends across the time period investigated. The results showed that the first lactation milk yield traits can be used as selection criteria for development of effective genetic improvement programme in turkish Brown swiss cattle. in addition, the results indicate the essential for scheming an effective schedule for growth of genetic variability to improve the milk yield traits of Brown swiss cattle in this farm by way of selection.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Brown swiss
  • heritability
  • milk yield
  • dry period
  • lactation length

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Otwarty dostęp

Assessment of Sexual Activity Levels and Their Association with Ejaculate Parameters in Two-Breed Hybrids and Purebred Duroc and Pietrain Boars

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 559 - 571

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to analyse sexual activity levels of two purebred boars (pietrain and Duroc) in comparison with two-breed hybrid boars (Duroc♀ × Pietrain♂ and Pietrain♀ × × Duroc♂) and to assess the relationship between the ejaculate parameters and the sexual activity of the animals. the experimental material was constituted by 20 boars. sexual activity measurements were performed in 4 different collection periods for each boar. The first libido analysis was carried out during the first week of insemination use, followed by the next analyses after 3, 6 and 9 months of service. In parallel to the sexual activity analyses, ejaculates were collected to investigate ejaculatory efficiency, physical characteristics of the ejaculates and sperm morphology. It has been shown that the characteristics of sexual activity parameters are affected by the breed of the boar and the crossbreeding variant. Two-breed sires are quicker to leap onto the phantom as compared with purebred boars. Duroc♀ × Pietrain♂ boars are characterized by a short period of time between phantom mounting and ejaculation initiation. On the other hand, they yield ejaculates for a much longer time than hybrid Pietrain♀ × Duroc♂ boars and purebred Duroc and Pietrain boars. Hybrid boar ejaculates contain more spermatozoa and can provide more inseminationdoses than ejaculates of purebred boars. Ejaculate parameters are chiefly correlated with ejaculation time and copulation duration. In our study the ejaculate parameters (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and sperm motility) in purebred boars mainly depended on ejaculation time and total copulation duration, whereas in two-breed hybrids they were more affected by the length of the period between phantom mounting and the start of ejaculation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pigs
  • boars
  • libido
  • semen
Otwarty dostęp

Body Condition Scoring and Obesity in Captive African Side-Neck Turtles (Pelomedusidae)

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 573 - 584

Abstrakt

Abstract

African side-neck turtles (Pelomedusa subrufa and Pelusios castaneus) are popular in captivity, in many parts of the world. their natural tendency to accumulate body fat reserves may be a reason for many health issues. for keepers and veterinarians body condition scoring is an important tool in the process of management and care of the animals. therefore the main aim of the study was to formulate a single mathematic formula for allometric equations and simple body condition scoring method which can be used in juvenile, sub-adult and adult specimens of Pelomedusa subrufa and Pelusios castaneus. twelve healthy turtles (7 Pelomedusa subrufa and 5 Pelusios castaneus) – 4 males, 4 females and 4 immature were measured and weighed for 52 weeks (624 measurements). the obtained data were used to formulate equations of estimated body weight and compared to results of measurements of 73 turtles from private keepers. additionally, visual assessments of their body condition were made. The results showed that body weight is significantly (P=0.001) correlated with straight carapace length of turtles. in the assessed population of 73 captive Pelomedusidae kept as pets, no emaciated turtles were recorded, and 10% of them were underweight. In the case of 68% of the animals, body condition was identified as optimal, and in 15% and 7% as overweight and obese, respectively. The population of african side-neck turtles seems to be in quite good body condition. However, a high percentage of overweight and obese animals suggests the need for continuous monitoring of pet turtles for body condition.

Słowa kluczowe

  • turtles
  • obesity
  • body condition scoring

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Supplementing TMR Diets with Artificial Saliva and Acid Buf on Optimizing Ruminal pH and Fermentation Activity in Cows

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 585 - 593

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of adding buffering agents to a total mixed ration (TMR) on the pH and on the VFA, lactic acid and NH3-N content of rumen fluid. The experiment was carried out with three nonproductive cows fitted with permanent rumen fistulas in a 3×3 Latin square design with two stages differing in the amount of added buffer (50 g/day in stage I or 100 g/day in stage II). The control diet (C) contained no buffering agent. The AB experimental diet was supplemented with Acid Buf (Noack Polen Ltd.) containing calcium carbonate, major and trace elements, and the AS experimental diet was supplemented with our own produced artificial saliva powder containing a mixture of chemical compounds (NaHCO3, KCl, CaCl2, Na2HO4·12H2O, NaCl, MgSO4·7H2O) in the appropriate proportions (McDougall, 1948), combined with wheat bran at a 1:1 ratio. The preparations were added to the concentrate mixture in TMR which contained (% DM): maize silage, 29.9; wilted grass silage, 17.4; ensiled brewers’ grains, 2.4; barley straw, 10.3; and concentrate mixture, 40.0. Samples of rumen fluid collected before feeding (0 h) and after feeding (2, 4, 6 and 8 h) were analysed for pH, and the samples collected 4 h postprandial were analysed for VFA, lactic acid and NH3-N. The artificial saliva added at 100 g/day to the mixture of chemical compounds (without a carrier) contributed to a significant (P≤0.01) increase in rumen fluid pH at 4 h compared to cows receiving diets C and AB. In both stages of the experiment, cows receiving the buffering agents tended to achieve higher pH values in the other hours of the test compared to group C. In the collected samples of rumen fluid, no significant (P>0.05) differences were observed among the cows in VFA and total VFA, in C2/C3 and C3/C4 acid ratios, and in NH3-N content. Neither did the type and amount of buffers had a significant effect on the percentage ratios of selected fatty acids (acetic, propionic and butyric) in total VFA. No presence of lactic acid was detected in the analysed samples of rumen fluid. It can be stated that when the total mixed ration is properly balanced, the type and amount of buffers have no significant effect on changes in the rumen fermentation activity of cows.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cows
  • TMR
  • artificial saliva
  • Acid Buf
  • rumen fluid
  • pH
  • fermentation activity
Otwarty dostęp

Fatty Acid Profile and Oxidative Stress of Thigh Muscles in Chickens Fed The Ration Enriched in Lycopene, Selenium Compounds or Fish Oil

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 595 - 609

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the addition for 6 weeks of 12 ppm lycopene (Lyc), 2% fish oil (FO) or 0.25 ppm Se as selenate (Sevi) or selenized yeast (SeY) to an isoenergetic and isonitrogenous ration containing sunflower oil as the source of energy on the profile of fatty acids (FA) and the oxidative stress in thigh muscles of female and male chickens. The ration with FO most efficiently increased the concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA), atherogenic SFA and thrombogenic SFA as well as the concentration sum of all assayed FA in muscles of chickens. the rations with lyc, sevi or SeY revealed negligible and inconsistent impact on the concentration of individual SFA in muscles compared with the control. The ration with FO most efficiently increased the concentration of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), especially n-3 long-chain PUFA and the sum of conjugated linoleic acid isomers in muscles. The ration with SeY most effectively increased the concentration of long-chain PUFA (LPUFA), especially n-6 LPUFA, in muscles of chickens. the Fo, lyc or sevi-fed chickens had a lower concentration of cholesterol in muscles than the control or SeY fed birds. Lyc added to the ration most efficiently stimulated the accumulation of α-tocopherol in muscles of chickens. The ration with Sevi most effectively stimulated the formation of malondialdehyde in muscles.

Słowa kluczowe

  • chickens
  • lycopene
  • selenium
  • fish oil
  • thigh muscles
  • fatty acids
  • malondialdehyde

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Otwarty dostęp

Effects of Stocking Density of Lambs on Biochemical Stress Parameters and Meat Quality Related to Commercial Transportation

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 611 - 621

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of stocking density (0.20 and 0.27 m2/lamb) during transportation on certain biochemical stress parameters and meat quality characteristics of fifty- five Karayaka lambs divided into two groups. The front compartment of the trailer was loaded at high stocking density (hd: 0.20 m2/lamb; n=33) and the remainder was loaded at low stocking density (ld: 0.27 m2/lamb; n=22). the distance was approximately 130 km and duration was 2 h 15 min. blood samples were taken just before and just after transportation. glucose (p<0.001), lactate (p<0.001), cortisol (p<0.01), creatine kinase (ck) (p<0.01), lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) (P<0.01) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P<0.05) levels were significantly higher in lambs of the hd group than in the ld group. the effects of stocking density on ph, proportion of expressed juice, cooking loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force value and meat colour parameters were not significant (P>0.05). Transportation with a stocking density of 0.20 m2/lamb resulted in higher stress responses in lambs compared with a stocking density of 0.27 m2/lamb. however, increased stress in the hd group did not lead to any adverse effects on meat quality characteristics. in the determination of stocking density, a compromise that gives animal welfare and commercial objectives equal status would improve the current situation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lamb
  • meat quality
  • road transportation
  • stocking density
  • stress parameters
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Microwave Radiation on Microorganisms in Fish Meals

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 623 - 636

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was aimed at testing the effect of microwave radiation on survival of E. coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, Enterococcus spp. and Clostridium spores in two kinds of fish meals. The material used in the study consisted of samples of two kinds of fish meal – salmon and cod. In the experiment samples of both kinds of fish meals were inoculated with suspensions of tested bacteria and spores of Clostridum sporogenes. After inoculation the material was exposed to microwave radiation with a frequency of 2.45 ghz and microwave energy power of 0, 100, 180, 300, 450, 600 and 700 w, respectively, for 2.5 min for bacteria and 11 minutes for spores. then the reisolated microorganisms were counted and theoretical lethal doses of radiation were determined. among the studied vegetative forms of bacteria, the largest decreases in the numbers at the same radiation dose were observed in the rods of E. coli, whereas the smallest in enterococci. spores of Clostridium sporogenes showed a considerably higher resistance to the effect of that factor. the power of dose resulting in the complete inactivation of the studied bacteria should be about 430 kJ×g–1, and in the case of spores – 1 900 kJ×g–1.

Słowa kluczowe

  • microwave radiation
  • inactivation of bacteria
  • spores
  • fish meals
Otwarty dostęp

Which Horses are Most Susceptible to the Initial Natural Training?

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 637 - 648

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the study was to estimate the horses’ susceptibility to the initial natural training by one mark regarding both the time of training and the heart rate, as well as to verify whether the time of internalizing a task and the heart rate are strictly correlated. the material included 69 thoroughbred, purebred arabian and angloarabian horses. three-day training consisted of consecutive stages-tasks: the concentration on the trainer, desensitizing, preparation for saddling, and saddling. The individual training times and heart rates were classified into three kinds of sections: low, intermediate, and high. the breeds were scored on a three-point scale according to the number of representatives in a section. pearson’s correlations for particular tasks were found between the data in the training time sections and the heart rate. the estimate resulting from the study demonstrates that thoroughbreds are the most susceptible to the natural training. purebred arabians rank second and angloarabians rank lowest. the angloarabians need more time to internalize the training tasks. the short time of internalizing a task by the horse is negatively correlated with the heart rate. however, in horses which need a longer time for the training, the hr is often heightened as well. that suggests the training time should be adjusted to the level of emotional arousal in a horse.

Słowa kluczowe

  • horse
  • training time
  • heart rate
  • natural training method
Otwarty dostęp

Influence of Production Season and Lactation Stage on the Technological Suitability of Milk from Cows of Various Breeds Fed in the TMR System

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 649 - 661

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate selected indicators of the technological suitability of milk from four breeds of cow housed in free-stall barns and fed in a TMR system. A total of 1, 146 milk samples were analysed, collected from cows of the breeds Polish Holstein-Friesian (Black-and-White and Red-and-White populations), Jersey, and Simmental. The following were determined in the samples: content of solids non-fat and casein, protein-to-fat ratio, active and potential acidity, heat stability, rennet clotting time, and milk fat dispersion. Despite the use of a mono-diet (TMR) year round, somewhat higher daily milk yield was obtained in the spring/summer season, but the differences were statistically significant (P≤0.01) only in the case of PHF RW. The milk obtained in the autumn/winter season contained more solids-non-fat, including casein, and in the case of JE and PHF HO the differences were statistically significant (P≤0.01). It also had significantly higher heat stability and a longer rennet clotting time (P≤0.01), with the greatest differences noted in the case of the SM breed. Milk from this period also had a higher percentage of fat globules with a diameter. 6 ≥m. The concentration of solids-non-fat, including casein, increased significantly (P≤0.01) over the course of lactation in all of the breeds evaluated. The stage of lactation did not significantly affect clotting time, heat stability, or milk fat dispersion.

Słowa kluczowe

  • technological suitability of milk
  • cattle breeds
  • TMR feeding system
  • production season
  • lactation stage
Otwarty dostęp

Economic Aspects of Reducing Stocking Density in Broiler Chicken Production using the Example of Farms in Southern Poland

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 663 - 671

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this paper was to assess the impact of reducing stocking density to the level recommended by Council Directive 2007/43/EC on broiler production profitability. The study was carried out using the example of three broiler-only farms located in southern Poland. The farms with production area of 950 m2, 3 400 m2 and 5 040 m2, had fully automated systems for feeding, watering and ventilation. In total, the research covered 54 production rounds in the years 2009–2011. research material included data concerning production costs and achieved production results, as well as income obtained in individual rounds. Net income from broiler production was calculated for three variants differing in stocking density: variant 1 – actual stocking density in farms in 2009 (47–45 kgm–2), variant 2 – stocking density of 42 kg m–2, variant 3 – stocking density of 33 kg m–2. the study results indicate that reducing stocking density increases total production costs, and decreases broiler production income. Production profitability depended primarily on the relation between prices of broiler livestock and feed. Reducing stocking density to the level recommended by the European commission (33 kg m–2) in 2009 would result in decrease of income from €2.40 to 0.77 per m–2, whereas in 2011 production carried out at this stocking density would result in losses. To maintain the current income level of farmers, it would require an increase of 5–6% in meat prices.

Słowa kluczowe

  • broiler
  • stocking density
  • broiler production income

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Commercial Crossbreeding and Growth Intensity on Slaughter Indicators, Microstructure and The Quality Characteristics of Biceps Brachii Muscle in Bulls

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 673 - 683

Abstrakt

Abstract

The commercial crossbreds with various genotypes and different growth rates in terms of the fattening and slaughter value as well as the microstructure and the quality characteristics of musculus biceps brachii were investigated. The experiment involved 38 bulls: 20 crossbreds obtained from Polish Black-and-White Lowland dams (BW) sired by Limousin bulls (LIM) – group I, and 18 crossbreds obtained from BW cows and Simmental bulls (SIM) – group II. The animals of both groups were divided into low growth rate (LG I and LG II; daily weight gain ≤900 g/day) and high growth rate category (HG I and HG II; >900 g/day). The results show that significantly better dressing percentage and carcass conformation (based on the EUROP carcass classification system) were attained by BW × LIM hybrids. The genotype of bulls did not influence the content of valuable cuts in carcass and meat content of cuts, as well as most characteristics of the meat quality. The differences (P<0.05) in anaerobic index were noticed in both genetic groups of bulls in the two growth rate categories. The findings presented in the experiment also show that the number of bulls with giant fibres (GF) and the size of GF was greater in more intensively growing bulls (P<0.05) and it probably determined the higher values of tenderness and acidity of biceps brachii muscle. It should be noticed that the increased growth rate of bulls may result in poorer quality of meat.

Słowa kluczowe

  • bulls
  • commercial crossbreeding
  • growth rate
  • muscle microstructure
  • beef quality
Otwarty dostęp

Influence of Origin of Laying Hens on the Quality of Their Carcasses and Meat After the First Laying Period

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 685 - 696

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the quality of carcasses and meat from selected native breeds and breeding lines of hens after using them for laying eggs in terms of their usefulness as raw material in traditional old polish cuisine. hens included in the programme for the protection of genetic resources were the object of this study. they belonged to the following breeds/breeding lines: greenleg partridge (Z-11), rhode Island red (r-11), new hampshire (n-11) and Barred rock (WJ-44) – 30 hens from each line. the hens were kept in a closed hen house under standard raising conditions. eight hens were selected from 56-week-old hens of each line which were subjected to analysis after being slaughtered. as a result of the research conducted, it was found that:

– Among the hens under study, heavier layers, i.e. Barred rock (WJ-44), new hampshire (n-11) and rhode Island red (r-11), which are characterized by good muscling and dressing percentage similar to that of broiler chickens, proved to be most suitable for use as meat.

– The meat from WJ-44 hens contained most cholesterol and least protein, and the meat from Z-11 birds had the least fat compared to the other lines.

– At the end of the laying period, meat and broth from WJ-44, n-11 and r-11 hens obtained better sensory scores than those from the carcasses of Z-11 hens, which makes them an attractive raw material for traditional polish cuisine.

Słowa kluczowe

  • hens
  • meat quality
  • biodiversity
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Breed on Microstructure and Tenderness of Porcine Semimembranosus Muscle

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 697 - 705

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the study was to analyse the effect of breed on characteristics of muscle fibres, parameters of intramuscular connective tissue, collagen content, intramuscular fat (IMF) content and tenderness of semimembranosus muscle in pigs. The study was conducted with 16 Złotnicka Spotted (ZS) and 23 Polish Landrace (PL) fattening pigs slaughtered at 210 days of age. The current study showed that compared to the PL breed, the semimembranosus muscle from the local breed of ZS pigs was characterized by a greater percentage of type I fibres, a smaller percentage of type IIB fibres and a smaller diameter of all the three muscle fibre types analysed, while the muscles of PL pigs had significantly thinner endomysium and perimysium and a more compact arrangement of collagen fibres, with a significantly lower percentage of collagen in the muscle and a lower content of total and soluble collagen compared to the muscles of ZS pigs. Furthermore, meat from ZS pigs was more tender (lower shear force value) and had a significantly higher IMF content compared to meat from PL pigs.

keywords

  • breed
  • microstructure
  • tenderness
  • pigs
Otwarty dostęp

Quality of Laying Hen Eggs During Storage Depending on Egg Weight and Type of Cage System (Conventional vs. Furnished Cages)

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 707 - 719

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to demonstrate the relationship of egg weight and egg quality traits with storage time and type of cages in which the laying hens were kept. The material consisted of 960 eggs from same age Hy-Line Brown hens kept in conventional and furnished cages at the same time in one building. The eggs were randomly collected, sorted by weight (S, M, L and XL), and stored under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. All eggs were weighed on days 1 (day of laying) and 28 of the experiment. During the same time they were candled to determine depth of the air cell, and 60 eggs from each subgroup were chosen to evaluate quality traits (egg weight and egg specific gravity), shell characteristics (shell strength, weight, thickness and density), and interior quality of eggs (albumen height and pH, yolk colour, weight and pH). The eggs (especially those from the heavier weight classes, XL and L) from hens reared in furnished cages were characterized by significantly smaller quality changes (egg weight loss, yolk proportion, albumen height, Haugh units) due to storage time in relation to those from hens kept in conventional cages. This fact could point to their better suitability for consumption. In addition to the housing system, changes occurring in eggs during storage should also be considered in terms of their weight class. Economically important egg traits (e.g. egg weight, shell strength) were better in eggs from furnished compared to conventional cages.

Słowa kluczowe

  • battery cages
  • furnished cages
  • egg storage
  • egg quality
Otwarty dostęp

Composition, Physical and Technological Properties of Raw Milk as Affected by Cattle Breed, Season and Type of Diet

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 721 - 736

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to describe the differences in composition, physical and technological properties of raw milk as affected by breed of cattle, season and type of feeding. The study was conducted from June 2005 to February 2007 on bulk milk samples (BMS) collected from 8 commercial dairy herds consisting of Czech Fleckvieh (CF, 4 herds) and Holstein (H, 4 herds) dairy cows. Half of herds in each breed was grazing (G) during summer season while the other half was not (N). Samples were collected regularly two times in winter (W) and two times in summer (S) period resulting in a total of 64 bulk milk samples (BMS) examined. Milk yield in CF (5385.50 kg) was lower (P<0.05) than in H (7015.15 kg). Milk fat in CF was higher (P<0.05) than in H breed being 3.9 and 3.72 g/100 g, respectively. CF cows had higher (P<0.05) content of crude protein, casein, true protein and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) than H. Content of fat, crude protein, casein, true protein and whey protein was lower (P<0.05) in summer (S) than in winter (W). Milk yield in grazing herds (G, 5197.50 kg) was lower (P<0.05) than in non-grazing herds (N, 7203.75 kg). Content of fat was higher (P<0.05) in G (3.89 g/100 g) than in N (3.73 g/100 g). Concentration of lactose, urea, crude protein, casein, true protein, whey protein was lower (P<0.05) in G than in N. In conclusion, the Czech Fleckvieh breed had a lower milk yield but produced milk with higher concentration of the main milk components than the Czech population of the Holstein breed. Large seasonal variations were determined in concentrations of the main milk components. The most pronounced changes in milk composition were caused by the type of feeding with a clear decrease in milk yield and content of lactose and all studied protein fractions and higher content of fat in grazing herds compared to non-grazing herds.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cow genotype
  • Czech Fleckvieh
  • Holstein
  • bulk milk
  • pasture
Otwarty dostęp

The Quality Evaluation of RFN and PSE Pork Longissimus Lumborum Muscle Considering Its Microstructure

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 737 - 747

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate selected quality attributes of pork longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle characterized by Rfn and PSe occurrence considering its microstructure. The material used in the research was 100 pork meat samples of normal quality (RFN – red, firm, normal, non-exudative) and 100 pork meat samples with PSe defect. The digital images of microstructure of selected meat samples were captured and some quality attributes, including ph level, drip loss, electrical conductivity (ec), water holding capacity (Whc) and ciel*a*b* parameters, were determined. Based on the findings obtained it was concluded that PSE meat (pH24h≤5.5) was characterized by higher degradation of muscle fibre structure when compared with the normal meat (RFN). The differences in the microstructure of PSE and RFN meat influenced the colour, electrical conductivity, drip loss and WHC of the meat. The PSE meat was characterized by a signifi- cantly lighter color and significantly higher electrical conductivity, along with more intense drip loss and worsened water holding capacity in comparison with Rfn meat.

Słowa kluczowe

  • meat quality
  • microstructure
  • PSE defect
22 Artykułów

Review

Otwarty dostęp

Changes in Domestic Animals After Endotoxin Administration a Review

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 479 - 489

Abstrakt

Abstract

gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharides are complex glycolipids composed of lipid A, a core polysaccharide, and repeating units of O-specific polysaccharides. Lipid A is associated with the majority of toxic effects of gram-negative bacteria. It interacts with target cells, such as macrophages and activated neutrophils, initiating the inflammatory cascade. The effects of LPS depend mostly on organism reaction to endotoxins, their concentration in blood and also on the state of the animal before the occurrence of endotoxemia. The effect of endotoxin on the reproductive functions of domestic animals has been partly elucidated. This paper presents data on clinical, hematological and biochemical changes in endotoxemia as well as effects of injection of endotoxin in the reproductive systems in boars, rams, and stallions. The results show that these males respond to endotoxins in a similar way, concerning clinical symptoms, body temperature and leukocyte count in blood. Endocrine and seminal changes are different and the range of these changes also depends on the dose and endotoxin exposure time.

Słowa kluczowe

  • endotoxemia
  • clinical symptoms
  • blood parameters
  • hormonal changes
  • semen quality
  • boar
  • ram
  • stallion
Otwarty dostęp

A Review on Effects of Aloe Vera as a Feed Additive in Broiler Chicken Diets

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 491 - 500

Abstrakt

Abstract

Prohibition of application of antibiotic growth promoters in broiler chicken diets has resulted in increased use of herbs as natural additives in broiler feeds over the recent years. Researchers particularly look for herbs that can affect such parameters as growth performance, immune response, or treatment of certain diseases. Aloe vera is a well-known herb characterized by properties such as anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, wound-healing, anti-oxidant, and anti-diabetic effects. During the past years, attention has shifted toward Aloe vera as a natural additive to broiler diets, and studies have shown that Aloe vera can improve immune response and growth performance in broilers. In addition, Aloe vera is an excellent alternative for antibiotic growth promoters and anticoccidial drugs. Since Aloe vera can be used for broilers in the form of gel, powder, ethanolic extract, aqueous extract, and a polysaccharide contained in Aloe vera gel (i.e. acemannan), more studies are required to determine the best form and to compare Aloe vera with other medicinal herbs. This paper reviews effects of Aloe vera on intestinal microflora, growth performance, immune response, and coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

Słowa kluczowe

  • broiler chicken
  • Aloe vera
  • microflora
  • immune system
  • growth performance
  • coccidiosis
Otwarty dostęp

Schmallenberg Virus – A New Risk in Cattle Breeding in Europe

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 501 - 510

Abstrakt

Abstract

Since august 2011 europe has been facing a new virus which attacks the domestic and wild ruminants. The virus was named after the town where the first isolation had been made. The virus in question is transmitted by the biting midges (Culicoides spp.) and it can survive the winter in the bodies of those insects. it is also known that the virus does not endanger human health and it cannot be transferred directly from one animal to another because it is only carried by the vectors.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cattle
  • malformations
  • ruminants
  • Schmallenberg virus

Animal genetics and breeding

Otwarty dostęp

New Polymorphisms in Regulatory Region of CAPN3 Gene with no Effect on Gene Expression in Breast Muscle of Broiler Chickens

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 511 - 524

Abstrakt

Abstract

Calpains are enzymes that belong to calcium-dependent, non-lysosomal cysteine proteases. The CAPN3 gene encodes a major intracellular specific muscle protease with a high capacity for degradation of cytoskeletal and muscle fibre proteins. Therefore, they play an important role in fusion of myoblasts, proliferation, cell growth and migration. In chickens, the gene encoding for calpain 3 is localized on chromosome 5. Due to the function of encoded protein, the CAPN3 has beenchosen as a candidate gene for meat quality in chickens. Consequently, the aim of our study was to identify new polymorphisms in the regulatory region of CAPN3 gene and to investigate their impact on CAPN3 transcript abundance in breast muscles. The experiment used broilers of two genetic lines: fast- and slow-growing. The polymorphisms were identified by screening with High Resolution Melting (HRM) and sequencing based on the Sanger method. The CAPN3 gene expression was conducted by using succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A (SDHA) and 60S ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4) genes as endogenous controls. Four new polymorphisms were found: g.322176G>A in promoter region (GenBank: AADN03004661.1), c.176*C>T, c.144*G>C and c.137*_147*delCAGCCCTGCTT in 3`UTR sequence. The new polymorphisms were identified by using restriction enzymes ScrFI, BslI, AcuI, HpyAV, respectively. The frequency of polymorphisms found in 3`UTR region was similar in both lines. According to polymorphisms identified in 3`UTR region the alleles with deletion, C and C (c.137*_147*del, c.144*G>C and c.176*C>T) were rare. The polymorphism identified in the promoter region and 3`UTR regions changed a few binding sites for transcription factors, but did not alter any binding sites for the other important translation regulators such as miRNA. Analysis of the effect of new polymorphisms on CAPN3 gene expression showed that in fast-growing line the chickens with GG genotype according to polymorphism g.322176G>A inthe promoter region, were characterized by the highest CAPN3 transcript abundance. Other polymorphisms in 3>UTR region seem to have no effect on CAPN3 gene expression.

Słowa kluczowe

  • polymorphism
  • gene expression
  • promoter and 3’UTR region
  • broiler
  • chicken
Otwarty dostęp

New Polymorphisms in Regulatory Regions of Porcine μ-Calpain Gene and Their Association with CAPN1 Transcript Abundance

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 525 - 535

Abstrakt

Abstract

The activity of calpains, in particular μ-calpain, is associated with several processes occurring in muscle tissue postmortem and influences meat quality parameters. Therefore, the CAPN1 gene coding for large subunit of μ-calpain is considered as a candidate gene associated with meat quality traits. The aim of our study was to identify new polymorphisms in regulatory regions of the porcine CAPN1 gene and to estimate their impact on CAPN1 transcript abundance. In the present study, 7 polymorphisms in the porcine CAPN1 gene were identified, of which 5 were localized in introns (g.1195_1197insCCT; g.1429G>A; g. [4479A>G; 4526A>T; 4529_4530delAG]), one in 3’ untranslated region (g.25676C>T) and one microsatellite sequence in promoter region (c.-155- AGGG [3_5]). The analysed populations (a total of 451 gilts representing three pure breeds: Pietrain, P lish Landrace, Polish Large White and one conservation breed Pu.awska) were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium according to mutation g.25676C>T in 3’ untranslated region (all breeds), g.1429G>A (Pu.awska pigs) and g. [4479A>G; 4526A>T; 4529_4530delAG] (PLW pigs). Furthermore, the analysed SNPs in the porcine CAPN1 gene were in linkage disequilibrium (P≤0.05). The CAPN1 transcript abundance was also estimated in two important muscles (m. longissimus dorsi, m. semimembranosus). In longissimus dorsi muscle, a significant effect of c.-155- AGGG [3_5] polymorphism in promoter region on CAPN1 expression levels was determined. The c.-155AGGG [3/3] pigs showed a statistically higher (P≤0.05) expression level of the CAPN1 gene when compared to c.-155AGGG [4/4] homozygotes. The results obtained suggested that detected SNPs within regulatory regions of the CAPN1 gene could be related to transcript level and activity of μ-calpain. The selected polymorphisms areproposed to be associated with meat production traits.

Słowa kluczowe

  • calpain
  • gene
  • polymorphism
  • expression level
  • pig
Otwarty dostęp

The Evaluation of the Value for Sports Purposes of Warm-Blooded Horse Breeds in Poland for the Show Jumping Discipline

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 537 - 543

Abstrakt

Abstract

The scientific objective of the paper was to compare the use value of native and some foreign horse breeds competing in Polish regional show jumping tournaments. A total of 156 horses were analysed including the native breeds Małopolski (m), Wielkopolski (wlkp), Polish Half Bred Horse (pksp), and the foreign breeds Oldenburger (old), Holsteiner (hol) and Dutch Warmblood (kwpn). The competition results with distribution of penalty points as well as pedigree databases of Polish Horse Breeders Association and Polish Equestrian Federation were used. The data obtained was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA-GLM), and the differences between average values were determined with Tukey’s t-test. It was concluded that the native breeds obtained statistically worse results than foreign ones, proportionally to the level of competition difficulty. The proportion of native breeds among the participants of competitions decreased with increasing course difficulty and was statistically significant for the number of eliminations and clear rounds. The results allow a conclusion about the lower use value of native compared to foreign horse breeds for sports purposes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • horse
  • breeding
  • show jumping
  • use value
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic Parameters of First Lactation Milk Yield and Fertility Traits in Brown Swiss Cattle

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 545 - 557

Abstrakt

Abstract

This research was carried out to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for first lactation milk yield (lactation milk yield, 305-day milk yield, lactation length, and dry period) and some fertility traits (calving interval, gestation length and number of services per conception) of Brown swiss cattle reared at konuklar state farm located in konya province, turkey. data were collected on milk yield traits of 3, 769 first lactation Brown Swiss cattle during the period from 1990 to 2008. Variance components, genetic parameters, breeding values, and genetic correlations were estimated using multiple trait derivative free restricted maximum likelihood (mtdfreml) fitting an animal model. Heritability estimates were 0.26, 0.25, 0.10, 0.06, 0.07, 0.06 and 0.03 for lactation milk yield (lmy), 305-day milk yield (305 dmy), lactation length (ll), dry period (dp), calving interval (ci), gestation length (Gl), and number of services per conception (nsc), respectively. Genetic correlations between milk yield and fertility traits ranged from 0.31 to 0.95 and phenotypic correlations ranged from –0.026 to 0.75. Breeding values were estimated and used to characterize genetic trends across the time period investigated. The results showed that the first lactation milk yield traits can be used as selection criteria for development of effective genetic improvement programme in turkish Brown swiss cattle. in addition, the results indicate the essential for scheming an effective schedule for growth of genetic variability to improve the milk yield traits of Brown swiss cattle in this farm by way of selection.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Brown swiss
  • heritability
  • milk yield
  • dry period
  • lactation length

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Otwarty dostęp

Assessment of Sexual Activity Levels and Their Association with Ejaculate Parameters in Two-Breed Hybrids and Purebred Duroc and Pietrain Boars

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 559 - 571

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to analyse sexual activity levels of two purebred boars (pietrain and Duroc) in comparison with two-breed hybrid boars (Duroc♀ × Pietrain♂ and Pietrain♀ × × Duroc♂) and to assess the relationship between the ejaculate parameters and the sexual activity of the animals. the experimental material was constituted by 20 boars. sexual activity measurements were performed in 4 different collection periods for each boar. The first libido analysis was carried out during the first week of insemination use, followed by the next analyses after 3, 6 and 9 months of service. In parallel to the sexual activity analyses, ejaculates were collected to investigate ejaculatory efficiency, physical characteristics of the ejaculates and sperm morphology. It has been shown that the characteristics of sexual activity parameters are affected by the breed of the boar and the crossbreeding variant. Two-breed sires are quicker to leap onto the phantom as compared with purebred boars. Duroc♀ × Pietrain♂ boars are characterized by a short period of time between phantom mounting and ejaculation initiation. On the other hand, they yield ejaculates for a much longer time than hybrid Pietrain♀ × Duroc♂ boars and purebred Duroc and Pietrain boars. Hybrid boar ejaculates contain more spermatozoa and can provide more inseminationdoses than ejaculates of purebred boars. Ejaculate parameters are chiefly correlated with ejaculation time and copulation duration. In our study the ejaculate parameters (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and sperm motility) in purebred boars mainly depended on ejaculation time and total copulation duration, whereas in two-breed hybrids they were more affected by the length of the period between phantom mounting and the start of ejaculation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pigs
  • boars
  • libido
  • semen
Otwarty dostęp

Body Condition Scoring and Obesity in Captive African Side-Neck Turtles (Pelomedusidae)

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 573 - 584

Abstrakt

Abstract

African side-neck turtles (Pelomedusa subrufa and Pelusios castaneus) are popular in captivity, in many parts of the world. their natural tendency to accumulate body fat reserves may be a reason for many health issues. for keepers and veterinarians body condition scoring is an important tool in the process of management and care of the animals. therefore the main aim of the study was to formulate a single mathematic formula for allometric equations and simple body condition scoring method which can be used in juvenile, sub-adult and adult specimens of Pelomedusa subrufa and Pelusios castaneus. twelve healthy turtles (7 Pelomedusa subrufa and 5 Pelusios castaneus) – 4 males, 4 females and 4 immature were measured and weighed for 52 weeks (624 measurements). the obtained data were used to formulate equations of estimated body weight and compared to results of measurements of 73 turtles from private keepers. additionally, visual assessments of their body condition were made. The results showed that body weight is significantly (P=0.001) correlated with straight carapace length of turtles. in the assessed population of 73 captive Pelomedusidae kept as pets, no emaciated turtles were recorded, and 10% of them were underweight. In the case of 68% of the animals, body condition was identified as optimal, and in 15% and 7% as overweight and obese, respectively. The population of african side-neck turtles seems to be in quite good body condition. However, a high percentage of overweight and obese animals suggests the need for continuous monitoring of pet turtles for body condition.

Słowa kluczowe

  • turtles
  • obesity
  • body condition scoring

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Supplementing TMR Diets with Artificial Saliva and Acid Buf on Optimizing Ruminal pH and Fermentation Activity in Cows

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 585 - 593

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of adding buffering agents to a total mixed ration (TMR) on the pH and on the VFA, lactic acid and NH3-N content of rumen fluid. The experiment was carried out with three nonproductive cows fitted with permanent rumen fistulas in a 3×3 Latin square design with two stages differing in the amount of added buffer (50 g/day in stage I or 100 g/day in stage II). The control diet (C) contained no buffering agent. The AB experimental diet was supplemented with Acid Buf (Noack Polen Ltd.) containing calcium carbonate, major and trace elements, and the AS experimental diet was supplemented with our own produced artificial saliva powder containing a mixture of chemical compounds (NaHCO3, KCl, CaCl2, Na2HO4·12H2O, NaCl, MgSO4·7H2O) in the appropriate proportions (McDougall, 1948), combined with wheat bran at a 1:1 ratio. The preparations were added to the concentrate mixture in TMR which contained (% DM): maize silage, 29.9; wilted grass silage, 17.4; ensiled brewers’ grains, 2.4; barley straw, 10.3; and concentrate mixture, 40.0. Samples of rumen fluid collected before feeding (0 h) and after feeding (2, 4, 6 and 8 h) were analysed for pH, and the samples collected 4 h postprandial were analysed for VFA, lactic acid and NH3-N. The artificial saliva added at 100 g/day to the mixture of chemical compounds (without a carrier) contributed to a significant (P≤0.01) increase in rumen fluid pH at 4 h compared to cows receiving diets C and AB. In both stages of the experiment, cows receiving the buffering agents tended to achieve higher pH values in the other hours of the test compared to group C. In the collected samples of rumen fluid, no significant (P>0.05) differences were observed among the cows in VFA and total VFA, in C2/C3 and C3/C4 acid ratios, and in NH3-N content. Neither did the type and amount of buffers had a significant effect on the percentage ratios of selected fatty acids (acetic, propionic and butyric) in total VFA. No presence of lactic acid was detected in the analysed samples of rumen fluid. It can be stated that when the total mixed ration is properly balanced, the type and amount of buffers have no significant effect on changes in the rumen fermentation activity of cows.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cows
  • TMR
  • artificial saliva
  • Acid Buf
  • rumen fluid
  • pH
  • fermentation activity
Otwarty dostęp

Fatty Acid Profile and Oxidative Stress of Thigh Muscles in Chickens Fed The Ration Enriched in Lycopene, Selenium Compounds or Fish Oil

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 595 - 609

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the addition for 6 weeks of 12 ppm lycopene (Lyc), 2% fish oil (FO) or 0.25 ppm Se as selenate (Sevi) or selenized yeast (SeY) to an isoenergetic and isonitrogenous ration containing sunflower oil as the source of energy on the profile of fatty acids (FA) and the oxidative stress in thigh muscles of female and male chickens. The ration with FO most efficiently increased the concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA), atherogenic SFA and thrombogenic SFA as well as the concentration sum of all assayed FA in muscles of chickens. the rations with lyc, sevi or SeY revealed negligible and inconsistent impact on the concentration of individual SFA in muscles compared with the control. The ration with FO most efficiently increased the concentration of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), especially n-3 long-chain PUFA and the sum of conjugated linoleic acid isomers in muscles. The ration with SeY most effectively increased the concentration of long-chain PUFA (LPUFA), especially n-6 LPUFA, in muscles of chickens. the Fo, lyc or sevi-fed chickens had a lower concentration of cholesterol in muscles than the control or SeY fed birds. Lyc added to the ration most efficiently stimulated the accumulation of α-tocopherol in muscles of chickens. The ration with Sevi most effectively stimulated the formation of malondialdehyde in muscles.

Słowa kluczowe

  • chickens
  • lycopene
  • selenium
  • fish oil
  • thigh muscles
  • fatty acids
  • malondialdehyde

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Otwarty dostęp

Effects of Stocking Density of Lambs on Biochemical Stress Parameters and Meat Quality Related to Commercial Transportation

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 611 - 621

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of stocking density (0.20 and 0.27 m2/lamb) during transportation on certain biochemical stress parameters and meat quality characteristics of fifty- five Karayaka lambs divided into two groups. The front compartment of the trailer was loaded at high stocking density (hd: 0.20 m2/lamb; n=33) and the remainder was loaded at low stocking density (ld: 0.27 m2/lamb; n=22). the distance was approximately 130 km and duration was 2 h 15 min. blood samples were taken just before and just after transportation. glucose (p<0.001), lactate (p<0.001), cortisol (p<0.01), creatine kinase (ck) (p<0.01), lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) (P<0.01) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P<0.05) levels were significantly higher in lambs of the hd group than in the ld group. the effects of stocking density on ph, proportion of expressed juice, cooking loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force value and meat colour parameters were not significant (P>0.05). Transportation with a stocking density of 0.20 m2/lamb resulted in higher stress responses in lambs compared with a stocking density of 0.27 m2/lamb. however, increased stress in the hd group did not lead to any adverse effects on meat quality characteristics. in the determination of stocking density, a compromise that gives animal welfare and commercial objectives equal status would improve the current situation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lamb
  • meat quality
  • road transportation
  • stocking density
  • stress parameters
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Microwave Radiation on Microorganisms in Fish Meals

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 623 - 636

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was aimed at testing the effect of microwave radiation on survival of E. coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, Enterococcus spp. and Clostridium spores in two kinds of fish meals. The material used in the study consisted of samples of two kinds of fish meal – salmon and cod. In the experiment samples of both kinds of fish meals were inoculated with suspensions of tested bacteria and spores of Clostridum sporogenes. After inoculation the material was exposed to microwave radiation with a frequency of 2.45 ghz and microwave energy power of 0, 100, 180, 300, 450, 600 and 700 w, respectively, for 2.5 min for bacteria and 11 minutes for spores. then the reisolated microorganisms were counted and theoretical lethal doses of radiation were determined. among the studied vegetative forms of bacteria, the largest decreases in the numbers at the same radiation dose were observed in the rods of E. coli, whereas the smallest in enterococci. spores of Clostridium sporogenes showed a considerably higher resistance to the effect of that factor. the power of dose resulting in the complete inactivation of the studied bacteria should be about 430 kJ×g–1, and in the case of spores – 1 900 kJ×g–1.

Słowa kluczowe

  • microwave radiation
  • inactivation of bacteria
  • spores
  • fish meals
Otwarty dostęp

Which Horses are Most Susceptible to the Initial Natural Training?

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 637 - 648

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the study was to estimate the horses’ susceptibility to the initial natural training by one mark regarding both the time of training and the heart rate, as well as to verify whether the time of internalizing a task and the heart rate are strictly correlated. the material included 69 thoroughbred, purebred arabian and angloarabian horses. three-day training consisted of consecutive stages-tasks: the concentration on the trainer, desensitizing, preparation for saddling, and saddling. The individual training times and heart rates were classified into three kinds of sections: low, intermediate, and high. the breeds were scored on a three-point scale according to the number of representatives in a section. pearson’s correlations for particular tasks were found between the data in the training time sections and the heart rate. the estimate resulting from the study demonstrates that thoroughbreds are the most susceptible to the natural training. purebred arabians rank second and angloarabians rank lowest. the angloarabians need more time to internalize the training tasks. the short time of internalizing a task by the horse is negatively correlated with the heart rate. however, in horses which need a longer time for the training, the hr is often heightened as well. that suggests the training time should be adjusted to the level of emotional arousal in a horse.

Słowa kluczowe

  • horse
  • training time
  • heart rate
  • natural training method
Otwarty dostęp

Influence of Production Season and Lactation Stage on the Technological Suitability of Milk from Cows of Various Breeds Fed in the TMR System

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 649 - 661

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate selected indicators of the technological suitability of milk from four breeds of cow housed in free-stall barns and fed in a TMR system. A total of 1, 146 milk samples were analysed, collected from cows of the breeds Polish Holstein-Friesian (Black-and-White and Red-and-White populations), Jersey, and Simmental. The following were determined in the samples: content of solids non-fat and casein, protein-to-fat ratio, active and potential acidity, heat stability, rennet clotting time, and milk fat dispersion. Despite the use of a mono-diet (TMR) year round, somewhat higher daily milk yield was obtained in the spring/summer season, but the differences were statistically significant (P≤0.01) only in the case of PHF RW. The milk obtained in the autumn/winter season contained more solids-non-fat, including casein, and in the case of JE and PHF HO the differences were statistically significant (P≤0.01). It also had significantly higher heat stability and a longer rennet clotting time (P≤0.01), with the greatest differences noted in the case of the SM breed. Milk from this period also had a higher percentage of fat globules with a diameter. 6 ≥m. The concentration of solids-non-fat, including casein, increased significantly (P≤0.01) over the course of lactation in all of the breeds evaluated. The stage of lactation did not significantly affect clotting time, heat stability, or milk fat dispersion.

Słowa kluczowe

  • technological suitability of milk
  • cattle breeds
  • TMR feeding system
  • production season
  • lactation stage
Otwarty dostęp

Economic Aspects of Reducing Stocking Density in Broiler Chicken Production using the Example of Farms in Southern Poland

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 663 - 671

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this paper was to assess the impact of reducing stocking density to the level recommended by Council Directive 2007/43/EC on broiler production profitability. The study was carried out using the example of three broiler-only farms located in southern Poland. The farms with production area of 950 m2, 3 400 m2 and 5 040 m2, had fully automated systems for feeding, watering and ventilation. In total, the research covered 54 production rounds in the years 2009–2011. research material included data concerning production costs and achieved production results, as well as income obtained in individual rounds. Net income from broiler production was calculated for three variants differing in stocking density: variant 1 – actual stocking density in farms in 2009 (47–45 kgm–2), variant 2 – stocking density of 42 kg m–2, variant 3 – stocking density of 33 kg m–2. the study results indicate that reducing stocking density increases total production costs, and decreases broiler production income. Production profitability depended primarily on the relation between prices of broiler livestock and feed. Reducing stocking density to the level recommended by the European commission (33 kg m–2) in 2009 would result in decrease of income from €2.40 to 0.77 per m–2, whereas in 2011 production carried out at this stocking density would result in losses. To maintain the current income level of farmers, it would require an increase of 5–6% in meat prices.

Słowa kluczowe

  • broiler
  • stocking density
  • broiler production income

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Commercial Crossbreeding and Growth Intensity on Slaughter Indicators, Microstructure and The Quality Characteristics of Biceps Brachii Muscle in Bulls

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 673 - 683

Abstrakt

Abstract

The commercial crossbreds with various genotypes and different growth rates in terms of the fattening and slaughter value as well as the microstructure and the quality characteristics of musculus biceps brachii were investigated. The experiment involved 38 bulls: 20 crossbreds obtained from Polish Black-and-White Lowland dams (BW) sired by Limousin bulls (LIM) – group I, and 18 crossbreds obtained from BW cows and Simmental bulls (SIM) – group II. The animals of both groups were divided into low growth rate (LG I and LG II; daily weight gain ≤900 g/day) and high growth rate category (HG I and HG II; >900 g/day). The results show that significantly better dressing percentage and carcass conformation (based on the EUROP carcass classification system) were attained by BW × LIM hybrids. The genotype of bulls did not influence the content of valuable cuts in carcass and meat content of cuts, as well as most characteristics of the meat quality. The differences (P<0.05) in anaerobic index were noticed in both genetic groups of bulls in the two growth rate categories. The findings presented in the experiment also show that the number of bulls with giant fibres (GF) and the size of GF was greater in more intensively growing bulls (P<0.05) and it probably determined the higher values of tenderness and acidity of biceps brachii muscle. It should be noticed that the increased growth rate of bulls may result in poorer quality of meat.

Słowa kluczowe

  • bulls
  • commercial crossbreeding
  • growth rate
  • muscle microstructure
  • beef quality
Otwarty dostęp

Influence of Origin of Laying Hens on the Quality of Their Carcasses and Meat After the First Laying Period

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 685 - 696

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the quality of carcasses and meat from selected native breeds and breeding lines of hens after using them for laying eggs in terms of their usefulness as raw material in traditional old polish cuisine. hens included in the programme for the protection of genetic resources were the object of this study. they belonged to the following breeds/breeding lines: greenleg partridge (Z-11), rhode Island red (r-11), new hampshire (n-11) and Barred rock (WJ-44) – 30 hens from each line. the hens were kept in a closed hen house under standard raising conditions. eight hens were selected from 56-week-old hens of each line which were subjected to analysis after being slaughtered. as a result of the research conducted, it was found that:

– Among the hens under study, heavier layers, i.e. Barred rock (WJ-44), new hampshire (n-11) and rhode Island red (r-11), which are characterized by good muscling and dressing percentage similar to that of broiler chickens, proved to be most suitable for use as meat.

– The meat from WJ-44 hens contained most cholesterol and least protein, and the meat from Z-11 birds had the least fat compared to the other lines.

– At the end of the laying period, meat and broth from WJ-44, n-11 and r-11 hens obtained better sensory scores than those from the carcasses of Z-11 hens, which makes them an attractive raw material for traditional polish cuisine.

Słowa kluczowe

  • hens
  • meat quality
  • biodiversity
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Breed on Microstructure and Tenderness of Porcine Semimembranosus Muscle

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 697 - 705

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the study was to analyse the effect of breed on characteristics of muscle fibres, parameters of intramuscular connective tissue, collagen content, intramuscular fat (IMF) content and tenderness of semimembranosus muscle in pigs. The study was conducted with 16 Złotnicka Spotted (ZS) and 23 Polish Landrace (PL) fattening pigs slaughtered at 210 days of age. The current study showed that compared to the PL breed, the semimembranosus muscle from the local breed of ZS pigs was characterized by a greater percentage of type I fibres, a smaller percentage of type IIB fibres and a smaller diameter of all the three muscle fibre types analysed, while the muscles of PL pigs had significantly thinner endomysium and perimysium and a more compact arrangement of collagen fibres, with a significantly lower percentage of collagen in the muscle and a lower content of total and soluble collagen compared to the muscles of ZS pigs. Furthermore, meat from ZS pigs was more tender (lower shear force value) and had a significantly higher IMF content compared to meat from PL pigs.

keywords

  • breed
  • microstructure
  • tenderness
  • pigs
Otwarty dostęp

Quality of Laying Hen Eggs During Storage Depending on Egg Weight and Type of Cage System (Conventional vs. Furnished Cages)

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 707 - 719

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to demonstrate the relationship of egg weight and egg quality traits with storage time and type of cages in which the laying hens were kept. The material consisted of 960 eggs from same age Hy-Line Brown hens kept in conventional and furnished cages at the same time in one building. The eggs were randomly collected, sorted by weight (S, M, L and XL), and stored under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. All eggs were weighed on days 1 (day of laying) and 28 of the experiment. During the same time they were candled to determine depth of the air cell, and 60 eggs from each subgroup were chosen to evaluate quality traits (egg weight and egg specific gravity), shell characteristics (shell strength, weight, thickness and density), and interior quality of eggs (albumen height and pH, yolk colour, weight and pH). The eggs (especially those from the heavier weight classes, XL and L) from hens reared in furnished cages were characterized by significantly smaller quality changes (egg weight loss, yolk proportion, albumen height, Haugh units) due to storage time in relation to those from hens kept in conventional cages. This fact could point to their better suitability for consumption. In addition to the housing system, changes occurring in eggs during storage should also be considered in terms of their weight class. Economically important egg traits (e.g. egg weight, shell strength) were better in eggs from furnished compared to conventional cages.

Słowa kluczowe

  • battery cages
  • furnished cages
  • egg storage
  • egg quality
Otwarty dostęp

Composition, Physical and Technological Properties of Raw Milk as Affected by Cattle Breed, Season and Type of Diet

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 721 - 736

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to describe the differences in composition, physical and technological properties of raw milk as affected by breed of cattle, season and type of feeding. The study was conducted from June 2005 to February 2007 on bulk milk samples (BMS) collected from 8 commercial dairy herds consisting of Czech Fleckvieh (CF, 4 herds) and Holstein (H, 4 herds) dairy cows. Half of herds in each breed was grazing (G) during summer season while the other half was not (N). Samples were collected regularly two times in winter (W) and two times in summer (S) period resulting in a total of 64 bulk milk samples (BMS) examined. Milk yield in CF (5385.50 kg) was lower (P<0.05) than in H (7015.15 kg). Milk fat in CF was higher (P<0.05) than in H breed being 3.9 and 3.72 g/100 g, respectively. CF cows had higher (P<0.05) content of crude protein, casein, true protein and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) than H. Content of fat, crude protein, casein, true protein and whey protein was lower (P<0.05) in summer (S) than in winter (W). Milk yield in grazing herds (G, 5197.50 kg) was lower (P<0.05) than in non-grazing herds (N, 7203.75 kg). Content of fat was higher (P<0.05) in G (3.89 g/100 g) than in N (3.73 g/100 g). Concentration of lactose, urea, crude protein, casein, true protein, whey protein was lower (P<0.05) in G than in N. In conclusion, the Czech Fleckvieh breed had a lower milk yield but produced milk with higher concentration of the main milk components than the Czech population of the Holstein breed. Large seasonal variations were determined in concentrations of the main milk components. The most pronounced changes in milk composition were caused by the type of feeding with a clear decrease in milk yield and content of lactose and all studied protein fractions and higher content of fat in grazing herds compared to non-grazing herds.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cow genotype
  • Czech Fleckvieh
  • Holstein
  • bulk milk
  • pasture
Otwarty dostęp

The Quality Evaluation of RFN and PSE Pork Longissimus Lumborum Muscle Considering Its Microstructure

Data publikacji: 29 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 737 - 747

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate selected quality attributes of pork longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle characterized by Rfn and PSe occurrence considering its microstructure. The material used in the research was 100 pork meat samples of normal quality (RFN – red, firm, normal, non-exudative) and 100 pork meat samples with PSe defect. The digital images of microstructure of selected meat samples were captured and some quality attributes, including ph level, drip loss, electrical conductivity (ec), water holding capacity (Whc) and ciel*a*b* parameters, were determined. Based on the findings obtained it was concluded that PSE meat (pH24h≤5.5) was characterized by higher degradation of muscle fibre structure when compared with the normal meat (RFN). The differences in the microstructure of PSE and RFN meat influenced the colour, electrical conductivity, drip loss and WHC of the meat. The PSE meat was characterized by a signifi- cantly lighter color and significantly higher electrical conductivity, along with more intense drip loss and worsened water holding capacity in comparison with Rfn meat.

Słowa kluczowe

  • meat quality
  • microstructure
  • PSE defect

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