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Tom 19 (2019): Zeszyt 2 (April 2019)

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Tom 18 (2018): Zeszyt 4 (October 2018)

Tom 18 (2018): Zeszyt 3 (July 2018)

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Tom 18 (2018): Zeszyt 1 (January 2018)

Tom 17 (2017): Zeszyt 4 (October 2017)

Tom 17 (2017): Zeszyt 3 (July 2017)

Tom 17 (2017): Zeszyt 2 (May 2017)

Tom 17 (2017): Zeszyt 1 (January 2017)

Tom 16 (2016): Zeszyt 4 (October 2016)

Tom 16 (2016): Zeszyt 3 (July 2016)

Tom 16 (2016): Zeszyt 2 (April 2016)

Tom 16 (2016): Zeszyt 1 (January 2016)

Tom 15 (2015): Zeszyt 4 (October 2015)

Tom 15 (2015): Zeszyt 3 (July 2015)

Tom 15 (2015): Zeszyt 2 (April 2015)

Tom 15 (2015): Zeszyt 1 (January 2015)

Tom 14 (2014): Zeszyt 4 (October 2014)

Tom 14 (2014): Zeszyt 3 (July 2014)

Tom 14 (2014): Zeszyt 2 (April 2014)

Tom 14 (2014): Zeszyt 1 (January 2014)

Tom 13 (2013): Zeszyt 4 (October 2013)
Zeszyt Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

Tom 13 (2013): Zeszyt 3 (July 2013)

Tom 13 (2013): Zeszyt 2 (April 2013)

Tom 13 (2013): Zeszyt 1 (January 2013)

Tom 12 (2012): Zeszyt 4 (October 2012)

Tom 12 (2012): Zeszyt 3 (July 2012)

Tom 12 (2012): Zeszyt 2 (April 2012)

Tom 12 (2012): Zeszyt 1 (January 2012)

Tom 11 (2011): Zeszyt 4 (August 2011)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8733
ISSN
1642-3402
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 12 (2012): Zeszyt 4 (October 2012)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8733
ISSN
1642-3402
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

16 Artykułów

Review

Otwarty dostęp

Factors affecting maternal behaviour and responsiveness in sows during periparturient and lactation periods

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 455 - 469

Abstrakt

Abstract

Maternal responsiveness of sows affects piglet survival rate by influencing the economic results of breeding. The purpose of this article was to present the relations among housing environment for sows during periparturient period and lactation, endocrine changes in sows, and maternal behaviour and welfare, which ultimately all affect the productive results. The following welfare-related factors were discussed in this paper: the type of farrowing environment, including the type of pen, the area for free movement or confinement crates, alternative loose-housing systems, the importance of nest building for further nursing, and fear as a factor which can impair productivity.

Keywords

  • sows
  • welfare
  • maternal behaviour
  • periparturient period
  • lactation
  • endocrine changes

Genetics and farm animal breeding

Otwarty dostęp

Genetic background of conformation defects in polish black-and-white Holstein-Friesian bulls – analysis of phenotypic distribution

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 471 - 482

Abstrakt

Abstract

Phenotypic distribution of 22 routinely evaluated conformation defects was analysed in a population of Polish Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian bulls, sired by different males. Some variation was observed in mean frequency of different morphological defects and in their severity. Large differences were found in frequency of conformation defects and in their number between groups of half-brothers. The most common defects in the bull population analysed were two types of leg defects: wide interdigital space and soft pasterns, which occurred in 199 and 70 animals, respectively. Wide interdigital space was most frequent in 4 groups of half-brothers, in which this defect affected more than 25% of the bulls. The least common defects were the defects of external genitalia, which were found in single animals. The only defect that did not occur was that of testes. The statistical significance of the phenotypic distributions obtained for bull conformation defects was confirmed using the chi-square test of independence and the Fisher-Yates exact test.

Słowa kluczowe

  • defective type characteristics
  • sire
  • Holstein-Friesian
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic structure of Hucul and Anglo-Arabian horses at the Tert locus

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 483 - 494

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genetic markers in the equine TERT gene sequence, which were used to assess the degree of differentiation between Anglo-Arabian and Hucul horses. Polymorphisms were identified by sequencing 30 amplification products representing 18000 bp of TERT sequences. Twenty-seven SNP markers were investigated, which were at genetic equilibrium. Haplotypes and genotypes were determined, and usefulness of polymorphisms for genetic studies was assessed based on minor allele frequency (MAF).

Alleles characteristic of both horse breeds were identified. SNP markers with MAF > 0.18 were

considered suitable for genetic analyses concerning association studies and parentage testing. In

total 26 haplotypes were identified, of which three were common to the investigated horse populations. Twelve haplotypes were found only in Anglo-Arabians and 11 in Hucul horses. Identified

polymorphism of TERT gene might be useful in the search for genetic basis of aging in the Equus

caballus species.

Słowa kluczowe

  • polymorphism
  • TERT
  • genetic structure
  • horse
Otwarty dostęp

Comparative sex chromosome hybridizations in Ruminantia

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 495 - 500

Abstrakt

Abstract

The syntenic conservation nature of some chromosomes enables the use of several molecular probes obtained from one species of animals to detect homologous DNA segments in other species. The aim of this study was to analyse homology between sex chromosomes in several species belonging to the suborder Ruminantia (sheep - Ovis aries, fallow deer - Dama dama, aoudad - Ammotragus lervia, red deer - Cervus elaphus) using bovine heterosome painting probes in FISH technique. The results obtained showed strong red fluorescence signals in small metacentric heterosomes Y and distinct yellow-green signals in large acrocentric chromosomes X of all compared species.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Ruminantia
  • genetic conservatism
  • sex chromosomes
  • bovine heterosome probes
  • FISH
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic variability of farmed and free-living populations of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 501 - 512

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was designed to determine the degree of genetic distinctiveness between farmed and wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Analysis of polymorphism in 16 microsatellite sequences led to the conclusion that red foxes raised on Polish farms and wild foxes living in Poland are two groups of genetically distinct animals. Farmed Polish foxes are genetically more similar to the population of wild animals from North America than they are to the free-living population in Poland, as confirmed by the fact that the farmed animals are descended from animals raised in Canada.

The small genetic distance between wild Canadian foxes (indicated as the progenitor of farmed Polish foxes) and farmed Polish foxes possibly suggests that the differences between the farmed and wild Polish populations may result from the fact that Canadian and Polish foxes took separate evolutionary paths.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Vulpes vulpes
  • wild and farmed animals
  • microsatellites
  • domestication

The biology, physiology and reproduction of animals

Otwarty dostęp

Human CD46, CD55 and CD59 expression influence on swine transgenic fetal fibroblasts’ survivability in the presence of human complement components

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 513 - 524

Abstrakt

Abstract

Mechanisms regulating the activity of the complement system responsible for the rejection of transplant organs are balanced so that the attack is instantaneous but is restricted to the infected cells of the organism. The most important components regulating its activity comprise CD55 and CD46 factors as well as the CD59 anchored in the cell membrane. Hyperacute response of the immunological system appears to be the key in the xenotransplant rejection and the elaboration of methods preventing its occurrence will give a real chance for the development of xenotransplantation.

Gene constructs containing coding sequences of human CD46, CD55 and CD59 were prepared and used to transfect porcine fetal fibroblasts. Stable lines were molecularly characterized for an integration of transgenes by PCR. Lines with a stable integration of transgenes were subjected to further characterization of expression by RT-PCR and vitality test. Molecular characteristics of the transgenic cell lines obtained revealed a steadfast integration and, in the majority of cases, expression of the introduced transgenes. The performed cytotoxicity analysis demonstrated that transgenic lines were characterised by a higher survivability rate than non-transgenic cells in the presence of human serum which proved their protective influence in relation to the activity of the complement system.

Słowa kluczowe

  • CD46
  • CD55
  • CD59
  • complement activation
  • xenotransplantation

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of protein and energy concentration in milk replacers on rearing performance of heifer calves

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 525 - 537

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the study was to analyse the effect of enriching milk replacers with crude protein (CP) and/or gross energy (GE) on rearing performance of Polish Holstein-Friesian heifer calves. The study was a 2 × 2 factorial design, with the two factors being CP content (220 and 290 g) and GE content (21 and 23 MJ) of milk replacer dry matter (DM). Thirty-two heifer calves aged 7 days were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups (n=8), in which they received limited milk replacer (800 ±10 g DM × day-1) to 56 days of age and the same concentrate mixture ad libitum to 120 days of age. Feeding programme and nutritive value of concentrate mixture were applied as recommended by IZ PIB-INRA feeding standards (2009). Rearing performance was determined from body weight and body size measures at 7, 56 and 120 days of age, and feed and nutrient utilization for weight gain and body size gain during the periods from 7 to 56, 57 to 120 and 7 to 120 days of age. During the liquid feeding period from 7 to 56 days of age, the increase in CP concentration in milk replacers had a statistically significant effect on weight gains, body size (P≤0.05), and utilization of feed DM, CP and GE for weight gain (P≤0.05), while the increase in GE concentration improved daily weight gains and utilization of CP for weight gain (P≤0.05). The increase in CP concentration and the simultaneous decrease in GE concentration had a beneficial effect on the intake of concentrate mixture (statistical tendency, P≤0.1), but its utilization for weight gain was similar in all the experimental groups. Heifer calves that had received protein-rich milk replacers previously, during the period from 57 to 120 days of age ingested more concentrate mixture per day but were less efficient in nutrient utilization for weight gain (statistical tendency, P≤0.1).

Słowa kluczowe

  • heifer calves
  • milk replacers
  • protein
  • energy
  • rearing performance
Otwarty dostęp

Efficiency and dose response of xylanase in diets for fattening pigs

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 539 - 548

Abstrakt

Abstract

The efficiency of different levels of dietary xylanase on growth performance, nutrient digestibilities and carcass and meat quality was evaluated in 128 barrows. The performance study lasted from about 27 to 110 kg of body weight with pigs allocated to 4 groups (32 animals each), fed ad libitum and kept in straw-bedded pens (4 animals each). Pigs from group I (control) received standard feeds without any enzyme added, while pigs from groups II, III and IV received the same diet including additionally xylanase at levels of 8000, 16000 or 24000 BXU (Birch Xylan Unit) per kg, respectively. The digestibility experiment was carried out with 40 barrows not involved in the first part of the experiment. Pigs were allocated to 4 groups (10 animals each) receiving the same diets as in the performance experiment. Xylanase significantly improved body weight gains of pigs receiving diets with 16000 BXU/kg (P<0.05) and 24000 BXU/kg feed (P<0.01) by 4.2% and 6.2%, respectively. Final body weights of 111-112 kg were achieved in a significantly shorter feeding period and at a lower feed conversion ratio by pigs that received highest xylanase application (24000 BXU/kg feed, P<0.05). In younger pigs xylanase mainly improved fibre digestibility which was significant for pigs receiving 24000 BXU/kg (P<0.05). In the final feeding period dry matter, fat and fibre digestibility were improved by xylanase with effects getting more pronounced with the increase of xylanase inclusion rate. No differences in carcass and meat quality were observed between any feeding groups. Based on these results it is assumed that application of xylanase (Econase XT) can improve performance of grower-finisher pigs without having any impact on the carcass quality. Performance improvements were in line with better nutrient digestibility.

Słowa kluczowe

  • xylanase
  • nutrient digestibility
  • pig fattening
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Lactococcus lactis vs. Lactobacillus spp. bacteria on chicken body weight, mortality, feed conversion and carcass quality

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 549 - 559

Abstrakt

Abstract

A total of 608 Ross 308 broiler chickens of both sexes were studied to determine the effect of Lactococcus lactis 847 bacteria compared to probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus delbruecki 838 and Lactobacillus plantarum 837 on body weight, feed consumption and conversion, mortality, dressing percentage, postmortem carcass traits, composition of breast muscle tissue, and blood plasma traits. Feeding diets with bacteria to chickens did not increase body weight at 42 days of age or improve feed conversion compared to control chickens. It significantly reduced chicken mortality compared to the control group, from 3.3% to 1.4% (P<0.01). No significant differences were found in feed consumption and conversion. There were no significant differences in the weight of carcasses and their parts. Lactococcus lactis 847 and Lactobacillus plantarum 837 bacteria significantly increased dressing percentage (P<0.05). Lactococcus lactis 847 significantly increased liver weight (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed in carcass fatness, and in the dry matter, protein and fat content of breast muscles. Feeding diet with Lactobacillus plantarum 837 to chickens significantly decreased plasma triglyceride levels, and feeding diet with Lactobacillus delbruecki 838 and Lactobacillus plantarum 837 significantly decreased the level of high-density cholesterol (P<0.05). In conclusion, Lactococcus lactis 847 bacteria in diet significantly reduce losses due to digestive disorders while having no effect on the quantity and proportion of saleable cuts in the carcass, the composition of breast muscles and basic blood parameters.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lactic acid bacteria
  • chicken
  • body weight
  • mortality
  • feed conversion
  • blood metabolites
Otwarty dostęp

Natural alternatives to Coccidiostats in rabbit nutrition

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 561 - 574

Abstrakt

Abstract

In rabbit management, coccidiosis caused by Eimeria protozoa is a serious health, production and economic problem due to its widespread occurrence. According to Regulation (EC) No 1831/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council on additives for use in animal nutrition, coccidiostats will be phased out of use by 31 December 2012. This has prompted a search for natural alternatives to coccidiostats, which could stop the progression of this disease. The aim of the study was to identify parasitic invasions in a herd of rabbits before and after the use of natural alternatives to common coccidiostatic drugs and to determine the effect of these alternatives on rabbit performance and meat quality. Different proportions of feed additives based on natural oregano and garlic oils, added to complete diets, had a positive effect on the weight gains of young rabbits during the study from 35 to 90 days of age. In all experimental groups, dressing percentage was higher than the values reported for New Zealand White rabbits, and the feed additives had no effect on the taste of meat samples evaluated. Properly formulated rations of the concentrates reduced the intensity of coccidial infections while protecting the animals against secondary bacterial and viral infections, which usually accompany coccidiosis and are a common cause of mortality. The present results suggest that the herb extracts can be successfully used in prophylaxis as natural alternatives to coccidiostats in feeds.

Słowa kluczowe

  • rabbit
  • coccidiostats
  • garlic
  • oregano
  • feeding

Environment, hygiene and animal production technology

Otwarty dostęp

The impact of barriers inside a herringbone milking parlour on efficiency of the ventilation system

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 575 - 584

Abstrakt

Abstract

The research aimed at establishing the pattern of air movement inside a 2×10 herringbone milking parlour equipped with supply mechanical ventilation. Observations and analyses were made for the streams of air supplied to the parlour, their movement pattern and spread range. Also, temperature and relative air humidity after and before evening milking routine were measured. It has been concluded that barriers installed inside the milking parlour play a significant role in creating unfavourable microclimatic conditions during milking, particularly for the last group of cows. The study points out possible threats to animal welfare and operator’s working conditions. Based on the conducted experiments, the paper defines recommendations for proper design of ventilation systems inside herringbone milking parlours.

Słowa kluczowe

  • welfare
  • milking parlour
  • mechanical ventilation
  • air velocity
Otwarty dostęp

Verification of regression equations for estimating pork carcass meatiness using CMG, IM-03, fat-o-meat’er ii and ultrafom 300 devices

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 585 - 596

Abstrakt

Abstract

Four manual classification devices for estimating pork carcass meat content, i.e. CGM, Fat-OMeat’er II, IM-03 and UltraFom 300 were tested. The experiment was carried out with properly selected raw material (n=141 pigs) from current deliveries for pig slaughter at the Meat Plant SKIBA S.A. in Chojnice. Pork raw material was derived from three different Polish regions and represented different types of fatness, different carcass weights (from 60 to 120 kg) and different sexes (half were gilts and half were barrows). The applied testing procedure was consistent with European Union regulations. The research resulted in the development of regression equations for estimating pork carcass meat content in Poland. These equations are of rectilinear type and use four (in the case of UltraFom 300) or two (in the case of other devices) measurements of backfat and longissimus dorsi muscle thickness located at a distance of 6 cm (CGM, IM-03) or 7 cm (Fat-OMeat’er II, UltraFom 300) from the backfat edge at the section between 3rd and 4th rib, counting ribs from the end (CGM, IM-03, Fat-O-Meat’er II) and also at the height of the last rib section (UltraFom 300). The prediction error does not exceed the termination value of 2.50% established by EU regulations and amounts to 2.16% for CGM, 2.18% for Fat-O-Meat’er II, 1.89% for IM-03 and 2.07% for UltraFom 300. New regression equations have been applied in the meat industry since 12 December 2011.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pork carcasses
  • meatiness
  • regression equations
  • classification device
Otwarty dostęp

Electrophysiological study on co and co2 euthanasia in mink (Mustela vison)

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 597 - 608

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to define at what time point animal is dying and how quickly changes in the function of brain and heart can be observed. Four groups of sedated standard dark male mink (Mustela vison) were tested: euthanasia with filtered exhaust gases (CO concentration in the killing box 4%, 8 animals), carbon dioxide (CO2 from a cylinder, concentration in the killing box 80%, 8 animals), carbon monoxide (CO from a cylinder, concentration in the killing box 4%, 9 animals) and euthanasia with carbon monoxide (CO from a cylinder, concentration in the killing box 2%, 6 animals). Brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER), electroencephalography (EEG), electrocardiography (ECG) and respiratory rate were measured before and during euthanasia. Mean time of decline/absent BAER was 112/176, 138/183, 235/390 and 528/833 seconds after gas application in groups, respectively. Mean time for first changes/absence of EEG was 42/86, 39/75, 55/190 and 176/426 seconds after gas application in groups, respectively. Mean time for first changes in respiration/absent breathing was 42/217, 28/227, 144/477 and 331/901 seconds after gas application in groups, respectively. Mean time for first changes/absence of ECG was 105/292, 117/220, 215/289 and 481/682 seconds after gas application in groups, respectively. Our results indicate that the studied gases first affect brain and brainstem which was seen as loss of EEG and BAER and just thereafter respiration and heart rate in turn. While sensitivity to pain is essentially related to consciousness and function of brain, gases can be considered to primarily and effectively lead to state of non-pain. Particularly the death with the filtered exhaust CO and the cylinder CO2 gases occurs quickly and in very comparable times. The euthanasia with the cylinder CO of 2% concentration seems to be too long and is most likely not suitable for the mink euthanasia in general. Observable signs of marked irritation or aversion were not found during exposure to studied CO and CO2 gases.

Słowa kluczowe

  • gas exposure
  • killing practice
  • animal welfare
  • fur farming
  • culling

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of changes in egg quality of broiler breeders during the first reproduction period

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 609 - 620

Abstrakt

Abstract

In reproductive flocks of poultry it is very important to obtain a large number of eggs with normal structure, optimal morphological composition and interior quality. These elements have very significant influence on the biological value of the egg, which determines normal development of the embryo. The aim of the study was to analyse the physical characteristics, morphological composition and quality of individual components of the eggs of Cobb 500 broiler breeders during the first year of reproduction. The research material was hatching eggs (280 pcs), whose quality was assessed 7 times in the reproductive season at 5-week intervals. The eggs were examined when the hens were aged 26, 31, 36, 41, 46, 51 and 56 weeks (40 eggs for each age). The following characteristics were evaluated: egg weight (g); egg shape index (%); egg specific gravity (g/cm3); shell thickness (mm); average number of pores in the eggshell (pcs/0.25 cm2); yolk, white and shell weight (g) and their percentage in the egg mass; yolk index (%) and the number of Haugh units. The investigations proved that as the reproductive season of hens progressed, the weight of their eggs increased. Above all, this was due to the increase in the yolk weight, because its percentage in the egg weight rose with bird age, whereas the percentage of the white decreased. However, as the reproductive season progressed the quality of both the yolk and white deteriorated. No negative relationship between the age of hens and shell quality (weight, thickness) was observed. Only when the birds were aged 56 weeks, the shell thickness was found to be significantly smaller.

Słowa kluczowe

  • broiler breeder
  • Cobb 500
  • age
  • egg characteristics
  • trend-cycle
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of slaughter age on performance and meat quality of slow-growing broiler chickens

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 621 - 631

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of age of slow-growing broiler chickens on growth performance and meat quality. Subjects were hybrids between Hubbard meat-type cockerels and Yellowleg Partridge Polish native hens. Chickens were raised indoors to 56, 70 or 84 days of age on deep litter under the same environmental conditions and fed ad litibum complete starter, grower and finisher diets containing 20, 18, 15 CP and 2825, 2825 and 2740 ME/kg feed, respectively. At the end of the experiment, 5 cockerels and 5 pullets were selected for slaughter from each age group and subjected to a simplified carcass analysis. Breast muscles and leg muscles were evaluated for technological properties such as pH, colour, water holding capacity, drip loss, cooking loss and shear force. The results were analysed statistically using analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test. The duration of rearing had an effect on carcass and meat quality. The highest, statistically significant differences in the analysed traits were found between chickens slaughtered at 56 and 84 days of age. The highest dressing percentage was obtained in birds raised until 84 days of age. Youngest birds were characterized by the poorest muscle content of the carcass and the least favourable technological properties of meat. The highest growth efficiency was obtained when the hybrids were raised to 70 days of age.

Słowa kluczowe

  • broiler chickens
  • slow growing
  • hybrid
  • age
  • meat quality
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of type of roughage on chemical composition and technological value of milk from cows fed TMR diets

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 633 - 648

Abstrakt

Abstract

An experiment was conducted to determine the degree to which feeding Polish Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian cows with total mixed rations (TMR) differing in the type of “energy” roughages (whole-crop maize silage, MS; winter barley silage, BS) and their proportion (70% or 50% in DM) relative to wilted meadow grass silage (GS) will affect the yield, chemical composition, fatty acid profile and technological suitability of milk, the quality traits and organoleptic score of some milk products (curd cheese, soft rennet cheese, creamery butter), and the fatty acid profile of butter fat. The study was carried out during the second trimester of lactation using 36 cows assigned to four analogous groups with 9 animals per group. It was found that replacing maize silage with barley silage in TMR diets had no significant effect on the yield, chemical composition, fatty acid content and technological suitability of milk, or on the content of major protein fractions and protein substances. Curd cheese and rennet cheese from the milk of cows fed diets with barley and wilted grass silages (groups BS/GS-I and BS/GS-II) and creamery butter from the milk of cows fed diets with a lower (50% DM) proportion of “energy” silages (MS/GS-II and BS/GS-II) were characterized by a higher (P≤0.01) content of solids and fat compared to analogous products from the milk of cows in the other groups (MS/GS-I and BS/GS-I). Butter from the milk of MS/GS-I and MS/GSII cows had a significantly higher content of PUFA (including C18:2 n-6, C18:3 n-6, C18:3 n-3 and CLA), and a lower content of SFA (from C-4 to C-16) compared to BS/GS-I and BS/GS-II cows. Regardless of the type of total mixed ration fed in the second trimester of lactation, the milk and milk products had desirable functional and technological properties.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dairy cows
  • TMR
  • milk yield and composition
  • quality of milk products
16 Artykułów

Review

Otwarty dostęp

Factors affecting maternal behaviour and responsiveness in sows during periparturient and lactation periods

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 455 - 469

Abstrakt

Abstract

Maternal responsiveness of sows affects piglet survival rate by influencing the economic results of breeding. The purpose of this article was to present the relations among housing environment for sows during periparturient period and lactation, endocrine changes in sows, and maternal behaviour and welfare, which ultimately all affect the productive results. The following welfare-related factors were discussed in this paper: the type of farrowing environment, including the type of pen, the area for free movement or confinement crates, alternative loose-housing systems, the importance of nest building for further nursing, and fear as a factor which can impair productivity.

Keywords

  • sows
  • welfare
  • maternal behaviour
  • periparturient period
  • lactation
  • endocrine changes

Genetics and farm animal breeding

Otwarty dostęp

Genetic background of conformation defects in polish black-and-white Holstein-Friesian bulls – analysis of phenotypic distribution

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 471 - 482

Abstrakt

Abstract

Phenotypic distribution of 22 routinely evaluated conformation defects was analysed in a population of Polish Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian bulls, sired by different males. Some variation was observed in mean frequency of different morphological defects and in their severity. Large differences were found in frequency of conformation defects and in their number between groups of half-brothers. The most common defects in the bull population analysed were two types of leg defects: wide interdigital space and soft pasterns, which occurred in 199 and 70 animals, respectively. Wide interdigital space was most frequent in 4 groups of half-brothers, in which this defect affected more than 25% of the bulls. The least common defects were the defects of external genitalia, which were found in single animals. The only defect that did not occur was that of testes. The statistical significance of the phenotypic distributions obtained for bull conformation defects was confirmed using the chi-square test of independence and the Fisher-Yates exact test.

Słowa kluczowe

  • defective type characteristics
  • sire
  • Holstein-Friesian
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic structure of Hucul and Anglo-Arabian horses at the Tert locus

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 483 - 494

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genetic markers in the equine TERT gene sequence, which were used to assess the degree of differentiation between Anglo-Arabian and Hucul horses. Polymorphisms were identified by sequencing 30 amplification products representing 18000 bp of TERT sequences. Twenty-seven SNP markers were investigated, which were at genetic equilibrium. Haplotypes and genotypes were determined, and usefulness of polymorphisms for genetic studies was assessed based on minor allele frequency (MAF).

Alleles characteristic of both horse breeds were identified. SNP markers with MAF > 0.18 were

considered suitable for genetic analyses concerning association studies and parentage testing. In

total 26 haplotypes were identified, of which three were common to the investigated horse populations. Twelve haplotypes were found only in Anglo-Arabians and 11 in Hucul horses. Identified

polymorphism of TERT gene might be useful in the search for genetic basis of aging in the Equus

caballus species.

Słowa kluczowe

  • polymorphism
  • TERT
  • genetic structure
  • horse
Otwarty dostęp

Comparative sex chromosome hybridizations in Ruminantia

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 495 - 500

Abstrakt

Abstract

The syntenic conservation nature of some chromosomes enables the use of several molecular probes obtained from one species of animals to detect homologous DNA segments in other species. The aim of this study was to analyse homology between sex chromosomes in several species belonging to the suborder Ruminantia (sheep - Ovis aries, fallow deer - Dama dama, aoudad - Ammotragus lervia, red deer - Cervus elaphus) using bovine heterosome painting probes in FISH technique. The results obtained showed strong red fluorescence signals in small metacentric heterosomes Y and distinct yellow-green signals in large acrocentric chromosomes X of all compared species.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Ruminantia
  • genetic conservatism
  • sex chromosomes
  • bovine heterosome probes
  • FISH
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic variability of farmed and free-living populations of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 501 - 512

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was designed to determine the degree of genetic distinctiveness between farmed and wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Analysis of polymorphism in 16 microsatellite sequences led to the conclusion that red foxes raised on Polish farms and wild foxes living in Poland are two groups of genetically distinct animals. Farmed Polish foxes are genetically more similar to the population of wild animals from North America than they are to the free-living population in Poland, as confirmed by the fact that the farmed animals are descended from animals raised in Canada.

The small genetic distance between wild Canadian foxes (indicated as the progenitor of farmed Polish foxes) and farmed Polish foxes possibly suggests that the differences between the farmed and wild Polish populations may result from the fact that Canadian and Polish foxes took separate evolutionary paths.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Vulpes vulpes
  • wild and farmed animals
  • microsatellites
  • domestication

The biology, physiology and reproduction of animals

Otwarty dostęp

Human CD46, CD55 and CD59 expression influence on swine transgenic fetal fibroblasts’ survivability in the presence of human complement components

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 513 - 524

Abstrakt

Abstract

Mechanisms regulating the activity of the complement system responsible for the rejection of transplant organs are balanced so that the attack is instantaneous but is restricted to the infected cells of the organism. The most important components regulating its activity comprise CD55 and CD46 factors as well as the CD59 anchored in the cell membrane. Hyperacute response of the immunological system appears to be the key in the xenotransplant rejection and the elaboration of methods preventing its occurrence will give a real chance for the development of xenotransplantation.

Gene constructs containing coding sequences of human CD46, CD55 and CD59 were prepared and used to transfect porcine fetal fibroblasts. Stable lines were molecularly characterized for an integration of transgenes by PCR. Lines with a stable integration of transgenes were subjected to further characterization of expression by RT-PCR and vitality test. Molecular characteristics of the transgenic cell lines obtained revealed a steadfast integration and, in the majority of cases, expression of the introduced transgenes. The performed cytotoxicity analysis demonstrated that transgenic lines were characterised by a higher survivability rate than non-transgenic cells in the presence of human serum which proved their protective influence in relation to the activity of the complement system.

Słowa kluczowe

  • CD46
  • CD55
  • CD59
  • complement activation
  • xenotransplantation

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of protein and energy concentration in milk replacers on rearing performance of heifer calves

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 525 - 537

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the study was to analyse the effect of enriching milk replacers with crude protein (CP) and/or gross energy (GE) on rearing performance of Polish Holstein-Friesian heifer calves. The study was a 2 × 2 factorial design, with the two factors being CP content (220 and 290 g) and GE content (21 and 23 MJ) of milk replacer dry matter (DM). Thirty-two heifer calves aged 7 days were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups (n=8), in which they received limited milk replacer (800 ±10 g DM × day-1) to 56 days of age and the same concentrate mixture ad libitum to 120 days of age. Feeding programme and nutritive value of concentrate mixture were applied as recommended by IZ PIB-INRA feeding standards (2009). Rearing performance was determined from body weight and body size measures at 7, 56 and 120 days of age, and feed and nutrient utilization for weight gain and body size gain during the periods from 7 to 56, 57 to 120 and 7 to 120 days of age. During the liquid feeding period from 7 to 56 days of age, the increase in CP concentration in milk replacers had a statistically significant effect on weight gains, body size (P≤0.05), and utilization of feed DM, CP and GE for weight gain (P≤0.05), while the increase in GE concentration improved daily weight gains and utilization of CP for weight gain (P≤0.05). The increase in CP concentration and the simultaneous decrease in GE concentration had a beneficial effect on the intake of concentrate mixture (statistical tendency, P≤0.1), but its utilization for weight gain was similar in all the experimental groups. Heifer calves that had received protein-rich milk replacers previously, during the period from 57 to 120 days of age ingested more concentrate mixture per day but were less efficient in nutrient utilization for weight gain (statistical tendency, P≤0.1).

Słowa kluczowe

  • heifer calves
  • milk replacers
  • protein
  • energy
  • rearing performance
Otwarty dostęp

Efficiency and dose response of xylanase in diets for fattening pigs

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 539 - 548

Abstrakt

Abstract

The efficiency of different levels of dietary xylanase on growth performance, nutrient digestibilities and carcass and meat quality was evaluated in 128 barrows. The performance study lasted from about 27 to 110 kg of body weight with pigs allocated to 4 groups (32 animals each), fed ad libitum and kept in straw-bedded pens (4 animals each). Pigs from group I (control) received standard feeds without any enzyme added, while pigs from groups II, III and IV received the same diet including additionally xylanase at levels of 8000, 16000 or 24000 BXU (Birch Xylan Unit) per kg, respectively. The digestibility experiment was carried out with 40 barrows not involved in the first part of the experiment. Pigs were allocated to 4 groups (10 animals each) receiving the same diets as in the performance experiment. Xylanase significantly improved body weight gains of pigs receiving diets with 16000 BXU/kg (P<0.05) and 24000 BXU/kg feed (P<0.01) by 4.2% and 6.2%, respectively. Final body weights of 111-112 kg were achieved in a significantly shorter feeding period and at a lower feed conversion ratio by pigs that received highest xylanase application (24000 BXU/kg feed, P<0.05). In younger pigs xylanase mainly improved fibre digestibility which was significant for pigs receiving 24000 BXU/kg (P<0.05). In the final feeding period dry matter, fat and fibre digestibility were improved by xylanase with effects getting more pronounced with the increase of xylanase inclusion rate. No differences in carcass and meat quality were observed between any feeding groups. Based on these results it is assumed that application of xylanase (Econase XT) can improve performance of grower-finisher pigs without having any impact on the carcass quality. Performance improvements were in line with better nutrient digestibility.

Słowa kluczowe

  • xylanase
  • nutrient digestibility
  • pig fattening
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Lactococcus lactis vs. Lactobacillus spp. bacteria on chicken body weight, mortality, feed conversion and carcass quality

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 549 - 559

Abstrakt

Abstract

A total of 608 Ross 308 broiler chickens of both sexes were studied to determine the effect of Lactococcus lactis 847 bacteria compared to probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus delbruecki 838 and Lactobacillus plantarum 837 on body weight, feed consumption and conversion, mortality, dressing percentage, postmortem carcass traits, composition of breast muscle tissue, and blood plasma traits. Feeding diets with bacteria to chickens did not increase body weight at 42 days of age or improve feed conversion compared to control chickens. It significantly reduced chicken mortality compared to the control group, from 3.3% to 1.4% (P<0.01). No significant differences were found in feed consumption and conversion. There were no significant differences in the weight of carcasses and their parts. Lactococcus lactis 847 and Lactobacillus plantarum 837 bacteria significantly increased dressing percentage (P<0.05). Lactococcus lactis 847 significantly increased liver weight (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed in carcass fatness, and in the dry matter, protein and fat content of breast muscles. Feeding diet with Lactobacillus plantarum 837 to chickens significantly decreased plasma triglyceride levels, and feeding diet with Lactobacillus delbruecki 838 and Lactobacillus plantarum 837 significantly decreased the level of high-density cholesterol (P<0.05). In conclusion, Lactococcus lactis 847 bacteria in diet significantly reduce losses due to digestive disorders while having no effect on the quantity and proportion of saleable cuts in the carcass, the composition of breast muscles and basic blood parameters.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lactic acid bacteria
  • chicken
  • body weight
  • mortality
  • feed conversion
  • blood metabolites
Otwarty dostęp

Natural alternatives to Coccidiostats in rabbit nutrition

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 561 - 574

Abstrakt

Abstract

In rabbit management, coccidiosis caused by Eimeria protozoa is a serious health, production and economic problem due to its widespread occurrence. According to Regulation (EC) No 1831/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council on additives for use in animal nutrition, coccidiostats will be phased out of use by 31 December 2012. This has prompted a search for natural alternatives to coccidiostats, which could stop the progression of this disease. The aim of the study was to identify parasitic invasions in a herd of rabbits before and after the use of natural alternatives to common coccidiostatic drugs and to determine the effect of these alternatives on rabbit performance and meat quality. Different proportions of feed additives based on natural oregano and garlic oils, added to complete diets, had a positive effect on the weight gains of young rabbits during the study from 35 to 90 days of age. In all experimental groups, dressing percentage was higher than the values reported for New Zealand White rabbits, and the feed additives had no effect on the taste of meat samples evaluated. Properly formulated rations of the concentrates reduced the intensity of coccidial infections while protecting the animals against secondary bacterial and viral infections, which usually accompany coccidiosis and are a common cause of mortality. The present results suggest that the herb extracts can be successfully used in prophylaxis as natural alternatives to coccidiostats in feeds.

Słowa kluczowe

  • rabbit
  • coccidiostats
  • garlic
  • oregano
  • feeding

Environment, hygiene and animal production technology

Otwarty dostęp

The impact of barriers inside a herringbone milking parlour on efficiency of the ventilation system

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 575 - 584

Abstrakt

Abstract

The research aimed at establishing the pattern of air movement inside a 2×10 herringbone milking parlour equipped with supply mechanical ventilation. Observations and analyses were made for the streams of air supplied to the parlour, their movement pattern and spread range. Also, temperature and relative air humidity after and before evening milking routine were measured. It has been concluded that barriers installed inside the milking parlour play a significant role in creating unfavourable microclimatic conditions during milking, particularly for the last group of cows. The study points out possible threats to animal welfare and operator’s working conditions. Based on the conducted experiments, the paper defines recommendations for proper design of ventilation systems inside herringbone milking parlours.

Słowa kluczowe

  • welfare
  • milking parlour
  • mechanical ventilation
  • air velocity
Otwarty dostęp

Verification of regression equations for estimating pork carcass meatiness using CMG, IM-03, fat-o-meat’er ii and ultrafom 300 devices

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 585 - 596

Abstrakt

Abstract

Four manual classification devices for estimating pork carcass meat content, i.e. CGM, Fat-OMeat’er II, IM-03 and UltraFom 300 were tested. The experiment was carried out with properly selected raw material (n=141 pigs) from current deliveries for pig slaughter at the Meat Plant SKIBA S.A. in Chojnice. Pork raw material was derived from three different Polish regions and represented different types of fatness, different carcass weights (from 60 to 120 kg) and different sexes (half were gilts and half were barrows). The applied testing procedure was consistent with European Union regulations. The research resulted in the development of regression equations for estimating pork carcass meat content in Poland. These equations are of rectilinear type and use four (in the case of UltraFom 300) or two (in the case of other devices) measurements of backfat and longissimus dorsi muscle thickness located at a distance of 6 cm (CGM, IM-03) or 7 cm (Fat-OMeat’er II, UltraFom 300) from the backfat edge at the section between 3rd and 4th rib, counting ribs from the end (CGM, IM-03, Fat-O-Meat’er II) and also at the height of the last rib section (UltraFom 300). The prediction error does not exceed the termination value of 2.50% established by EU regulations and amounts to 2.16% for CGM, 2.18% for Fat-O-Meat’er II, 1.89% for IM-03 and 2.07% for UltraFom 300. New regression equations have been applied in the meat industry since 12 December 2011.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pork carcasses
  • meatiness
  • regression equations
  • classification device
Otwarty dostęp

Electrophysiological study on co and co2 euthanasia in mink (Mustela vison)

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 597 - 608

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to define at what time point animal is dying and how quickly changes in the function of brain and heart can be observed. Four groups of sedated standard dark male mink (Mustela vison) were tested: euthanasia with filtered exhaust gases (CO concentration in the killing box 4%, 8 animals), carbon dioxide (CO2 from a cylinder, concentration in the killing box 80%, 8 animals), carbon monoxide (CO from a cylinder, concentration in the killing box 4%, 9 animals) and euthanasia with carbon monoxide (CO from a cylinder, concentration in the killing box 2%, 6 animals). Brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER), electroencephalography (EEG), electrocardiography (ECG) and respiratory rate were measured before and during euthanasia. Mean time of decline/absent BAER was 112/176, 138/183, 235/390 and 528/833 seconds after gas application in groups, respectively. Mean time for first changes/absence of EEG was 42/86, 39/75, 55/190 and 176/426 seconds after gas application in groups, respectively. Mean time for first changes in respiration/absent breathing was 42/217, 28/227, 144/477 and 331/901 seconds after gas application in groups, respectively. Mean time for first changes/absence of ECG was 105/292, 117/220, 215/289 and 481/682 seconds after gas application in groups, respectively. Our results indicate that the studied gases first affect brain and brainstem which was seen as loss of EEG and BAER and just thereafter respiration and heart rate in turn. While sensitivity to pain is essentially related to consciousness and function of brain, gases can be considered to primarily and effectively lead to state of non-pain. Particularly the death with the filtered exhaust CO and the cylinder CO2 gases occurs quickly and in very comparable times. The euthanasia with the cylinder CO of 2% concentration seems to be too long and is most likely not suitable for the mink euthanasia in general. Observable signs of marked irritation or aversion were not found during exposure to studied CO and CO2 gases.

Słowa kluczowe

  • gas exposure
  • killing practice
  • animal welfare
  • fur farming
  • culling

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of changes in egg quality of broiler breeders during the first reproduction period

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 609 - 620

Abstrakt

Abstract

In reproductive flocks of poultry it is very important to obtain a large number of eggs with normal structure, optimal morphological composition and interior quality. These elements have very significant influence on the biological value of the egg, which determines normal development of the embryo. The aim of the study was to analyse the physical characteristics, morphological composition and quality of individual components of the eggs of Cobb 500 broiler breeders during the first year of reproduction. The research material was hatching eggs (280 pcs), whose quality was assessed 7 times in the reproductive season at 5-week intervals. The eggs were examined when the hens were aged 26, 31, 36, 41, 46, 51 and 56 weeks (40 eggs for each age). The following characteristics were evaluated: egg weight (g); egg shape index (%); egg specific gravity (g/cm3); shell thickness (mm); average number of pores in the eggshell (pcs/0.25 cm2); yolk, white and shell weight (g) and their percentage in the egg mass; yolk index (%) and the number of Haugh units. The investigations proved that as the reproductive season of hens progressed, the weight of their eggs increased. Above all, this was due to the increase in the yolk weight, because its percentage in the egg weight rose with bird age, whereas the percentage of the white decreased. However, as the reproductive season progressed the quality of both the yolk and white deteriorated. No negative relationship between the age of hens and shell quality (weight, thickness) was observed. Only when the birds were aged 56 weeks, the shell thickness was found to be significantly smaller.

Słowa kluczowe

  • broiler breeder
  • Cobb 500
  • age
  • egg characteristics
  • trend-cycle
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of slaughter age on performance and meat quality of slow-growing broiler chickens

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 621 - 631

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of age of slow-growing broiler chickens on growth performance and meat quality. Subjects were hybrids between Hubbard meat-type cockerels and Yellowleg Partridge Polish native hens. Chickens were raised indoors to 56, 70 or 84 days of age on deep litter under the same environmental conditions and fed ad litibum complete starter, grower and finisher diets containing 20, 18, 15 CP and 2825, 2825 and 2740 ME/kg feed, respectively. At the end of the experiment, 5 cockerels and 5 pullets were selected for slaughter from each age group and subjected to a simplified carcass analysis. Breast muscles and leg muscles were evaluated for technological properties such as pH, colour, water holding capacity, drip loss, cooking loss and shear force. The results were analysed statistically using analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test. The duration of rearing had an effect on carcass and meat quality. The highest, statistically significant differences in the analysed traits were found between chickens slaughtered at 56 and 84 days of age. The highest dressing percentage was obtained in birds raised until 84 days of age. Youngest birds were characterized by the poorest muscle content of the carcass and the least favourable technological properties of meat. The highest growth efficiency was obtained when the hybrids were raised to 70 days of age.

Słowa kluczowe

  • broiler chickens
  • slow growing
  • hybrid
  • age
  • meat quality
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of type of roughage on chemical composition and technological value of milk from cows fed TMR diets

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 633 - 648

Abstrakt

Abstract

An experiment was conducted to determine the degree to which feeding Polish Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian cows with total mixed rations (TMR) differing in the type of “energy” roughages (whole-crop maize silage, MS; winter barley silage, BS) and their proportion (70% or 50% in DM) relative to wilted meadow grass silage (GS) will affect the yield, chemical composition, fatty acid profile and technological suitability of milk, the quality traits and organoleptic score of some milk products (curd cheese, soft rennet cheese, creamery butter), and the fatty acid profile of butter fat. The study was carried out during the second trimester of lactation using 36 cows assigned to four analogous groups with 9 animals per group. It was found that replacing maize silage with barley silage in TMR diets had no significant effect on the yield, chemical composition, fatty acid content and technological suitability of milk, or on the content of major protein fractions and protein substances. Curd cheese and rennet cheese from the milk of cows fed diets with barley and wilted grass silages (groups BS/GS-I and BS/GS-II) and creamery butter from the milk of cows fed diets with a lower (50% DM) proportion of “energy” silages (MS/GS-II and BS/GS-II) were characterized by a higher (P≤0.01) content of solids and fat compared to analogous products from the milk of cows in the other groups (MS/GS-I and BS/GS-I). Butter from the milk of MS/GS-I and MS/GSII cows had a significantly higher content of PUFA (including C18:2 n-6, C18:3 n-6, C18:3 n-3 and CLA), and a lower content of SFA (from C-4 to C-16) compared to BS/GS-I and BS/GS-II cows. Regardless of the type of total mixed ration fed in the second trimester of lactation, the milk and milk products had desirable functional and technological properties.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dairy cows
  • TMR
  • milk yield and composition
  • quality of milk products

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