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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8733
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 15 (2015): Zeszyt 1 (January 2015)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8733
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

20 Artykułów

Review

Otwarty dostęp

The Effect of a Coat Colour-Associated Genes Polymorphism on Animal Health – A Review

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 3 - 17

Abstrakt

Abstract

In recent years, the knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms of skin, hair and eye colouration in vertebrates has significantly broadened. It was found that some of the identified coat colour genes show negative pleiotropic effect. They are associated with hereditary diseases, often of a lethal character. Most of these diseases have their counterparts in humans. There is no effective treatment for these diseases, therefore animal models can help to identify the genetic background of diseases and to develop appropriate treatment. Much less is known on the association of coat colour with animal performance. However, there are reports on the effect of coat colour on body measurements and milk production in subtropical environments. The knowledge on pleiotropic effects of coat colour genes is important for breeders who should be aware of the consequences of their decision on mating animals with given genotype.

Keywords

  • coat colour
  • diseases
  • productivity
  • pleiotropic effects
Otwarty dostęp

Diabetes Mellitus in Cats Relevant to Human Type 2 Diabetes – Current Knowledge and New Treatment Strategies – A Review

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 19 - 30

Abstrakt

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most commonly encountered endocrinopathies in domestic cats. Numerous studies have shown that feline diabetes mellitus (FDM) closely resembles human type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a common pathogenesis including insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion as well as the same risk factors. This similarity provides ground for better understanding of their pathogenesis as well as more efficient management, novel treatment and prevention options for the disease in both species. Recently, modulation of the incretin system has become a new area of active investigations by several pharmaceutical companies. Concerning the role of incretins in glucose homeostasis, therapies based on activating the incretin axis have proved highly effective in treating T2DM. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptors agonists and dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been recently developed agents for diabetes therapy. Furthermore, studies in healthy cats demonstrated that those drugs stimulate insulin secretion and lower glucagon levels. There is a need of additional clinical evaluation of action of the drugs in cats suffering from FDM. Moreover, studies in cats may contribute to the development of knowledge on the use of new drugs in treatment of human T2DM because cats are an excellent model for the study of diabetes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • feline diabetes mellitus
  • human type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • the incretin effect
  • DPP-4 inhibitors
  • GLP-1 receptors agonists
Otwarty dostęp

Acute Stress, Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal-Gonadal Axis and Testicular Function – A Review

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 31 - 50

Abstrakt

Abstract

The fact that the stress response affects testicular function in several animal species, has been established for several decades. The aim of the present review was to describe how the mechanisms involved in the acute stress response affect directly or indirectly the testicular function at different levels. Both neuroendocrine axes linked to the stress response, i.e., the sympathetic-adrenomedullar (SAM) axis and the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenal (HHA) axis, affect the functioning of the hypothalamus-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) axis. Furthermore, both axes affect testicular function directly. Several reports support the concept that, in general terms, the HHA axis (as well as the hormones belonging to it) inhibits the HHG axis and also has direct effects on testicular function. The information regarding the effects of the SAM axis either on the HHG axis or as direct effects on testicular function are contradictory, and depends on whether the studies were performed in vivo or in vitro. Nevertheless, in general, stimulative effects are reported by the SAM axis. Both hormonal axes linked to the stress response exert direct effects on testicular function, on Leydig, Sertoli, myoid, and germ cells.

Keywords

  • stress response
  • hypothalamus
  • hypophysis
  • testis

Animal genetics and breeding

Otwarty dostęp

Variation in Growth Performance and Carcass Yield of Pure and Reciprocal Crossbred Turkeys

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 51 - 66

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study compared growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality rate and results of slaughter analysis of slow-growing Bronze turkeys (SG), fast-growing Big 6 turkeys (FG), and their reciprocal crosses (SF and FS). Until 6 weeks of age the birds were kept indoors and afterwards they were allowed to use free ranges. Toms were reared until 21 and hens until 15 weeks of age. The FS turkeys were characterized by higher (P≤0.05) BW and dressing percentage and by lower FCR compared to the SF crosses of both sexes. The analysis of orthogonal contrasts demonstrated that values of most of the slaughter analysis parameters were due to the additive effect of genes. Only weight of skin with fat and of gizzard could result from heterosis. Study results demonstrate that FS crosses constitute better material for the alternative production of turkeys compared to the other analysed groups (SG, SF, FG).

Keywords

  • turkeys
  • reciprocal crosses
  • growth
  • carcass yield
Otwarty dostęp

Pedigree Analysis of Top Milk Yielding Cows

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 67 - 80

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the research was to identify the sires that left the greatest number of cows with lifetime yield over 100 000 kg of milk, and to indicate the pedigree relations among these sires. The population analysed was of Dutch origin. The database covered the years 1950-2012 and comprised the information on 22 429 HF (Holstein-Friesian) cows with lifetime yield exceeding 100 000 kg of milk. They were the progeny of 3 888 sires. The conducted analysis proved that some bulls sire more top yielding cows (including those with the lifetime yield of 100 000 kg of milk or above) than others. Some of those sires were related to one another, and the ancestors of bulls that sired the greatest number of daughters belonged to the sire lines known worldwide.

Keywords

  • dairy cattle
  • lifetime yield
  • top cows
Otwarty dostęp

Cytogenetic Characterization of the Genome of Interspecies Hybrids (Alopex-Vulpes)

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 81 - 91

Abstrakt

Abstract

Creation of interspecific hybrids is widely common among plants and animals in order to improve economically important traits for humans. The studied material consisted of chromosomal preparations in the metaphase stage obtained from interspecies hybrids of arctic foxes (Alopex

lagopus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). The aim of the study was to analyze the karyotype of the interspecific hybrids taking into account the number of chromosomes of sets A and B. With the use of techniques of classical cytogenetics (C bands, AgNOR bands) and molecular cytogenetics (FISH, PRINS) we carried out a genome analysis of Alopex-Vulpes hybrids. The results of this study showed that chromosomal markers of the interspecies hybrids are inherited from the parent species and are a result of combination of their two genomes. However, intraindividual differences are also observed which may result from aberrations of chromosome segregation during embryonic development. This may lead to the formation of different cell lines with different karyotypes (mosaicism). Moreover, chromosomes of the interspecies hybrids showed telomeric signals at the ends, in the centromers, as well as short chromosome arm rich in heterochromatin. The use of PRINS method led to identification of nucleolus organizer regions on 12 chromosomes of the interspecies hybrids. The hybridization signals obtained were characterized by different size and intensity. In addition, single copies of rDNA in the centromeric regions of several metacentric chromosomes were identified.

Keywords

  • cytogenetics
  • red fox
  • arctic fox
  • hybrid (Alopex-Vulpes)

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of an Aloe Preparation and 5-Oxo-1,2,4-Triazine on the Redox Profile of the Blood of Turkey Hens Subjected to Stress

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 93 - 105

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine whether the introduction of stress affects corticosterone and malonyl dialdehyde levels and antioxidant indices of the blood of turkey hens, and whether additives used in conjunction with stress, such as aloe extract supplemented with trans-resveratrol and vitamin C or the amidrazone derivative 5-oxo-1,2,4-triazine, can mitigate adverse changes that may occur in these parameters. The experiment was carried out on 360 turkey hens allocated randomly to 6 groups of 60 birds each. Groups C and C(+)stress were the control groups and did not receive any additive. Birds from groups A and A(+)stress were administered aloe extract with the addition of trans-resveratrol and vitamin C in the amount of 0.70 ml/kg body weight (BW)/ day. The turkey hens from groups T and T(+)stress received 5-oxo-1,2,4-triazine in the amount of 30 μg/kg BW/day. Blood tests included determination of the content of corticosterone and malonyl dialdehyde (MDA), total plasma antioxidant potential (FRAP) and vitamin C, as well as activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT ) and glutathione peroxidase (PGx). The blood serum samples were also analysed for levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The stress factors applied resulted in a significant increase in the level of corticosterone and MDA and in SOD and CAT activity in the blood plasma of the turkey hens. A significant decrease in the level of vitamin C and total plasma antioxidant potential were also recorded in the birds treated with stress. The aloe preparation supplemented with trans-resveratrol and vitamin C caused a significant increase in vitamin C, FRAP, Fe and Cu, and a decrease in the corticosterone and MDA levels in the blood plasma of the turkey hens, while in the blood plasma of birds treated with 5-oxo-1,2,4-triazine a significant increase was noted in superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in the malonyl dialdehyde level. In order to alleviate the negative effect of stress, supplementation of diets with aloe extract supplemented with resveratrol and vitamin C may be considered.

Słowa kluczowe

  • turkey hens
  • aloe
  • 5-oxo-1,2,4-triazine
  • stress
  • blood
  • redox profile
Otwarty dostęp

Endometrial Cytology at Luteal and Follicular Phases of the Ovarian Cycle in Cows

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 107 - 117

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to examine cytological changes in the uterus in cows during the follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle, as well as to compare two different methods (brush and flushing) used for cytological material collection and to evaluate their usefulness for monitoring of the endometrium. Ovarian cycle phases were confirmed by ultrasound and by the level of sex hormones (17-β-estradiol and progesterone). The following types of cells were identified in the cytological smears: type I - surface cells; type II - intermediate cells; type III - basal cells; polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs); L - lymphocytes. The number of type I and III cells was statistically significantly higher in the follicular phase than in the luteal phase, both in smears prepared using a brush (P<0.001) and by uterine flush (P=0.003). The number of type II cells was statistically significantly higher in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase in both methods (P<0.001). The results of the study show that phases of the ovarian cycle in cows can be identified based on changes in the quality and percentage of different types of endometrial cells in a cytological examination.

Keywords

  • endometrial cytology
  • ovarian cycle
  • cows

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Achillea Millefolium L. and Matricaria Chamomilla L. on Consumption of Juniperus Oxycedrus L. and J. Phoenicea L. by Goats

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 119 - 127

Abstrakt

Abstract

Reduction in herbage production and plant diversity on rangelands on the coastal part of Croatia, due to invasion of terpene-rich shrubs has been recorded during the recent period. Therefore, there is a strong need to understand ecological relationships between plant and animal components of these shrubby ecosystems. Through four consecutive experiments, we investigated the potential of two well-known medicinal herbs, Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) and Matricaria chamomilla L. (chamomile), as a feed supplement to increase intake of two terpenoid shrubs, Juniperus oxycedrus and J. phoenicea, by goats. Preliminary research indicated that both yarrow and chamomile had a positive influence on the intake of J. phoenicea by goats, but not on the consumption of J. oxycedrus. Our model could be implemented in the field as an approach to reduce the abundance of J. phoenicea in the environment and to improve the quality of herbage (grasses and forbs) on Mediterranean pastures.

Słowa kluczowe

  • chamomile
  • medical plants
  • small ruminants
  • sustainable livestock production
  • yarrow
Otwarty dostęp

Concentrates Made from Legume Seeds (Lupinus Angustifolius, Lupinus Luteus and Pisum Sativum) and Rapeseed Meal as Protein Sources in Laying Hen Diets

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 129 - 142

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of two protein concentrates composed of rapeseed meal and new cultivars of narrow-leaved and yellow lupine, peas in laying hen diets and their influence on birds’ performance and egg characteristics. The experiment was conducted with 180 layers kept in individual cages. The birds were randomly assigned to three treatments, with 60 hens in each and during the period of 17 weeks, they were fed diets: I - containing soybean meal as a protein source, II - containing protein concentrates composed of mixture of lupines, peas (19.48% of diet) and rapeseed meal, III - containing protein concentrates composed of a mixture of lupines and peas (27.68% of diet). The body weight, laying rate, egg weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) and egg characteristics were registered. After 9 weeks of experiment, a decrease of laying rate was recorded in treatment III. The mean value of laying rate for 17 weeks amounted to 82.7 (I), 82.5 (II) and 75.9% (III) (P<0.01). The egg weight was diversified already after 4 weeks of egg production and averaged 57.9 (I), 55.9 (II) and 54.9 g (III) (P<0.05). Feed intake amounted to 108 (I), 111 (II) and 104 g per hen/day (III), and FCR was 2.05, 3.17 and 2.23 kg/kg egg weight, respectively. As to egg characteristics, increases of white index (P<0.05), Haugh unit score and yolk colour in treatment III were observed but egg shell thickness was found significantly reduced. In conclusion, the use of about 27.68% of legume seed in laying hen diet affected negatively performance results but about 19.48% of these seeds and 8% rapeseed meal in diets could be accepted as a soybean meal substitute.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lupine seeds
  • peas
  • performance
  • layers
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Variety and Plant Protection Method on Chemical Composition and in Vitro Digestibility of Faba Bean (Vicia Faba) Seeds

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 143 - 154

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the work was to determine the effect of faba bean varieties and plant protection method on their yield of seeds and protein, chemical composition, in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) and nutritive value for ruminant feeding. The study was carried out on four cultivars of faba beans grown in similar environmental conditions in a two-factorial field experiment. The variation between cultivars, modified by the plant protection method, in chemical composition and IVTD of seeds may suggest that there would be a need to estimate its real nutritive value used for diet formulation instead of one common value for faba bean species read from feed tables. It was shown that lowtannin varieties are characterized by slightly higher CP and lower NDF content and significantly (P<0.01) higher IVTD digestibility compared to traditional or terminal inflorescence varieties. Regardless of type of faba been variety, the highest seed and protein yields were found when insecticides were applied, with minor effect on chemical composition and the nutritive value of seeds.

Keywords

  • chemical composition
  • faba bean
  • nutritive value
  • ruminants
  • seeds

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Otwarty dostęp

Dry Period Length as Related to Milk Yield and SCC During the First Month of Subsequent Lactation

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 155 - 163

Abstrakt

Abstract

Analysis was made of the effect of dry period length in primiparous and multiparous cows on daily milk yield during the first month of subsequent lactation and on milk somatic cell count (SCC) on the basis of the information about the test-day milkings of 59 138 cows. The GLM and FREQ procedures of the SAS package were used in the statistical calculations. Dry period length in the primiparous and multiparous cows had a significant effect (P≤0.01) on daily milk yield and udder health, determined based on SCC. In terms of milk yield, the most favourable dry period would be 51-70 days for both primiparous and multiparous cows. Depending on udder health, a dry period of 51-90 days can be suggested. Shorter dry periods had more undesirable effects than longer dry periods. Excessively shortened dry period (≤10 days) caused the daily milk yield to decrease by 17% in primiparous and by 13% in multiparous cows while increasing the risk of clinical changes of the cow’s udder, regardless of age. The proportion of milk samples that showed evidence of clinical mastitis also increased when the dry period was excessively long (>90 days), especially in multiparous cows.

Keywords

  • dry period
  • primiparous
  • multiparous
  • milk yield
  • somatic cells
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Pig Farm on Microbial Contamination of Soil

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 165 - 175

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the study was to assess microbial contamination of soil collected in a swine farm and manure from animals housed there depending on the season of the year and the sampling site. The study was conducted from October to September. The soil samples were taken immediately at the pig house wall (GI), and at the distance of 15 m (GII) and 45 m (GIII) from the house wall. Besides, manure samples were collected inside the pig housing facility: at the entrance to the pig house (KI) and at 1/4 (KII) and 1/2 length of the animal facility (KIII). The soil and manure samples underwent qualitative and quantitative bacteriological evaluation. The study was conducted according to the procedure laid out in the Polish Standards. There was also assessed air temperature and relative moisture, air motion and cooling as well as sample moisture in the sampling site. The greatest number of all studied bacteria was determined in soil collected 15 m from the piggery (GII) in December/January. The highest coli titre (0.0001) was also established in the samples (GII) at that time. The qualitative analysis of soil showed solely the presence of E. coli bacteria which were recovered in the GII soils taken from November to May. The largest bacterial load in swine manure was determined in the samples collected at 1/2 length of the pig house (KII) at the end of December and January. The growth of all the analysed microbes was favoured by sample moisture, while air relative moisture prompted development of psychrophilic and proteolytic bacteria. E. coli were isolated in manure samples throughout the entire research period, whereas Enterobacter spp. were detected in the KI and KII samples from June to August and in KII samples from June to September. The winter period was shown to affect significantly microbial contamination of swine farm environment as at that time the highest bacterial load was determined in soil and manure. This is most likely to be associated with the climatic and microclimatic conditions observed in those days.

Keywords

  • pigs
  • soil
  • faeces
  • bacteria
Otwarty dostęp

Comparison of Different Measurement Variables Based on Hungarian Show Jumping Results

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 177 - 183

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to find a possible way to measure the performance of sport horses based on their show jumping results and to estimate the heritability and repeatability values of these performances. The performance was measured with transformation of ranks, taking into account the number of starters at competition and the competition level. The used transformations were logarithmic, square root and an inverse normal transformation known as Blom method. Competitions were categorized into five groups based on their level of difficulty. The level of difficulty of the competitions was used as weighting factors, so performance traits were distinguished being weighted and non-weighted. Show jumping competition results collected between 1996 and 2011 were analysed. The database contained 358342 starts of 10199 horses. Identity number, name and gender of the horse, rider, competition year, the level and location of the competition and ranks were recorded in the database. The used repeatability animal model included fixed effects for age, gender, competition place, year of competition, and random effects for rider, animal and permanent environment effect. Variance components were estimated with VCE-6 software package. The goodness-of-fit of the models was low and moderate (0.09-0.47). Fitting models for weighted traits had better goodness-of-fit value. The best goodness-of-fit values were found in the case of level weighted variables. Heritability (0.02-0.07) and repeatability values (0.09-0.25) were low for each measurement variable.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sport horse
  • performance measurement
  • REML
  • heritability
  • repeatability
Otwarty dostęp

Behavioural Responses of Primiparous and Multiparous Dairy Cows to The Milking Process over an Entire Lactation

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 185 - 195

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of this study was to examine associations between milking temperament, parity and milk production traits in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows. Twenty-one primiparous and nineteen multiparous Holstein Friesian cows were involved in the investigation on a Hungarian dairy farm. Cows’ stepping behaviour, milk yield and average milking speed were recorded once a month over an entire lactation, during morning milking. Milking temperament was scored by direct human observation on a 5-point-scale (1=very nervous, 5=very quiet) during udder preparation and milking. Multiparous cows showed a little more excitable behaviour at milking than during udder preparation (Mann-Whitney U=14165.00, P=0.032), and they were calmer at premilking preparation than primiparous cows (Mann-Whitney U=14046.00, P=0.001). Milking temperament of multiparous cows during udder preparation was associated with milking speed: nervous cows let down their milk slower (F=9.102, df= 1, P=0.003). Further experiments are needed to repeat the milking temperament test along with sensors measuring heart rate variability of cows in order to better understand the milking behaviour of cows.

Keywords

  • dairy cow
  • lactation
  • milking temperament
  • milking speed
  • milk yield
Otwarty dostęp

Characteristics of Organic Livestock Farms in Poland in 2009–2011

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 197 - 210

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was designed to provide a thorough characterization of individual organic farms with certified animal production in Poland in the years 2009-2011. The study consisted of a direct survey using a standard questionnaire. Monitoring of organic farms showed that organic animal production in Poland is still developing. The most common type is backyard subsistence farming for own consumption and possibly for direct sales at local markets. Organic farms with an area exceeding 20 ha tend to orient themselves towards specialized production of cattle, sheep or pigs, while medium-sized organic farms specialize in pork and organic lamb production. However, the observed specialization in livestock production on organic farms is still relatively small.

Keywords

  • organic farming
  • poultry
  • cattle
  • sheep
  • pigs
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Non-Genetic Factors on Standard Lactation Milk Performance Traits in Simmental Cows

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 211 - 220

Abstrakt

Abstract

The effect of systematic and continuous environmental factors on milk performance traits over standard lactations in 2805 Simmental cows was evaluated using the general linear model. The systematic factors included the effect of farm or breeding area, calving season, year of birth, season of birth, lactation group and their interactions. The continuous factor analysed was the effect of age at first conception. The effect of farm, lactation group and calving season on standard lactation milk performance was found to be highly significant (P<0.01), excepting the effect of calving season on milk fat percent in standard lactations which showed statistical significance (P<0.05). The interactions between year and season of birth, farm and calving season, and farm and lactation group had a highly significant effect (P<0.01) on all performance traits studied. Age at first conception, as a continuous factor, had a highly significant effect (P<0.01) on milk yield and milk fat percent, and a non-significant effect on milk fat yield. The model used to correct the performance traits over standard lactations for the effect of systematic factors was highly significant (P<0.01). The variance of the model accounted for 20.06 and 37.31% of the total variance of milk fat yield and milk fat percent, respectively. The resulting coefficients of determination (R2) ranged from 0.20 for milk fat yield to 0.37 for milk fat percent.

Keywords

  • coefficient of determination
  • milk performance
  • Simmental breed
  • systematic effects

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Adding Oregano Essential Oil, Garlic and Tomato Preparations Separately and in Combination on the Stability of Vacuum-Packed Minced Pork During Storage

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 221 - 235

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper investigates the effect of adding oregano essential oil (0.02% v/w), freeze-dried garlic (1%), tomato concentrate (15%) and a combination of all three (in the same concentrations) on the shelf life of minced pork meat. Vacuum-packed samples with additives and a control were stored at 6±1°C for 16 days. Sensory, microbiological and biochemical changes were analysed over the whole storage period. The beneficial effect of oregano essential oil was generally to inhibit lipid oxidation, although its effect on bacterial growth was very weak. Adding tomato concentrate, combined with other additives, slowed the rate of microbiological and sensory changes, but had a marked effect on changes in proteins (SDS-PAGE analysis) and the proportion of meat pigments. The addition of freeze-dried garlic did not cause a substantial reduction of detectable bacteria count. Adding a combination of all three additives resulted in a product with a distinctly longer shelf life.

Słowa kluczowe

  • minced pork
  • vacuum storage
  • oregano essential oil
  • garlic
  • tomato concentrate
Otwarty dostęp

The Effects of Different Storage Temperatures and Time on The Survival of Cpe (+) Clostridium Perfringens Type A in Çiğ Köfte (A Traditional Turkish Raw Meat Product)

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 237 - 245

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the survival of cpe (+) Clostridium perfringens type A in çiğ köfte. For this purpose, çiğ köfte samples were artificially contaminated with the pathogen, and then the samples were stored at 4, 24 and 30ºC for 72 h. The numbers of cpe (+) Clostridium perfringens type A, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the samples were analysed at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of storage. The number of the pathogen in the samples stored at 30ºC significantly decreased during the storage and dropped below detection level (10 cfu/g) after 48 h while the reduction number of the pathogen in the samples stored at 4ºC was 1.60 log cfu/g at the end of the 72 h. The numbers of the TAMB and LAB in the samples stored at 24ºC and 30ºC rapidly increased compared to the samples stored at 4°C during the storage period (P<0.05). This study demonstrates that this pathogen can survive in çiğ köfte stored at refrigeration temperature for more than 3 days, but cannot survive at 30ºC for 3 days.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cpe (+) C. perfringens type A
  • time
  • temperature
  • çiğ köfte
  • survival
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Breed and Production System on Physicochemical Characteristics of Meat From Multi-Purpose Hens

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 247 - 261

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of breed (A) and free-range production system (B) on quality of meat from hens of two breeds, Greenleg Partridge (Z-11) and Rhode Island Red (R-11), which are under the biodiversity conservation programme in Poland. Subjects were 120 hens of each breed, which were assigned to two treatment groups differing in the housing system: 60 layers were kept on litter without outdoor access (C) and 60 layers were raised on litter with access to free range (FR). At 56 weeks of age, 8 hens were randomly chosen from each group, slaughtered, and subjected to slaughter analysis. It was found from the study that carcasses from 56-week-old multi-purpose hens are characterized by poor muscle development and considerable fat content. After the first year of egg production, the meat of hens was characterized by low tenderness, high water holding capacity, and a fatty acid profile that was desirable from the viewpoint of human nutrition. In the meat of hens that completed their first year of egg production, the profile of fatty acids was beneficial from the standpoint of human nutrition. The free-range production system reduced carcass fatness, enhanced carcass and meat yellowness, and increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (both n-6 and n-3) in breast and leg muscles while causing no significant changes in the content of saturated fatty acids. The meat of the native Z-11 breed was found to contain less saturated and more unsaturated fatty acids compared to the meat of R-11 hens. There was no statistically significant effect of the production system on the sensory evaluation of cooked meat and broth.

Słowa kluczowe

  • hens
  • biodiversity
  • free range
  • meat quality
  • fatty acid
20 Artykułów

Review

Otwarty dostęp

The Effect of a Coat Colour-Associated Genes Polymorphism on Animal Health – A Review

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 3 - 17

Abstrakt

Abstract

In recent years, the knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms of skin, hair and eye colouration in vertebrates has significantly broadened. It was found that some of the identified coat colour genes show negative pleiotropic effect. They are associated with hereditary diseases, often of a lethal character. Most of these diseases have their counterparts in humans. There is no effective treatment for these diseases, therefore animal models can help to identify the genetic background of diseases and to develop appropriate treatment. Much less is known on the association of coat colour with animal performance. However, there are reports on the effect of coat colour on body measurements and milk production in subtropical environments. The knowledge on pleiotropic effects of coat colour genes is important for breeders who should be aware of the consequences of their decision on mating animals with given genotype.

Keywords

  • coat colour
  • diseases
  • productivity
  • pleiotropic effects
Otwarty dostęp

Diabetes Mellitus in Cats Relevant to Human Type 2 Diabetes – Current Knowledge and New Treatment Strategies – A Review

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 19 - 30

Abstrakt

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most commonly encountered endocrinopathies in domestic cats. Numerous studies have shown that feline diabetes mellitus (FDM) closely resembles human type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a common pathogenesis including insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion as well as the same risk factors. This similarity provides ground for better understanding of their pathogenesis as well as more efficient management, novel treatment and prevention options for the disease in both species. Recently, modulation of the incretin system has become a new area of active investigations by several pharmaceutical companies. Concerning the role of incretins in glucose homeostasis, therapies based on activating the incretin axis have proved highly effective in treating T2DM. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptors agonists and dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been recently developed agents for diabetes therapy. Furthermore, studies in healthy cats demonstrated that those drugs stimulate insulin secretion and lower glucagon levels. There is a need of additional clinical evaluation of action of the drugs in cats suffering from FDM. Moreover, studies in cats may contribute to the development of knowledge on the use of new drugs in treatment of human T2DM because cats are an excellent model for the study of diabetes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • feline diabetes mellitus
  • human type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • the incretin effect
  • DPP-4 inhibitors
  • GLP-1 receptors agonists
Otwarty dostęp

Acute Stress, Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal-Gonadal Axis and Testicular Function – A Review

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 31 - 50

Abstrakt

Abstract

The fact that the stress response affects testicular function in several animal species, has been established for several decades. The aim of the present review was to describe how the mechanisms involved in the acute stress response affect directly or indirectly the testicular function at different levels. Both neuroendocrine axes linked to the stress response, i.e., the sympathetic-adrenomedullar (SAM) axis and the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenal (HHA) axis, affect the functioning of the hypothalamus-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) axis. Furthermore, both axes affect testicular function directly. Several reports support the concept that, in general terms, the HHA axis (as well as the hormones belonging to it) inhibits the HHG axis and also has direct effects on testicular function. The information regarding the effects of the SAM axis either on the HHG axis or as direct effects on testicular function are contradictory, and depends on whether the studies were performed in vivo or in vitro. Nevertheless, in general, stimulative effects are reported by the SAM axis. Both hormonal axes linked to the stress response exert direct effects on testicular function, on Leydig, Sertoli, myoid, and germ cells.

Keywords

  • stress response
  • hypothalamus
  • hypophysis
  • testis

Animal genetics and breeding

Otwarty dostęp

Variation in Growth Performance and Carcass Yield of Pure and Reciprocal Crossbred Turkeys

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 51 - 66

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study compared growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality rate and results of slaughter analysis of slow-growing Bronze turkeys (SG), fast-growing Big 6 turkeys (FG), and their reciprocal crosses (SF and FS). Until 6 weeks of age the birds were kept indoors and afterwards they were allowed to use free ranges. Toms were reared until 21 and hens until 15 weeks of age. The FS turkeys were characterized by higher (P≤0.05) BW and dressing percentage and by lower FCR compared to the SF crosses of both sexes. The analysis of orthogonal contrasts demonstrated that values of most of the slaughter analysis parameters were due to the additive effect of genes. Only weight of skin with fat and of gizzard could result from heterosis. Study results demonstrate that FS crosses constitute better material for the alternative production of turkeys compared to the other analysed groups (SG, SF, FG).

Keywords

  • turkeys
  • reciprocal crosses
  • growth
  • carcass yield
Otwarty dostęp

Pedigree Analysis of Top Milk Yielding Cows

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 67 - 80

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the research was to identify the sires that left the greatest number of cows with lifetime yield over 100 000 kg of milk, and to indicate the pedigree relations among these sires. The population analysed was of Dutch origin. The database covered the years 1950-2012 and comprised the information on 22 429 HF (Holstein-Friesian) cows with lifetime yield exceeding 100 000 kg of milk. They were the progeny of 3 888 sires. The conducted analysis proved that some bulls sire more top yielding cows (including those with the lifetime yield of 100 000 kg of milk or above) than others. Some of those sires were related to one another, and the ancestors of bulls that sired the greatest number of daughters belonged to the sire lines known worldwide.

Keywords

  • dairy cattle
  • lifetime yield
  • top cows
Otwarty dostęp

Cytogenetic Characterization of the Genome of Interspecies Hybrids (Alopex-Vulpes)

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 81 - 91

Abstrakt

Abstract

Creation of interspecific hybrids is widely common among plants and animals in order to improve economically important traits for humans. The studied material consisted of chromosomal preparations in the metaphase stage obtained from interspecies hybrids of arctic foxes (Alopex

lagopus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). The aim of the study was to analyze the karyotype of the interspecific hybrids taking into account the number of chromosomes of sets A and B. With the use of techniques of classical cytogenetics (C bands, AgNOR bands) and molecular cytogenetics (FISH, PRINS) we carried out a genome analysis of Alopex-Vulpes hybrids. The results of this study showed that chromosomal markers of the interspecies hybrids are inherited from the parent species and are a result of combination of their two genomes. However, intraindividual differences are also observed which may result from aberrations of chromosome segregation during embryonic development. This may lead to the formation of different cell lines with different karyotypes (mosaicism). Moreover, chromosomes of the interspecies hybrids showed telomeric signals at the ends, in the centromers, as well as short chromosome arm rich in heterochromatin. The use of PRINS method led to identification of nucleolus organizer regions on 12 chromosomes of the interspecies hybrids. The hybridization signals obtained were characterized by different size and intensity. In addition, single copies of rDNA in the centromeric regions of several metacentric chromosomes were identified.

Keywords

  • cytogenetics
  • red fox
  • arctic fox
  • hybrid (Alopex-Vulpes)

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of an Aloe Preparation and 5-Oxo-1,2,4-Triazine on the Redox Profile of the Blood of Turkey Hens Subjected to Stress

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 93 - 105

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine whether the introduction of stress affects corticosterone and malonyl dialdehyde levels and antioxidant indices of the blood of turkey hens, and whether additives used in conjunction with stress, such as aloe extract supplemented with trans-resveratrol and vitamin C or the amidrazone derivative 5-oxo-1,2,4-triazine, can mitigate adverse changes that may occur in these parameters. The experiment was carried out on 360 turkey hens allocated randomly to 6 groups of 60 birds each. Groups C and C(+)stress were the control groups and did not receive any additive. Birds from groups A and A(+)stress were administered aloe extract with the addition of trans-resveratrol and vitamin C in the amount of 0.70 ml/kg body weight (BW)/ day. The turkey hens from groups T and T(+)stress received 5-oxo-1,2,4-triazine in the amount of 30 μg/kg BW/day. Blood tests included determination of the content of corticosterone and malonyl dialdehyde (MDA), total plasma antioxidant potential (FRAP) and vitamin C, as well as activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT ) and glutathione peroxidase (PGx). The blood serum samples were also analysed for levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The stress factors applied resulted in a significant increase in the level of corticosterone and MDA and in SOD and CAT activity in the blood plasma of the turkey hens. A significant decrease in the level of vitamin C and total plasma antioxidant potential were also recorded in the birds treated with stress. The aloe preparation supplemented with trans-resveratrol and vitamin C caused a significant increase in vitamin C, FRAP, Fe and Cu, and a decrease in the corticosterone and MDA levels in the blood plasma of the turkey hens, while in the blood plasma of birds treated with 5-oxo-1,2,4-triazine a significant increase was noted in superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in the malonyl dialdehyde level. In order to alleviate the negative effect of stress, supplementation of diets with aloe extract supplemented with resveratrol and vitamin C may be considered.

Słowa kluczowe

  • turkey hens
  • aloe
  • 5-oxo-1,2,4-triazine
  • stress
  • blood
  • redox profile
Otwarty dostęp

Endometrial Cytology at Luteal and Follicular Phases of the Ovarian Cycle in Cows

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 107 - 117

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to examine cytological changes in the uterus in cows during the follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle, as well as to compare two different methods (brush and flushing) used for cytological material collection and to evaluate their usefulness for monitoring of the endometrium. Ovarian cycle phases were confirmed by ultrasound and by the level of sex hormones (17-β-estradiol and progesterone). The following types of cells were identified in the cytological smears: type I - surface cells; type II - intermediate cells; type III - basal cells; polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs); L - lymphocytes. The number of type I and III cells was statistically significantly higher in the follicular phase than in the luteal phase, both in smears prepared using a brush (P<0.001) and by uterine flush (P=0.003). The number of type II cells was statistically significantly higher in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase in both methods (P<0.001). The results of the study show that phases of the ovarian cycle in cows can be identified based on changes in the quality and percentage of different types of endometrial cells in a cytological examination.

Keywords

  • endometrial cytology
  • ovarian cycle
  • cows

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Achillea Millefolium L. and Matricaria Chamomilla L. on Consumption of Juniperus Oxycedrus L. and J. Phoenicea L. by Goats

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 119 - 127

Abstrakt

Abstract

Reduction in herbage production and plant diversity on rangelands on the coastal part of Croatia, due to invasion of terpene-rich shrubs has been recorded during the recent period. Therefore, there is a strong need to understand ecological relationships between plant and animal components of these shrubby ecosystems. Through four consecutive experiments, we investigated the potential of two well-known medicinal herbs, Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) and Matricaria chamomilla L. (chamomile), as a feed supplement to increase intake of two terpenoid shrubs, Juniperus oxycedrus and J. phoenicea, by goats. Preliminary research indicated that both yarrow and chamomile had a positive influence on the intake of J. phoenicea by goats, but not on the consumption of J. oxycedrus. Our model could be implemented in the field as an approach to reduce the abundance of J. phoenicea in the environment and to improve the quality of herbage (grasses and forbs) on Mediterranean pastures.

Słowa kluczowe

  • chamomile
  • medical plants
  • small ruminants
  • sustainable livestock production
  • yarrow
Otwarty dostęp

Concentrates Made from Legume Seeds (Lupinus Angustifolius, Lupinus Luteus and Pisum Sativum) and Rapeseed Meal as Protein Sources in Laying Hen Diets

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 129 - 142

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of two protein concentrates composed of rapeseed meal and new cultivars of narrow-leaved and yellow lupine, peas in laying hen diets and their influence on birds’ performance and egg characteristics. The experiment was conducted with 180 layers kept in individual cages. The birds were randomly assigned to three treatments, with 60 hens in each and during the period of 17 weeks, they were fed diets: I - containing soybean meal as a protein source, II - containing protein concentrates composed of mixture of lupines, peas (19.48% of diet) and rapeseed meal, III - containing protein concentrates composed of a mixture of lupines and peas (27.68% of diet). The body weight, laying rate, egg weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) and egg characteristics were registered. After 9 weeks of experiment, a decrease of laying rate was recorded in treatment III. The mean value of laying rate for 17 weeks amounted to 82.7 (I), 82.5 (II) and 75.9% (III) (P<0.01). The egg weight was diversified already after 4 weeks of egg production and averaged 57.9 (I), 55.9 (II) and 54.9 g (III) (P<0.05). Feed intake amounted to 108 (I), 111 (II) and 104 g per hen/day (III), and FCR was 2.05, 3.17 and 2.23 kg/kg egg weight, respectively. As to egg characteristics, increases of white index (P<0.05), Haugh unit score and yolk colour in treatment III were observed but egg shell thickness was found significantly reduced. In conclusion, the use of about 27.68% of legume seed in laying hen diet affected negatively performance results but about 19.48% of these seeds and 8% rapeseed meal in diets could be accepted as a soybean meal substitute.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lupine seeds
  • peas
  • performance
  • layers
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Variety and Plant Protection Method on Chemical Composition and in Vitro Digestibility of Faba Bean (Vicia Faba) Seeds

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 143 - 154

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the work was to determine the effect of faba bean varieties and plant protection method on their yield of seeds and protein, chemical composition, in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) and nutritive value for ruminant feeding. The study was carried out on four cultivars of faba beans grown in similar environmental conditions in a two-factorial field experiment. The variation between cultivars, modified by the plant protection method, in chemical composition and IVTD of seeds may suggest that there would be a need to estimate its real nutritive value used for diet formulation instead of one common value for faba bean species read from feed tables. It was shown that lowtannin varieties are characterized by slightly higher CP and lower NDF content and significantly (P<0.01) higher IVTD digestibility compared to traditional or terminal inflorescence varieties. Regardless of type of faba been variety, the highest seed and protein yields were found when insecticides were applied, with minor effect on chemical composition and the nutritive value of seeds.

Keywords

  • chemical composition
  • faba bean
  • nutritive value
  • ruminants
  • seeds

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Otwarty dostęp

Dry Period Length as Related to Milk Yield and SCC During the First Month of Subsequent Lactation

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 155 - 163

Abstrakt

Abstract

Analysis was made of the effect of dry period length in primiparous and multiparous cows on daily milk yield during the first month of subsequent lactation and on milk somatic cell count (SCC) on the basis of the information about the test-day milkings of 59 138 cows. The GLM and FREQ procedures of the SAS package were used in the statistical calculations. Dry period length in the primiparous and multiparous cows had a significant effect (P≤0.01) on daily milk yield and udder health, determined based on SCC. In terms of milk yield, the most favourable dry period would be 51-70 days for both primiparous and multiparous cows. Depending on udder health, a dry period of 51-90 days can be suggested. Shorter dry periods had more undesirable effects than longer dry periods. Excessively shortened dry period (≤10 days) caused the daily milk yield to decrease by 17% in primiparous and by 13% in multiparous cows while increasing the risk of clinical changes of the cow’s udder, regardless of age. The proportion of milk samples that showed evidence of clinical mastitis also increased when the dry period was excessively long (>90 days), especially in multiparous cows.

Keywords

  • dry period
  • primiparous
  • multiparous
  • milk yield
  • somatic cells
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Pig Farm on Microbial Contamination of Soil

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 165 - 175

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the study was to assess microbial contamination of soil collected in a swine farm and manure from animals housed there depending on the season of the year and the sampling site. The study was conducted from October to September. The soil samples were taken immediately at the pig house wall (GI), and at the distance of 15 m (GII) and 45 m (GIII) from the house wall. Besides, manure samples were collected inside the pig housing facility: at the entrance to the pig house (KI) and at 1/4 (KII) and 1/2 length of the animal facility (KIII). The soil and manure samples underwent qualitative and quantitative bacteriological evaluation. The study was conducted according to the procedure laid out in the Polish Standards. There was also assessed air temperature and relative moisture, air motion and cooling as well as sample moisture in the sampling site. The greatest number of all studied bacteria was determined in soil collected 15 m from the piggery (GII) in December/January. The highest coli titre (0.0001) was also established in the samples (GII) at that time. The qualitative analysis of soil showed solely the presence of E. coli bacteria which were recovered in the GII soils taken from November to May. The largest bacterial load in swine manure was determined in the samples collected at 1/2 length of the pig house (KII) at the end of December and January. The growth of all the analysed microbes was favoured by sample moisture, while air relative moisture prompted development of psychrophilic and proteolytic bacteria. E. coli were isolated in manure samples throughout the entire research period, whereas Enterobacter spp. were detected in the KI and KII samples from June to August and in KII samples from June to September. The winter period was shown to affect significantly microbial contamination of swine farm environment as at that time the highest bacterial load was determined in soil and manure. This is most likely to be associated with the climatic and microclimatic conditions observed in those days.

Keywords

  • pigs
  • soil
  • faeces
  • bacteria
Otwarty dostęp

Comparison of Different Measurement Variables Based on Hungarian Show Jumping Results

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 177 - 183

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to find a possible way to measure the performance of sport horses based on their show jumping results and to estimate the heritability and repeatability values of these performances. The performance was measured with transformation of ranks, taking into account the number of starters at competition and the competition level. The used transformations were logarithmic, square root and an inverse normal transformation known as Blom method. Competitions were categorized into five groups based on their level of difficulty. The level of difficulty of the competitions was used as weighting factors, so performance traits were distinguished being weighted and non-weighted. Show jumping competition results collected between 1996 and 2011 were analysed. The database contained 358342 starts of 10199 horses. Identity number, name and gender of the horse, rider, competition year, the level and location of the competition and ranks were recorded in the database. The used repeatability animal model included fixed effects for age, gender, competition place, year of competition, and random effects for rider, animal and permanent environment effect. Variance components were estimated with VCE-6 software package. The goodness-of-fit of the models was low and moderate (0.09-0.47). Fitting models for weighted traits had better goodness-of-fit value. The best goodness-of-fit values were found in the case of level weighted variables. Heritability (0.02-0.07) and repeatability values (0.09-0.25) were low for each measurement variable.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sport horse
  • performance measurement
  • REML
  • heritability
  • repeatability
Otwarty dostęp

Behavioural Responses of Primiparous and Multiparous Dairy Cows to The Milking Process over an Entire Lactation

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 185 - 195

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of this study was to examine associations between milking temperament, parity and milk production traits in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows. Twenty-one primiparous and nineteen multiparous Holstein Friesian cows were involved in the investigation on a Hungarian dairy farm. Cows’ stepping behaviour, milk yield and average milking speed were recorded once a month over an entire lactation, during morning milking. Milking temperament was scored by direct human observation on a 5-point-scale (1=very nervous, 5=very quiet) during udder preparation and milking. Multiparous cows showed a little more excitable behaviour at milking than during udder preparation (Mann-Whitney U=14165.00, P=0.032), and they were calmer at premilking preparation than primiparous cows (Mann-Whitney U=14046.00, P=0.001). Milking temperament of multiparous cows during udder preparation was associated with milking speed: nervous cows let down their milk slower (F=9.102, df= 1, P=0.003). Further experiments are needed to repeat the milking temperament test along with sensors measuring heart rate variability of cows in order to better understand the milking behaviour of cows.

Keywords

  • dairy cow
  • lactation
  • milking temperament
  • milking speed
  • milk yield
Otwarty dostęp

Characteristics of Organic Livestock Farms in Poland in 2009–2011

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 197 - 210

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was designed to provide a thorough characterization of individual organic farms with certified animal production in Poland in the years 2009-2011. The study consisted of a direct survey using a standard questionnaire. Monitoring of organic farms showed that organic animal production in Poland is still developing. The most common type is backyard subsistence farming for own consumption and possibly for direct sales at local markets. Organic farms with an area exceeding 20 ha tend to orient themselves towards specialized production of cattle, sheep or pigs, while medium-sized organic farms specialize in pork and organic lamb production. However, the observed specialization in livestock production on organic farms is still relatively small.

Keywords

  • organic farming
  • poultry
  • cattle
  • sheep
  • pigs
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Non-Genetic Factors on Standard Lactation Milk Performance Traits in Simmental Cows

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 211 - 220

Abstrakt

Abstract

The effect of systematic and continuous environmental factors on milk performance traits over standard lactations in 2805 Simmental cows was evaluated using the general linear model. The systematic factors included the effect of farm or breeding area, calving season, year of birth, season of birth, lactation group and their interactions. The continuous factor analysed was the effect of age at first conception. The effect of farm, lactation group and calving season on standard lactation milk performance was found to be highly significant (P<0.01), excepting the effect of calving season on milk fat percent in standard lactations which showed statistical significance (P<0.05). The interactions between year and season of birth, farm and calving season, and farm and lactation group had a highly significant effect (P<0.01) on all performance traits studied. Age at first conception, as a continuous factor, had a highly significant effect (P<0.01) on milk yield and milk fat percent, and a non-significant effect on milk fat yield. The model used to correct the performance traits over standard lactations for the effect of systematic factors was highly significant (P<0.01). The variance of the model accounted for 20.06 and 37.31% of the total variance of milk fat yield and milk fat percent, respectively. The resulting coefficients of determination (R2) ranged from 0.20 for milk fat yield to 0.37 for milk fat percent.

Keywords

  • coefficient of determination
  • milk performance
  • Simmental breed
  • systematic effects

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Adding Oregano Essential Oil, Garlic and Tomato Preparations Separately and in Combination on the Stability of Vacuum-Packed Minced Pork During Storage

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 221 - 235

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper investigates the effect of adding oregano essential oil (0.02% v/w), freeze-dried garlic (1%), tomato concentrate (15%) and a combination of all three (in the same concentrations) on the shelf life of minced pork meat. Vacuum-packed samples with additives and a control were stored at 6±1°C for 16 days. Sensory, microbiological and biochemical changes were analysed over the whole storage period. The beneficial effect of oregano essential oil was generally to inhibit lipid oxidation, although its effect on bacterial growth was very weak. Adding tomato concentrate, combined with other additives, slowed the rate of microbiological and sensory changes, but had a marked effect on changes in proteins (SDS-PAGE analysis) and the proportion of meat pigments. The addition of freeze-dried garlic did not cause a substantial reduction of detectable bacteria count. Adding a combination of all three additives resulted in a product with a distinctly longer shelf life.

Słowa kluczowe

  • minced pork
  • vacuum storage
  • oregano essential oil
  • garlic
  • tomato concentrate
Otwarty dostęp

The Effects of Different Storage Temperatures and Time on The Survival of Cpe (+) Clostridium Perfringens Type A in Çiğ Köfte (A Traditional Turkish Raw Meat Product)

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 237 - 245

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the survival of cpe (+) Clostridium perfringens type A in çiğ köfte. For this purpose, çiğ köfte samples were artificially contaminated with the pathogen, and then the samples were stored at 4, 24 and 30ºC for 72 h. The numbers of cpe (+) Clostridium perfringens type A, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the samples were analysed at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of storage. The number of the pathogen in the samples stored at 30ºC significantly decreased during the storage and dropped below detection level (10 cfu/g) after 48 h while the reduction number of the pathogen in the samples stored at 4ºC was 1.60 log cfu/g at the end of the 72 h. The numbers of the TAMB and LAB in the samples stored at 24ºC and 30ºC rapidly increased compared to the samples stored at 4°C during the storage period (P<0.05). This study demonstrates that this pathogen can survive in çiğ köfte stored at refrigeration temperature for more than 3 days, but cannot survive at 30ºC for 3 days.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cpe (+) C. perfringens type A
  • time
  • temperature
  • çiğ köfte
  • survival
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Breed and Production System on Physicochemical Characteristics of Meat From Multi-Purpose Hens

Data publikacji: 03 Mar 2015
Zakres stron: 247 - 261

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of breed (A) and free-range production system (B) on quality of meat from hens of two breeds, Greenleg Partridge (Z-11) and Rhode Island Red (R-11), which are under the biodiversity conservation programme in Poland. Subjects were 120 hens of each breed, which were assigned to two treatment groups differing in the housing system: 60 layers were kept on litter without outdoor access (C) and 60 layers were raised on litter with access to free range (FR). At 56 weeks of age, 8 hens were randomly chosen from each group, slaughtered, and subjected to slaughter analysis. It was found from the study that carcasses from 56-week-old multi-purpose hens are characterized by poor muscle development and considerable fat content. After the first year of egg production, the meat of hens was characterized by low tenderness, high water holding capacity, and a fatty acid profile that was desirable from the viewpoint of human nutrition. In the meat of hens that completed their first year of egg production, the profile of fatty acids was beneficial from the standpoint of human nutrition. The free-range production system reduced carcass fatness, enhanced carcass and meat yellowness, and increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (both n-6 and n-3) in breast and leg muscles while causing no significant changes in the content of saturated fatty acids. The meat of the native Z-11 breed was found to contain less saturated and more unsaturated fatty acids compared to the meat of R-11 hens. There was no statistically significant effect of the production system on the sensory evaluation of cooked meat and broth.

Słowa kluczowe

  • hens
  • biodiversity
  • free range
  • meat quality
  • fatty acid

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