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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8733
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 20 (2020): Zeszyt 3 (July 2020)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8733
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

23 Artykułów

Review

Otwarty dostęp

A Review on Bovine Mastitis with Special Focus on CD4 as a Potential Candidate Gene for Mastitis Resistance – A Review

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 735 - 755

Abstrakt

Abstract

Mastitis is аn inflammation оf thе mammary gland, caused by the invasion and duplication оf Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus uberis (S. uberis) аnd Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) аnd а wide variety оf оthеr microorganisms thrоugh teat оr damaged nipple, decreasing potential milk production іn thе affected quarter оf mammary gland. Economic, animal productivity, international trade and animal welfare issues associated with mastitis play an important role in the agricultural industry. Therefore, worldwide dairy cattle breeding programmes are trying to breed cows wіth improved resistance tо mastitis. Mastitis can’t be eliminated but can be reduced to a low level. It can be achieved by breeding strategies, reducing the exposure to pathogen and increasing the resistance to intramammary infection. Numerous therapeutic, prophylactic аnd management techniques аrе uѕеd аѕ control and reduce the mastitis. However, а widely proposed strategy marker assisted selection uѕіng candidate gene approach which іѕ based оn improving thе host genetics. One of them is cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) gene, which is а glycoprotein located оn receptors оf immune cells. CD4 exhibit аn essential role іn a variety of inflammation related conditions іn mаnу species. Therefore, CD4 as a candidate gene for resistance to mastitis has received considerable attention. The review is based on a study of CD4 in association with improving resistance to mastitis and it may be helpful in formulating breeding programmes and marker assisted selection to lower the mastitis.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mastitis
  • inflammation
  • candidate gene
  • mammary gland
Otwarty dostęp

Associations of CAST, CAPN1 and MSTN Genes Polymorphism with Slaughter Value and Beef Quality – A Review

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 757 - 774

Abstrakt

Abstract

The slaughter value of cattle and beef quality are influenced by many factors, which can generally be divided into antemortem (breed, sex, age, housing system, diet, pre-slaughter handling) and postmortem (post-slaughter processing, chilling temperature, packaging). Studies of many authors have shown that meat quality traits can be also influenced by the individual genetic background of an animal. Numerous studies have been conducted worldwide to determine the functions of various genes as well as polymorphisms with potential effects on fattening and slaughter value of cattle and on beef quality. This study reviews the most important research done on the associations of polymorphisms in the calpain, calpastatin and myostatin genes with carcass traits and beef quality. Knowledge about the genes and chromosome regions associated with desired meat quality characteristics may prove very helpful when selecting pairs for mating and estimating the breeding value of offspring, mainly because it is difficult to improve meat quality traits based on conventional selection methods due to their low heritability and polygenic regulation. Furthermore, meat quality evaluation is expensive and can only be carried out after slaughter.

Słowa kluczowe

  • calpain
  • calpastatin
  • myostatin
  • slaughter value
  • beef
Otwarty dostęp

In vitro Production of Porcine Embryos: Current Status and Possibilities – A Review

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 775 - 796

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents the current possibilities, state of knowledge and prospects of in vitro production (IVP) of pig embryos, which consists of in vitro oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization and in vitro embryo culture. In pigs, oocyte maturation is one of the most important stages in the embryo IVP process. It determines the oocyte’s fertilization ability as well as its embryonic development. Through many research studies of the proper selection of oocytes and appropriate maturation medium composition (especially the addition of various supplements), the in vitro maturation of pig oocytes has been significantly improved. Recent studies have demonstrated that modifications of the diluents and in vitro fertilization media can reduce polyspermy. Furthermore, several adjustments of the porcine culture media with the addition of some supplements have enhanced the embryo quality and developmental competence. These updates show the progress of IVP in pigs that has been achieved; however, many problems remain unsolved.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pig
  • oocyte maturation
  • fertilization
  • embryo
  • culture
Otwarty dostęp

To What Extent Does Photoperiod Affect Cattle Reproduction? Clinical Perspectives of Melatonin Administration – A Review

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 797 - 809

Abstrakt

Abstract

The seasonality of reproduction in most mammals is dictated by photoperiod, temperature and nutrition. Melatonin, mainly synthesized in the pineal gland, is generally accepted as the active mediator of photoperiod responses including reproduction. While non-pregnant heifers and cows show continuous sexual activity and are therefore not seasonal breeders, it has been suggested that photo-periodicity may influence the appearance of puberty in heifers and the onset of parturition. Further, the light/dark ratio may influence endocrine patterns of gestation and a shorter light period correlates with the incidence of twin pregnancies. This review considers specific aspects of the effects of photoperiod and melatonin on reproduction in dairy cattle and discusses the clinical applications of melatonin.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dark-light cycles
  • heat stress
  • fertility
  • twin pregnancy
  • prolactin

Animal genetics and breeding

Otwarty dostęp

Genome-Wide Association Study of Weaning Traits in Lori-Bakhtiari Sheep

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 811 - 824

Abstrakt

Abstract

Weaning traits, including preweaning daily gain (PWDG) and weaning weight (WW) are important economic traits, especially for meat type mammals, with high impacts on growth performance and survival rate in higher ages. This study was conducted to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on weaning traits in a meat type breed of sheep. Body weight records of 7557 Lori-Bakhtiari sheep with PWDG and WW records were used to estimate breeding values (EBVs) using an animal mixed model. A total of 132 animals were selected by two-tailed selection strategy, based on EBVs for body weight and then were genotyped using Illumina 50k Ovine SNP chip. After quality control, a total of 130 animals and 41323 SNPs were remained for further analyses. De-regressed estimates of breeding values were used as a pseudo-phenotype in GWAS analysis. Based on Bonferroni-adjusted p-values, five SNPs, located on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 12 and 22 were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with weaning traits and accounted for 5.06% and 0.37% of total genetic variations of PWDG and WW, respectively. Two SNPs on chromosomes 2 and 3 were located near to previously reported QTLs for weaning traits. Three genes, including ANGPTL7, mTOR and WDR11, were found within 50 kbp distances from the significant SNPs and thus could be considered as candidate genes for weaning traits. The detected QTLs and candidate genes could be studied for construction of breeding programs for genetic improvement of growth performance in meat type sheep.

Słowa kluczowe

  • body weight
  • growth
  • quantitative trait loci (QTL)
  • single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
  • candidate gene
Otwarty dostęp

Genome-Wide Association Study and Pathway Analysis for Female Fertility Traits in Iranian Holstein Cattle

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 825 - 851

Abstrakt

Abstract

Female fertility is an important trait that contributes to cow’s profitability and it can be improved by genomic information. The objective of this study was to detect genomic regions and variants affecting fertility traits in Iranian Holstein cattle. A data set comprised of female fertility records and 3,452,730 pedigree information from Iranian Holstein cattle were used to predict the breeding values, which were then employed to estimate the de-regressed proofs (DRP) of genotyped animals. A total of 878 animals with DRP records and 54k SNP markers were utilized in the genome-wide association study (GWAS). The GWAS was performed using a linear regression model with SNP genotype as a linear covariate. The results showed that an SNP on BTA19, ARS-BFGL-NGS-33473, was the most significant SNP associated with days from calving to first service. In total, [69] significant SNPs were located within 27 candidate genes. Novel potential candidate genes include OSTN, DPP6, EphA5, CADPS2, Rfc1, ADGRB3, Myo3a, C10H14orf93, KIAA1217, RBPJL, SLC18A2, GARNL3, NCALD, ASPH, ASIC2, OR3A1, CHRNB4, CACNA2D2, DLGAP1, GRIN2A and ME3. These genes are involved in different pathways relevant to female fertility and other characteristics in mammals. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that thirteen GO terms had significant overrepresentation of genes statistically associated with female fertility traits. The results of network analysis identified CCNB1 gene as a hub gene in the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, significantly associated with age at first calving. The candidate genes identified in this study can be utilized in genomic tests to improve reproductive performance in Holstein cattle.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cattle
  • candidate gene
  • GWAS
  • gene set enrichment

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Otwarty dostęp

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Affects mRNA and miRNA Expression of the Appetite Regulating Centre in the Sheep Arcuate Nucleus

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 853 - 869

Abstrakt

Abstract

The neuromodulatory effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on appetite regulation centre peptide gene activity in the sheep hypothalamus have not been examined yet. The aim of this study was to determine whether BDNF participates in modulation of neuropeptide Y (npy), agouti-related peptide (agrp), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (cart), and proopiomelanocortin (pomc) mRNA expression and selected microRNAs in the sheep hypothalamic arcuate (ARC) nucleus. Animals (Polish Merino sheep, n=24) were divided into three groups. The control group received a central infusion of Ringer-Locke solution (480 µl/day) whereas the experimental groups were treated with BDNF in two doses: 10 or 60 μg/480 µl/day. All sheep received four intracerebroventricular infusions (performed from 08:40 a.m. to 01:30 p.m.; infusion scheme: 4 x 50 min infusions with 30 min intervals between them) on each of three consecutive days. Immediately after the last infusion, the sheep were slaughtered, and selected structures of the hypothalamus were frozen for further real-time qPCR analysis. Central infusion of BDNF evoked dose-dependent changes in npy, agrp, cart, pomc and peptidylglicine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (pam) mRNA expression in the sheep ARC nucleus. An increase in npy, agrp and pomc mRNA expression but also a decrease in cart mRNA expression in the ARC nucleus were detected. Moreover, a decrease in pam (gene encoding an enzyme that converts POMC into α-MSH) mRNA expression, was also noted. Furthermore, after central BDNF administration, changes in miRNA-33a-5p, miRNA-33b-5p, miRNA-377-3p, miRNA-214-3p, miRNA-485 and miRNA-488 expression were observed. Based on the presented results, it can be concluded that BDNF may affect the appetite regulating centre activity through modulation of npy, agrp, cart, pomc and pam mRNA expression in the ARC nucleus. It was also revealed that BDNF modulates miRNA expression in the sheep ARC nucleus.

Słowa kluczowe

  • BDNF
  • Appetite regulating centre
  • miRNAs
  • Arcuate nucleus
  • Sheep
Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of Correlations Between Selected Blood Markers of Liver Function and Milk Composition in Cows During Late Lactation Period

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 871 - 886

Abstrakt

Abstract

The knowledge of the existing levels and the interrelationships between various blood and milk parameters is very useful for the analysis and monitoring of homeostasis high-yielding dairy cows. The aim of the study was to evaluate these values and correlations for selected blood markers of liver function aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, albumin, glucose, cholesterol) and selected milk parameters: somatic cell count (SCC), colony-forming units (CFU), fat, protein, lactose, dry matter (DM), fat-free dry matter (FDM), and milk production in cows during late lactation period. At the same time blood and milk samples were collected from 11 clinically healthy milking cows in later lactation period. The 11 selected cows were examined once a day for 3 days resulting in 33 sets of blood and milk samples for laboratory and statistical analysis. Significant positive correlations were observed between: ALT and albumin, ALT and cholesterol, GGT and glucose, albumin and cholesterol, CFU and fat, CFU and DM, SCC and protein, fat and DM, protein and FDM, lactose and FDM, GPT and FDM, albumin and protein, albumin and FDM, glucose and fat, as well as significant negative correlations between: AST and ALT, AST and GGT, AST and albumin, CFU and lactose, fat and lactose, fat and FDM, lactose and DM, DM and FDM, AST and SCC, AST and protein, AST and FDM, ALT and fat, ALT and DM, glucose and DM, cholesterol and CFU. The results obtained may be important for detecting of different biochemical pathways and helpful in estimating, predicting or determining trends, the direction of changes in liver functions and assessing the risk of alert levels for liver blood markers, when only daily results of milk parameters are available.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cows
  • liver function
  • blood
  • milk
  • parameters
  • correlations
Otwarty dostęp

Improving the Rabbit Semen Cryopreservation Protocol: Comparison Between Two Extenders and Inseminating Doses

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 887 - 898

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study has been designed to optimize the semen freezing protocol in rabbits, in this regard we compared a Tris-citrate-glucose (TCG) extender with a commercial one (Cortalap®), that to the best of our knowledge has never been used up to now on the in vitro freezability and fertilizing ability of cryopreserved rabbit semen. Two different inseminating semen doses were considered. Five pooled semen samples were divided into two subsamples and each of them were diluted to a ratio 1:1 (v:v) with a freezing extender composed of TCG or Cortalap® containing 16% of dimethylsulfoxide and 0.1 mol/L of sucrose. The extended semen was filled into 0.25 mL plastic straws and frozen above a liquid nitrogen surface. After thawing (50°C/10 seconds) we determined sperm motility, viability, membrane functionality, acrosome and DNA integrity. Our results showed that the Cortalap® extender significantly improved the in vitro post-thaw sperm quality, in comparison to TCG. When we compared the extenders in vivo, no significant differences in the reproductive performances were observed independently by inseminating doses used. In this study we demonstrated that Cortalap® extender can be used as an alternative to TCG. Thus, the Cortalap® being a ready to use extender, implies a reduction of time, mistakes and microbial contaminations during its preparation. This discovery results as significant because it provides beyond an important contribution to the creation of the first Italian semen cryobank of rabbit breeds and also for livestock rabbit farms based on artificial insemination (AI) program.

Słowa kluczowe

  • rabbit sperm
  • based extender
  • fertility
  • prolificacy
  • inseminating dose
Otwarty dostęp

Regulation of Folliculogenesis by Growth Factors in Piglet Ovary Exposed Prenatally to β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate (HMB)

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 899 - 917

Abstrakt

Abstract

Β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is one of the leucine metabolites with protein anabolic effects which makes it very popular among athletes. Previously, it was shown that HMB administered during the prenatal period reduced the pool of primordial follicles and increased the proportion of developing follicles in newborn piglets. This work is a further step to understand these morphological alterations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of prenatal HMB treatment on the expression of the Kit ligand, BMP-4, bFGF, and the IGF-1/IGF-1R system which are the main growth factors controlling follicular development. Excised ovaries from 12 newborn piglets, originated from the control (n=6) and HMB-treated (n=6) sows were used for immunohistochemical and western-blot analysis. The tested proteins were localized within egg nests and ovarian follicles. Furthermore, the western-blot assay indicated higher BMP-4, Kit ligand, and IGF-1R expression, while the level of bFGF and IGF-1 proteins decreased after HMB dietary treatment. These findings show that HMB included into sow diet can modulate the expression of growth factors and thereby alter ovarian morphology in offspring. Therefore, this study opens a discussion about the benefits and risks of the diet supplemented with HMB and its potential application in medicine and animal husbandry, and further research is necessary in this area.

Słowa kluczowe

  • β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate
  • folliculogenesis
  • piglets
  • growth factors
Otwarty dostęp

Defect in Mitochondrial NADH-Dehydrogenase Genes in Canine Mast Cell Tumours

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 919 - 937

Abstrakt

Abstract

Recent studies have demonstrated a significant role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects in the pathogenesis of many human and some canine tumours. The aim of this study was to identify mutations in the ND2 and ND4 mitochondrial genes in canine mast cell tumours and determine their association with the process of neoplastic transformation and the phenotypic traits of dogs. In total, 136 gene sequences from 68 biological samples, including blood and neoplastic tissue samples from 34 dogs with diagnosed MCTs, were analysed. The study consisted in DNA sequencing of the ND2 and ND4 genes as well as bioinformatics and statistical analyses. For the first time, mutations in NADH-dehydrogenase genes were detected in dogs with MCTs. In total, 22 polymorphic loci and 19 mutations in the ND2 and ND4 genes were identified. The majority of the identified mutations were homoplasmic, and tumour heteroplasmy was detected in eight nucleotide positions in three dogs. Seven of the ND2 mutations and two of the ND4 mutations caused an amino acid change. The changes in non-synonymous protein-coding SNPs did not exert an adverse effect on proteins. A statistically significant correlation of the presence of mutations/polymorphisms with the sex, age, and size of the dogs and the tumour location was demonstrated. Polymorphisms and mutations in NADH-dehydrogenase genes, including mastocyte-specific changes, in canine mast cell tumours that had not been reported earlier in the literature were identified. Some of these changes may imply that these are the hotspot mutations in canine mast cell tumours. It cannot be excluded that the molecular changes are directly associated with the development of mast cell tumours, and further investigations are needed to verify whether they can become molecular markers of MCTs in the future.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mast cell tumours
  • dog
  • genes
  • mtDNA
  • mutations

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Otwarty dostęp

Impact of Yeast Fermented Poultry by-Product Meal on Growth, Digestive Enzyme Activities, Intestinal Morphometry and Immune Response Traits of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 939 - 959

Abstrakt

Abstract

The current study was carried out to investigate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae-fermented poultry by product meal (PBM) on growth performance, micromorphological, and immunological changes in common carp. Five experimental diets were prepared to include fermented PBM at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 % level in the diet of common carp (4.91±0.01 g). The fish were reared for 90 days on these diets. The obtained results revealed that yeast fermented PBM significantly changed the final body weight (FBW), weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the fish in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Fish fed 20 % fermented PBM showed the highest FBW, WG, SGR, FI, and lowest FCR. However, whole body composition did not vary significantly among fish fed different diets (P>0.05). Dietary yeast fermented PBM at 10 and 20 % level significantly increased the lipase, amylase, and protease activities than the other groups (P<0.05). The anterior, middle, and posterior intestinal villus length was significantly increased in fish fed fermented PBM at 15 and 20 % level when compared to the other groups (P<0.05). The number of goblet cells was significantly increased in the middle section of intestine in fish fed yeast fermented PBM at 20 % level, while in the posterior region of intestine the number of goblet cells was significantly increased in fish fed yeast fermented PBM at 15 and 20 % level (P<0.05). The histomorphology of intestine showed an increased length, branching and density of intestinal villi in fish fed yeast fermented PBM diets. Most of the measured blood parameters showed insignificant (P>0.05) differences except for Hb, RBCs, WBCs, total blood protein, and globulin which were significantly affected by the inclusion of yeast fermented PBM (P<0.05). Lysozyme activity was significantly increased in fish fed yeast fermented PBM at 5, 10, and 15 % level, while the phagocytic activity and phagocytic index were significantly increased at 20 % level when compared to the control groups (P<0.05). It is concluded from this study that inclusion of yeast fermented PBM in the diet of common carp at 15-20% level increased digestive enzyme activities, immune function and growth of the fish.

Słowa kluczowe

  • fish
  • feed utilization
  • histomorphology
  • poultry by product meal
Otwarty dostęp

Algal Oil as Source of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Laying Hens Nutrition: Effect on Egg Performance, Egg Quality Indices and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk Lipids

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 961 - 973

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of algal oil with very high level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) used as fat source in the diet for laying hens, on egg yolk lipids fatty acid composition, as well as egg production and egg quality indices, in comparison with other dietary fat sources. The experiment was carried out on 168 ISA Brown hens (25 to 60 wks of age), allocated to 7 groups of 12 replicates (cages), with two birds in each cage. The experimental diets were supplemented with 2% of different fat sources, i.e. soybean oil (SO), coconut oil (CO), rapeseed oil (RO), linseed oil (LO), camelina oil (CAO), fish oil (FO), or algal oil (AO). Laying performance indices, i.e. egg production, mean egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, or egg and eggshell quality parameters were not affected by used fat sources (P>0.05). Dietary fat sources significantly influenced on egg yolk lipids fatty acids composition. Thus, AO addition caused some changes in the yolk lipid profile that were favorable from the dietary perspective, i.e., increased concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA (P<0.05). However, boiled eggs from hens fed a diet with AO were characterized by an inferior flavour and taste to those from other groups. In conclusion, the results of this experiment, have shown that the use of AO in the laying hens nutrition is an efficient way to increase the deposition of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) in eggs, without negative effect on egg performance, however further researches, aiming to establish optimal AO dietary level that does not adversely affect the organoleptic properties of eggs, are needed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • laying hens
  • algal oil
  • dietary fats
  • laying performance
  • egg quality
  • yolk fatty acids composition
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Different Levels of Copper Nanoparticles and Copper Sulfate on Morphometric Indices, Antioxidant Status and Mineral Digestibility in the Small Intestine of Turkeys

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 975 - 990

Abstrakt

Abstract

It was hypothesized that dietary copper (Cu) nanoparticles, as a substitute for the commonly used copper sulfate, could contribute to lowering the dietary inclusion levels of Cu without compromising growth performance or reducing Cu digestibility and utilization in turkeys. An experiment was carried out on 648 one-day-old Hybrid Converter turkeys divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates per group in a two-factorial design with 3 dietary inclusion levels of Cu (20, 10 and 2 mg kg−1) and 2 dietary sources of Cu, copper sulfate and Cu nanoparticles (Cu-SUL and Cu-NPs, respectively). The apparent digestibility coefficients of minerals were determined after 6 weeks, and tissue samples were collected after 14 weeks of experimental feeding. A decrease in the dietary inclusion levels of Cu from 20 to 10 and 2 mg kg−1 did not reduce the body weights of turkeys at 42 and 98 days of age. In comparison with the remaining treatments, the lowest dietary inclusion level of Cu significantly decreased MDA concentrations in small intestinal tissue (P=0.002) and in the bursa of Fabricius (P=0.001). The replacement of Cu-SUL with Cu-NPs differentially modulated the redox status of selected tissues, i.e., enhanced SOD activity in small intestinal tissue (P=0.001) and decreased total glutathione levels in the bursa of Fabricius (P=0.005). In general, neither the different levels nor sources of additional dietary Cu (main factors) exerted negative effects on the histological structure of the duodenum and jejunum in turkeys. The intestinal digestibility of Cu increased with decreasing dietary Cu levels, and as a consequence, the highest apparent digestibility coefficient of Cu (and zinc) was noted in turkeys fed diets with the addition of 2 mg kg−1 Cu-NPs. Therefore, the environmental burden of excreted Cu was substantially reduced along with decreasing dietary Cu levels but it did not depend on the Cu source.

Słowa kluczowe

  • copper
  • nanoparticles
  • small intestine
  • redox status
  • turkeys
Otwarty dostęp

Replacement of Fish Meal by Solid State Fermented Lupin (Lupinus albus) Meal with Latobacillus plantarum 299v: Effect on Growth and Immune Status of Juvenile Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 991 - 1009

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess quality of SSF (Solid State Fermented) lupin with Lactobacillus plantarum 299v, and its effects (on growth, feed utilization, digestibility and immunity) of juvenile Atlantic salmon (S. salar), when used as fish meal replacer. Five experimental diets were formulated to provide 40% crude protein and 21% dietary lipid (dry matter basis) with the raw or fermented lupin meal-based protein source replacing fish meal at 15% and 30%. Triplicate groups of fish (averaging 3.53 ± 0.05 g) were fed with experimental diets for 8 weeks. Fermentation process modified nutrient profile of lupin meal and enriched it with lactic, citric and acetic acids. Fish in the FL15% group showed a higher (P < 0.05) final body weight, weight gain, FCR, SGR, and PER compared to those of C group. Apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of protein and Nitrogen-free extract showed a significantly higher values in FL15% experimental group, compared to those shown in C group. Fish in the FL15% group showed a higher (P<0.05) lysozyme activity and leucocyte respiratory burst compared to that shown by fish samples in the C experimental group; phagocytic activity did not record differences among experimental groups. In conclusion, replacement of fish meal by raw or fermented lupin meal did not compromise growth, apparent digestibility coefficients and immune status of juvenile Atlantic salmon and even improve fish performance when supplemented at 15%.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Atlantic salmon
  • digestibility
  • growth
  • immunity
  • lupin meal
Otwarty dostęp

Skin Mucosal, Serum Immunity and Antioxidant Capacity of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Fed Artemisia (Artemisia annua)

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1011 - 1027

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this study, the effect of artemisia (Artemisia annua) leaves extract (ALE) on the immune system, growth performance and antioxidant capacity of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was investigated. Fish with initial weight (90.32 ± 1.12 g) were fed various levels of ALE (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g/kg) for 8 weeks. The results showed that the growth performance (FW, WG, SGR, PER, and LER) in fish fed 1 g/kg ALE was increased significantly (P<0.05) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was improved in fish fed 1 and 1.5 g/kg ALE in comparison to the control group (P<0.05). Skin mucus total protein was higher in fish fed diet containing 0.5 g/kg ALE than the other experimental groups (P<0.05), while the lysozyme, immunoglobulin and protease was increased by increasing of ALE in diets. Respiratory burst activity and serum immune parameters were higher in fish fed 0.5 g/kg ALE than the other treatments (P<0.05). Increasing of catalase (CAT) and decreasing of malondialdehyde (MDA) were observed in fish fed ALE, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) increased only in fish fed 0.5 g/kg ALE. Hence, it can be concluded that ALE has considerable potential as a natural immunostimulant and growth promotor supplement for the common carp’s aquaculture.

Słowa kluczowe

  • extract
  • antioxidant activity
  • growth performance
  • immune parameters
Otwarty dostęp

The Effects of Fish Feed Supplemented with Azolla Meal on the Growth Performance, Digestive Enzyme Activity, and Health Condition of Genetically-Improved Farmed Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1029 - 1045

Abstrakt

Abstract

Azolla meal was included in fish feed at different levels (10%, 20%, and 30%) and was fed to genetically-improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) for 90 days. The obtained results demonstrated that the final body weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate decreased significantly in fish fed 30% Azolla (P<0.05), while tilapia fed 10% and 20% did not differ significantly from those of the control (P>0.05). However, the feed conversion ratio increased significantly in fish fed 30% Azolla (P<0.05), while tilapia fed 10% and 20% did not differ significantly from those of the control (P>0.05). The body proximate analysis, amylase, lipase, protease, blood phagocytic index, and phagocytic and lysozyme activity were not affected by the inclusion of Azolla in tilapia diets and remained similar to those of the control group (P>0.05). The villus length of the foregut was not significantly affected by Azolla inclusion in tilapia diets (P>0.05). In the midgut, the villus length significantly (P<0.05) increased in fish fed Azolla at 20% and 30% compared to the control, with no differences from those fed at 10% (P>0.05). The villus length significantly (P<0.05) increased in the hind gut in fish fed Azolla at 30 % compared to the control, with no differences from those fed at 10% and 20% (P>0.05). The mucosal length of the tilapia foregut significantly (P<0.05) increased in fish fed Azolla at 10% compared to the control, with no differences from those fed at 20% and 30% (P>0.05). In the foregut and hindgut, the number of goblet cells significantly increased in fish fed Azolla at 3% compared to the control, with no differences from those fed at 10% and 20% (P>0.05), while in the midgut, the number of goblet cells significantly (P<0.05) increased in fish fed Azolla at 20% and 30% compared to the control, with no differences from those fed at 10% (P>0.05). Feeding tilapia with Azolla resulted in normal hematological and biochemical functions, with insignificant differences for the measured parameters except for the red blood cell count, which significantly (P<0.05) increased in fish fed Azolla at 20% compared to the control, with no differences from those fed at 20% and 30%.

Słowa kluczowe

  • meal
  • digestive enzyme activity
  • genetically-improved farmed tilapia
  • intestinal morphometry
  • immune response
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of the Use of Yarrowia lipolytica or Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast with a Probiotic in the Diet of Turkey Hens on Growth Performance and Gut Histology

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1047 - 1063

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine whether the alternative yeast species Yarrowia lipolytica in turkey feed would have a more beneficial effect on growth performance and intestinal histology than the commonly used species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An additional objective of the study was to test whether the addition of a probiotic to feed containing Yarrowia lipolytica or Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast would enhance its effect on growth performance and intestinal histology in turkeys. The experiment was carried out on 480 turkey hens randomly divided into six groups. Birds from the control group (C) and group P were fed standard feeds but group P additionally received a probiotic (0.05%). Groups Y and YP received feed containing Yarrowia lipolytica fodder yeast (3%), and the YP group received also the probiotic (0.05%). Similarly, in groups S and SP, the turkeys received feed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae fodder yeast (3%), and for the SP group the probiotic was added to the feed (0.05%). Yarrowia lipolytica yeast added in the amount of 3% to the turkey feed may be an alternative to the commonly used Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, because it improved growth performance, and above all, had a more beneficial effect on intestinal histology. The use of Yarrowia lipolytica alone can be beneficial for growth performance, while the combined use of 3% Yarrowia lipolytica in the feed and a 0.05% addition of a probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis has a more beneficial effect on gastrointestinal histology.

Słowa kluczowe

  • turkey hens
  • performance
  • intestinal histology
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Hybrid Rye and Maize Grain Processing on Ruminal and Postruminal Digestibility Parameters

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1065 - 1083

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the method of fragmentation of hybrid rye and maize grain on digestibility parameters for ruminants. Varying degrees of fragmentation – none (whole grains; WG), crushed (CG) or ground to pass through a 4.0 (GG4.0) or 1.5 mm (GG1.5) screen – were estimated by the in sacco nylon bag technique, in vitro true digestibility (IVTD), and the in vitro gas production (GP) technique. WG, CG, GG4.0 and GG1.5 were categorized as none, slight, moderate and extensive fragmentation of the grain kernel, respectively. Three non-lactating cows fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to determine the effective rumen degradability (ERD) and intestinal and total tract digestibility (ID and TTD, respectively) of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and starch. IVTD was determined with an ANKOM DaisyII Incubator, and GP and in vitro organic matter digestibility were determined with an ANKOMRF Gas Production System. Dry matter, CP and starch of hybrid rye grain were rapidly degraded in the rumen, and this degradability as well as ID and TTD was only marginally affected by the method of kernel fragmentation; however, among the methods used, the ERD of GG4.0 rye was the lowest. On the other hand, the greater the degree of kernel fragmentation, the higher ERD, ID and TTD were obtained for the DM, CP and starch of maize grain. In summary, rye grain is more susceptible to fermentation in the rumen than maize grain, but the means of grain processing may alter the rate, extent and site of their digestion, particularly for maize grain.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cereal grain
  • hybrid rye
  • processing
  • in vitro technique
  • digestibility
Otwarty dostęp

In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Artemisia argyi Powder and the Effect on Hepatic and Intestinal Antioxidant Indices in Broiler Chickens

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1085 - 1099

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant effect of Artemisia argyi powder (AAP). 240 mixed-sex one-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into five treatment groups, each consisting of six replicates (one replicate per cage) with eight broilers per replicate. Broilers were fed basal diets supplemented with 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 g AAP per kg feed, respectively. The hepatic and intestinal samples were collected on d 21 and 42 for analysis of antioxidant indices and antioxidative enzyme gene expression. The in vitro results showed that the scavenging activity of Artemisia argyi against •OH and DPPH were 34.99±1.11% and 74.12±0.50%, respectively; the ferric reducing power was 2.58±0.03%. The in vivo results showed that dietary 20 g/kg of AAP significantly enhanced the hepatic total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT) activity, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, also decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content; dietary10 g/kg of AAP significantly increased the gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and CAT on d 42. For the duodenum, 10 g/kg of AAP increased SOD activity (P<0.05), and reduced MDA level (P<0.05) on d 21; the gene expression of CAT and SOD were increased in the 20 g/kg of AAP treatment compared with the control group on d 42. For the jejunum, on d 21, the T-AOC level was increased by inclusion of 10 g/kg of AAP, and CAT activity was enhanced significantly at 5, 10, and 20 g/kg of AAP group; dietary AAP significantly decreased MDA level at the concentration of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 g/kg in contrast with control group on d 42; 5 and 20 g/kg of AAP increased the gene expression of SOD on d 21, and the gene expression of GSH-Px was increased (P<0.05) in 10 g/kg of AAP group on d 42. For the ileum, compared to the control group, 2.5 and 20 g/kg of AAP increased SOD activity (P<0.05); and dietary 10 and 20 g/kg of AAP significantly reduced MDA level; dietary 10 g/kg of AAP increased the gene expression of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px in broilers on d 42. In conclusion, dietary AAP could improve the antioxidant defenses of liver and small intestine, and the best concentration of the AAP improving hepatic and small intestinal antioxidant status was 20 g/kg and 10 g/kg, respectively.

Słowa kluczowe

  • powder
  • antioxidant
  • liver
  • small intestine
  • broiler

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Otwarty dostęp

Assessment of Genotype by Environment Interaction Via Reaction Norms for Milk Yield in Holstein Cattle of Southern Brazil

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1101 - 1112

Abstrakt

Abstract

The experiments reported in this research paper were aimed at assessing the genetic responses of a Holstein cow population, as a response to the variations in environmental temperature, through the analysis of the effects resulting from the genotype by environment interaction (GEI), based on reaction norms. Therefore, milk production data was collected from the database of the Paraná Holstein Breeders Association in Brazil for 67,360 primiparous cows born between 1990 and 2015, with the purpose of evaluating the temperature effect, considered as an environmental variable, distinguished under six gradients (17 ºC to 19.5 ºC) over the region. A random regression model was adopted, utilizing the fourth order under the Legendre polynomials, applying the mixed models of analysis by the REML method, and using the WOMBAT software. Additionally, the breeding value of the 15 most representative bulls was assessed, in response to the changes in the temperature gradient. The total milk production on average was estimated at 8,412.83 ± 2,012.08 kg. The heritabilities estimates were found in the low to moderate range, from 0.18 to 0.23, displaying a decline with a rise in the temperature, highlighting the influence it exerted on the heritabilities. Variations in the genetic expression of some bulls were noted to show differences of up to 289 kg of milk in response to the increase in the temperature from 17 ºC to 19.5 ºC. However, all the genetic correlations between the gradients for milk yield were above 0.80, in the range of 0.873 to 0.998, revealing no remarkable interaction between the genotype and environment. This result indicates that the application of the temperature variable in the models of genetic analysis in southern Brazil is not required.

Słowa kluczowe

  • environmental effects
  • dairy cattle
  • Legendre polynomials

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Age and Genotype of Native Breed Cockerels on Carcass and Meat Quality

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1113 - 1126

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine meat quality in cockerels of two multipurpose breeds reared to different ages. The study involved 30 cockerels each of two native breeds: Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) and Rhode Island Red (R-11). The results showed that cockerels of the native breeds Rhode Island Red (R-11) and Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) represent a good starting material for niche production of poultry meat R-11 cockerels exhibited a better rate of weight gain and their carcasses had higher yellowness and redness values compared to Ż-33 birds. The carcasses of both cockerel breeds had lower breast and higher leg muscle percentage, and their meat contained more collagen and protein and less fat. As birds aged, body weight and abdominal fat percentage increased, and giblets percentage decreased in the cockerels of both breeds, whereas in the R-11 breed dressing percentage increased, leg bone percentage decreased, yellowness (a*) increased and redness (b*) decreased. Neither genotype nor slaughter age had a significant effect on chemical composition of the breast and leg muscles. In both breeds, the breast and leg muscle quality traits were more affected by age than genotype.

Słowa kluczowe

  • slaughter cockerels
  • meat quality
  • native breeds
Otwarty dostęp

Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in Young Bulls Fed Virginia Fanpetals Silage

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1127 - 1140

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Virginia fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita) silage on carcass and beef quality characteristics. Forty Polish Holstein-Friesian bulls aged 16 months were assigned to 4 dietary treatments (n=10) and were fed different types of silage during a 7-month fattening period. The proportion (g/kg dry matter) of silage in the diets was as follows: (1) grass silage (GS) (600); (2) Sida silage (SS) (600); (3) SS (300) and GS (300); and (4) SS (300) and maize silage (MS) (300). Silage was supplemented with concentrate at 400 g/kg DM in each diet. The animals were slaughtered at the end of the fattening period. Silage type had no significant effect on BWG or feed to gain ratio. The carcasses of bulls fed Sida silage and maize silage received higher scores for conformation than the carcasses of bulls fed grass silage (P<0.05). The meat of bulls fed Sida silage had the lowest value of Warner-Bratzler shear force. Meat from SS+MS group bulls had the highest intramuscular fat (IMF) content and was lightest in color, whereas meat from bulls fed Sida silage and grass silage received the highest scores for color uniformity, aroma, taste and overall acceptability.

Słowa kluczowe

  • beef
  • diet composition
  • meat quality
  • shear force
  • sensory evaluation
23 Artykułów

Review

Otwarty dostęp

A Review on Bovine Mastitis with Special Focus on CD4 as a Potential Candidate Gene for Mastitis Resistance – A Review

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 735 - 755

Abstrakt

Abstract

Mastitis is аn inflammation оf thе mammary gland, caused by the invasion and duplication оf Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus uberis (S. uberis) аnd Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) аnd а wide variety оf оthеr microorganisms thrоugh teat оr damaged nipple, decreasing potential milk production іn thе affected quarter оf mammary gland. Economic, animal productivity, international trade and animal welfare issues associated with mastitis play an important role in the agricultural industry. Therefore, worldwide dairy cattle breeding programmes are trying to breed cows wіth improved resistance tо mastitis. Mastitis can’t be eliminated but can be reduced to a low level. It can be achieved by breeding strategies, reducing the exposure to pathogen and increasing the resistance to intramammary infection. Numerous therapeutic, prophylactic аnd management techniques аrе uѕеd аѕ control and reduce the mastitis. However, а widely proposed strategy marker assisted selection uѕіng candidate gene approach which іѕ based оn improving thе host genetics. One of them is cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) gene, which is а glycoprotein located оn receptors оf immune cells. CD4 exhibit аn essential role іn a variety of inflammation related conditions іn mаnу species. Therefore, CD4 as a candidate gene for resistance to mastitis has received considerable attention. The review is based on a study of CD4 in association with improving resistance to mastitis and it may be helpful in formulating breeding programmes and marker assisted selection to lower the mastitis.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mastitis
  • inflammation
  • candidate gene
  • mammary gland
Otwarty dostęp

Associations of CAST, CAPN1 and MSTN Genes Polymorphism with Slaughter Value and Beef Quality – A Review

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 757 - 774

Abstrakt

Abstract

The slaughter value of cattle and beef quality are influenced by many factors, which can generally be divided into antemortem (breed, sex, age, housing system, diet, pre-slaughter handling) and postmortem (post-slaughter processing, chilling temperature, packaging). Studies of many authors have shown that meat quality traits can be also influenced by the individual genetic background of an animal. Numerous studies have been conducted worldwide to determine the functions of various genes as well as polymorphisms with potential effects on fattening and slaughter value of cattle and on beef quality. This study reviews the most important research done on the associations of polymorphisms in the calpain, calpastatin and myostatin genes with carcass traits and beef quality. Knowledge about the genes and chromosome regions associated with desired meat quality characteristics may prove very helpful when selecting pairs for mating and estimating the breeding value of offspring, mainly because it is difficult to improve meat quality traits based on conventional selection methods due to their low heritability and polygenic regulation. Furthermore, meat quality evaluation is expensive and can only be carried out after slaughter.

Słowa kluczowe

  • calpain
  • calpastatin
  • myostatin
  • slaughter value
  • beef
Otwarty dostęp

In vitro Production of Porcine Embryos: Current Status and Possibilities – A Review

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 775 - 796

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper presents the current possibilities, state of knowledge and prospects of in vitro production (IVP) of pig embryos, which consists of in vitro oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization and in vitro embryo culture. In pigs, oocyte maturation is one of the most important stages in the embryo IVP process. It determines the oocyte’s fertilization ability as well as its embryonic development. Through many research studies of the proper selection of oocytes and appropriate maturation medium composition (especially the addition of various supplements), the in vitro maturation of pig oocytes has been significantly improved. Recent studies have demonstrated that modifications of the diluents and in vitro fertilization media can reduce polyspermy. Furthermore, several adjustments of the porcine culture media with the addition of some supplements have enhanced the embryo quality and developmental competence. These updates show the progress of IVP in pigs that has been achieved; however, many problems remain unsolved.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pig
  • oocyte maturation
  • fertilization
  • embryo
  • culture
Otwarty dostęp

To What Extent Does Photoperiod Affect Cattle Reproduction? Clinical Perspectives of Melatonin Administration – A Review

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 797 - 809

Abstrakt

Abstract

The seasonality of reproduction in most mammals is dictated by photoperiod, temperature and nutrition. Melatonin, mainly synthesized in the pineal gland, is generally accepted as the active mediator of photoperiod responses including reproduction. While non-pregnant heifers and cows show continuous sexual activity and are therefore not seasonal breeders, it has been suggested that photo-periodicity may influence the appearance of puberty in heifers and the onset of parturition. Further, the light/dark ratio may influence endocrine patterns of gestation and a shorter light period correlates with the incidence of twin pregnancies. This review considers specific aspects of the effects of photoperiod and melatonin on reproduction in dairy cattle and discusses the clinical applications of melatonin.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dark-light cycles
  • heat stress
  • fertility
  • twin pregnancy
  • prolactin

Animal genetics and breeding

Otwarty dostęp

Genome-Wide Association Study of Weaning Traits in Lori-Bakhtiari Sheep

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 811 - 824

Abstrakt

Abstract

Weaning traits, including preweaning daily gain (PWDG) and weaning weight (WW) are important economic traits, especially for meat type mammals, with high impacts on growth performance and survival rate in higher ages. This study was conducted to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on weaning traits in a meat type breed of sheep. Body weight records of 7557 Lori-Bakhtiari sheep with PWDG and WW records were used to estimate breeding values (EBVs) using an animal mixed model. A total of 132 animals were selected by two-tailed selection strategy, based on EBVs for body weight and then were genotyped using Illumina 50k Ovine SNP chip. After quality control, a total of 130 animals and 41323 SNPs were remained for further analyses. De-regressed estimates of breeding values were used as a pseudo-phenotype in GWAS analysis. Based on Bonferroni-adjusted p-values, five SNPs, located on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 12 and 22 were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with weaning traits and accounted for 5.06% and 0.37% of total genetic variations of PWDG and WW, respectively. Two SNPs on chromosomes 2 and 3 were located near to previously reported QTLs for weaning traits. Three genes, including ANGPTL7, mTOR and WDR11, were found within 50 kbp distances from the significant SNPs and thus could be considered as candidate genes for weaning traits. The detected QTLs and candidate genes could be studied for construction of breeding programs for genetic improvement of growth performance in meat type sheep.

Słowa kluczowe

  • body weight
  • growth
  • quantitative trait loci (QTL)
  • single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
  • candidate gene
Otwarty dostęp

Genome-Wide Association Study and Pathway Analysis for Female Fertility Traits in Iranian Holstein Cattle

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 825 - 851

Abstrakt

Abstract

Female fertility is an important trait that contributes to cow’s profitability and it can be improved by genomic information. The objective of this study was to detect genomic regions and variants affecting fertility traits in Iranian Holstein cattle. A data set comprised of female fertility records and 3,452,730 pedigree information from Iranian Holstein cattle were used to predict the breeding values, which were then employed to estimate the de-regressed proofs (DRP) of genotyped animals. A total of 878 animals with DRP records and 54k SNP markers were utilized in the genome-wide association study (GWAS). The GWAS was performed using a linear regression model with SNP genotype as a linear covariate. The results showed that an SNP on BTA19, ARS-BFGL-NGS-33473, was the most significant SNP associated with days from calving to first service. In total, [69] significant SNPs were located within 27 candidate genes. Novel potential candidate genes include OSTN, DPP6, EphA5, CADPS2, Rfc1, ADGRB3, Myo3a, C10H14orf93, KIAA1217, RBPJL, SLC18A2, GARNL3, NCALD, ASPH, ASIC2, OR3A1, CHRNB4, CACNA2D2, DLGAP1, GRIN2A and ME3. These genes are involved in different pathways relevant to female fertility and other characteristics in mammals. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that thirteen GO terms had significant overrepresentation of genes statistically associated with female fertility traits. The results of network analysis identified CCNB1 gene as a hub gene in the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, significantly associated with age at first calving. The candidate genes identified in this study can be utilized in genomic tests to improve reproductive performance in Holstein cattle.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cattle
  • candidate gene
  • GWAS
  • gene set enrichment

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Otwarty dostęp

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Affects mRNA and miRNA Expression of the Appetite Regulating Centre in the Sheep Arcuate Nucleus

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 853 - 869

Abstrakt

Abstract

The neuromodulatory effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on appetite regulation centre peptide gene activity in the sheep hypothalamus have not been examined yet. The aim of this study was to determine whether BDNF participates in modulation of neuropeptide Y (npy), agouti-related peptide (agrp), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (cart), and proopiomelanocortin (pomc) mRNA expression and selected microRNAs in the sheep hypothalamic arcuate (ARC) nucleus. Animals (Polish Merino sheep, n=24) were divided into three groups. The control group received a central infusion of Ringer-Locke solution (480 µl/day) whereas the experimental groups were treated with BDNF in two doses: 10 or 60 μg/480 µl/day. All sheep received four intracerebroventricular infusions (performed from 08:40 a.m. to 01:30 p.m.; infusion scheme: 4 x 50 min infusions with 30 min intervals between them) on each of three consecutive days. Immediately after the last infusion, the sheep were slaughtered, and selected structures of the hypothalamus were frozen for further real-time qPCR analysis. Central infusion of BDNF evoked dose-dependent changes in npy, agrp, cart, pomc and peptidylglicine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (pam) mRNA expression in the sheep ARC nucleus. An increase in npy, agrp and pomc mRNA expression but also a decrease in cart mRNA expression in the ARC nucleus were detected. Moreover, a decrease in pam (gene encoding an enzyme that converts POMC into α-MSH) mRNA expression, was also noted. Furthermore, after central BDNF administration, changes in miRNA-33a-5p, miRNA-33b-5p, miRNA-377-3p, miRNA-214-3p, miRNA-485 and miRNA-488 expression were observed. Based on the presented results, it can be concluded that BDNF may affect the appetite regulating centre activity through modulation of npy, agrp, cart, pomc and pam mRNA expression in the ARC nucleus. It was also revealed that BDNF modulates miRNA expression in the sheep ARC nucleus.

Słowa kluczowe

  • BDNF
  • Appetite regulating centre
  • miRNAs
  • Arcuate nucleus
  • Sheep
Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of Correlations Between Selected Blood Markers of Liver Function and Milk Composition in Cows During Late Lactation Period

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 871 - 886

Abstrakt

Abstract

The knowledge of the existing levels and the interrelationships between various blood and milk parameters is very useful for the analysis and monitoring of homeostasis high-yielding dairy cows. The aim of the study was to evaluate these values and correlations for selected blood markers of liver function aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, albumin, glucose, cholesterol) and selected milk parameters: somatic cell count (SCC), colony-forming units (CFU), fat, protein, lactose, dry matter (DM), fat-free dry matter (FDM), and milk production in cows during late lactation period. At the same time blood and milk samples were collected from 11 clinically healthy milking cows in later lactation period. The 11 selected cows were examined once a day for 3 days resulting in 33 sets of blood and milk samples for laboratory and statistical analysis. Significant positive correlations were observed between: ALT and albumin, ALT and cholesterol, GGT and glucose, albumin and cholesterol, CFU and fat, CFU and DM, SCC and protein, fat and DM, protein and FDM, lactose and FDM, GPT and FDM, albumin and protein, albumin and FDM, glucose and fat, as well as significant negative correlations between: AST and ALT, AST and GGT, AST and albumin, CFU and lactose, fat and lactose, fat and FDM, lactose and DM, DM and FDM, AST and SCC, AST and protein, AST and FDM, ALT and fat, ALT and DM, glucose and DM, cholesterol and CFU. The results obtained may be important for detecting of different biochemical pathways and helpful in estimating, predicting or determining trends, the direction of changes in liver functions and assessing the risk of alert levels for liver blood markers, when only daily results of milk parameters are available.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cows
  • liver function
  • blood
  • milk
  • parameters
  • correlations
Otwarty dostęp

Improving the Rabbit Semen Cryopreservation Protocol: Comparison Between Two Extenders and Inseminating Doses

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 887 - 898

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study has been designed to optimize the semen freezing protocol in rabbits, in this regard we compared a Tris-citrate-glucose (TCG) extender with a commercial one (Cortalap®), that to the best of our knowledge has never been used up to now on the in vitro freezability and fertilizing ability of cryopreserved rabbit semen. Two different inseminating semen doses were considered. Five pooled semen samples were divided into two subsamples and each of them were diluted to a ratio 1:1 (v:v) with a freezing extender composed of TCG or Cortalap® containing 16% of dimethylsulfoxide and 0.1 mol/L of sucrose. The extended semen was filled into 0.25 mL plastic straws and frozen above a liquid nitrogen surface. After thawing (50°C/10 seconds) we determined sperm motility, viability, membrane functionality, acrosome and DNA integrity. Our results showed that the Cortalap® extender significantly improved the in vitro post-thaw sperm quality, in comparison to TCG. When we compared the extenders in vivo, no significant differences in the reproductive performances were observed independently by inseminating doses used. In this study we demonstrated that Cortalap® extender can be used as an alternative to TCG. Thus, the Cortalap® being a ready to use extender, implies a reduction of time, mistakes and microbial contaminations during its preparation. This discovery results as significant because it provides beyond an important contribution to the creation of the first Italian semen cryobank of rabbit breeds and also for livestock rabbit farms based on artificial insemination (AI) program.

Słowa kluczowe

  • rabbit sperm
  • based extender
  • fertility
  • prolificacy
  • inseminating dose
Otwarty dostęp

Regulation of Folliculogenesis by Growth Factors in Piglet Ovary Exposed Prenatally to β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate (HMB)

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 899 - 917

Abstrakt

Abstract

Β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is one of the leucine metabolites with protein anabolic effects which makes it very popular among athletes. Previously, it was shown that HMB administered during the prenatal period reduced the pool of primordial follicles and increased the proportion of developing follicles in newborn piglets. This work is a further step to understand these morphological alterations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of prenatal HMB treatment on the expression of the Kit ligand, BMP-4, bFGF, and the IGF-1/IGF-1R system which are the main growth factors controlling follicular development. Excised ovaries from 12 newborn piglets, originated from the control (n=6) and HMB-treated (n=6) sows were used for immunohistochemical and western-blot analysis. The tested proteins were localized within egg nests and ovarian follicles. Furthermore, the western-blot assay indicated higher BMP-4, Kit ligand, and IGF-1R expression, while the level of bFGF and IGF-1 proteins decreased after HMB dietary treatment. These findings show that HMB included into sow diet can modulate the expression of growth factors and thereby alter ovarian morphology in offspring. Therefore, this study opens a discussion about the benefits and risks of the diet supplemented with HMB and its potential application in medicine and animal husbandry, and further research is necessary in this area.

Słowa kluczowe

  • β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate
  • folliculogenesis
  • piglets
  • growth factors
Otwarty dostęp

Defect in Mitochondrial NADH-Dehydrogenase Genes in Canine Mast Cell Tumours

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 919 - 937

Abstrakt

Abstract

Recent studies have demonstrated a significant role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects in the pathogenesis of many human and some canine tumours. The aim of this study was to identify mutations in the ND2 and ND4 mitochondrial genes in canine mast cell tumours and determine their association with the process of neoplastic transformation and the phenotypic traits of dogs. In total, 136 gene sequences from 68 biological samples, including blood and neoplastic tissue samples from 34 dogs with diagnosed MCTs, were analysed. The study consisted in DNA sequencing of the ND2 and ND4 genes as well as bioinformatics and statistical analyses. For the first time, mutations in NADH-dehydrogenase genes were detected in dogs with MCTs. In total, 22 polymorphic loci and 19 mutations in the ND2 and ND4 genes were identified. The majority of the identified mutations were homoplasmic, and tumour heteroplasmy was detected in eight nucleotide positions in three dogs. Seven of the ND2 mutations and two of the ND4 mutations caused an amino acid change. The changes in non-synonymous protein-coding SNPs did not exert an adverse effect on proteins. A statistically significant correlation of the presence of mutations/polymorphisms with the sex, age, and size of the dogs and the tumour location was demonstrated. Polymorphisms and mutations in NADH-dehydrogenase genes, including mastocyte-specific changes, in canine mast cell tumours that had not been reported earlier in the literature were identified. Some of these changes may imply that these are the hotspot mutations in canine mast cell tumours. It cannot be excluded that the molecular changes are directly associated with the development of mast cell tumours, and further investigations are needed to verify whether they can become molecular markers of MCTs in the future.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mast cell tumours
  • dog
  • genes
  • mtDNA
  • mutations

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Otwarty dostęp

Impact of Yeast Fermented Poultry by-Product Meal on Growth, Digestive Enzyme Activities, Intestinal Morphometry and Immune Response Traits of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 939 - 959

Abstrakt

Abstract

The current study was carried out to investigate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae-fermented poultry by product meal (PBM) on growth performance, micromorphological, and immunological changes in common carp. Five experimental diets were prepared to include fermented PBM at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 % level in the diet of common carp (4.91±0.01 g). The fish were reared for 90 days on these diets. The obtained results revealed that yeast fermented PBM significantly changed the final body weight (FBW), weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the fish in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Fish fed 20 % fermented PBM showed the highest FBW, WG, SGR, FI, and lowest FCR. However, whole body composition did not vary significantly among fish fed different diets (P>0.05). Dietary yeast fermented PBM at 10 and 20 % level significantly increased the lipase, amylase, and protease activities than the other groups (P<0.05). The anterior, middle, and posterior intestinal villus length was significantly increased in fish fed fermented PBM at 15 and 20 % level when compared to the other groups (P<0.05). The number of goblet cells was significantly increased in the middle section of intestine in fish fed yeast fermented PBM at 20 % level, while in the posterior region of intestine the number of goblet cells was significantly increased in fish fed yeast fermented PBM at 15 and 20 % level (P<0.05). The histomorphology of intestine showed an increased length, branching and density of intestinal villi in fish fed yeast fermented PBM diets. Most of the measured blood parameters showed insignificant (P>0.05) differences except for Hb, RBCs, WBCs, total blood protein, and globulin which were significantly affected by the inclusion of yeast fermented PBM (P<0.05). Lysozyme activity was significantly increased in fish fed yeast fermented PBM at 5, 10, and 15 % level, while the phagocytic activity and phagocytic index were significantly increased at 20 % level when compared to the control groups (P<0.05). It is concluded from this study that inclusion of yeast fermented PBM in the diet of common carp at 15-20% level increased digestive enzyme activities, immune function and growth of the fish.

Słowa kluczowe

  • fish
  • feed utilization
  • histomorphology
  • poultry by product meal
Otwarty dostęp

Algal Oil as Source of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Laying Hens Nutrition: Effect on Egg Performance, Egg Quality Indices and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk Lipids

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 961 - 973

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of algal oil with very high level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) used as fat source in the diet for laying hens, on egg yolk lipids fatty acid composition, as well as egg production and egg quality indices, in comparison with other dietary fat sources. The experiment was carried out on 168 ISA Brown hens (25 to 60 wks of age), allocated to 7 groups of 12 replicates (cages), with two birds in each cage. The experimental diets were supplemented with 2% of different fat sources, i.e. soybean oil (SO), coconut oil (CO), rapeseed oil (RO), linseed oil (LO), camelina oil (CAO), fish oil (FO), or algal oil (AO). Laying performance indices, i.e. egg production, mean egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, or egg and eggshell quality parameters were not affected by used fat sources (P>0.05). Dietary fat sources significantly influenced on egg yolk lipids fatty acids composition. Thus, AO addition caused some changes in the yolk lipid profile that were favorable from the dietary perspective, i.e., increased concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA (P<0.05). However, boiled eggs from hens fed a diet with AO were characterized by an inferior flavour and taste to those from other groups. In conclusion, the results of this experiment, have shown that the use of AO in the laying hens nutrition is an efficient way to increase the deposition of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) in eggs, without negative effect on egg performance, however further researches, aiming to establish optimal AO dietary level that does not adversely affect the organoleptic properties of eggs, are needed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • laying hens
  • algal oil
  • dietary fats
  • laying performance
  • egg quality
  • yolk fatty acids composition
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Different Levels of Copper Nanoparticles and Copper Sulfate on Morphometric Indices, Antioxidant Status and Mineral Digestibility in the Small Intestine of Turkeys

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 975 - 990

Abstrakt

Abstract

It was hypothesized that dietary copper (Cu) nanoparticles, as a substitute for the commonly used copper sulfate, could contribute to lowering the dietary inclusion levels of Cu without compromising growth performance or reducing Cu digestibility and utilization in turkeys. An experiment was carried out on 648 one-day-old Hybrid Converter turkeys divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates per group in a two-factorial design with 3 dietary inclusion levels of Cu (20, 10 and 2 mg kg−1) and 2 dietary sources of Cu, copper sulfate and Cu nanoparticles (Cu-SUL and Cu-NPs, respectively). The apparent digestibility coefficients of minerals were determined after 6 weeks, and tissue samples were collected after 14 weeks of experimental feeding. A decrease in the dietary inclusion levels of Cu from 20 to 10 and 2 mg kg−1 did not reduce the body weights of turkeys at 42 and 98 days of age. In comparison with the remaining treatments, the lowest dietary inclusion level of Cu significantly decreased MDA concentrations in small intestinal tissue (P=0.002) and in the bursa of Fabricius (P=0.001). The replacement of Cu-SUL with Cu-NPs differentially modulated the redox status of selected tissues, i.e., enhanced SOD activity in small intestinal tissue (P=0.001) and decreased total glutathione levels in the bursa of Fabricius (P=0.005). In general, neither the different levels nor sources of additional dietary Cu (main factors) exerted negative effects on the histological structure of the duodenum and jejunum in turkeys. The intestinal digestibility of Cu increased with decreasing dietary Cu levels, and as a consequence, the highest apparent digestibility coefficient of Cu (and zinc) was noted in turkeys fed diets with the addition of 2 mg kg−1 Cu-NPs. Therefore, the environmental burden of excreted Cu was substantially reduced along with decreasing dietary Cu levels but it did not depend on the Cu source.

Słowa kluczowe

  • copper
  • nanoparticles
  • small intestine
  • redox status
  • turkeys
Otwarty dostęp

Replacement of Fish Meal by Solid State Fermented Lupin (Lupinus albus) Meal with Latobacillus plantarum 299v: Effect on Growth and Immune Status of Juvenile Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 991 - 1009

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess quality of SSF (Solid State Fermented) lupin with Lactobacillus plantarum 299v, and its effects (on growth, feed utilization, digestibility and immunity) of juvenile Atlantic salmon (S. salar), when used as fish meal replacer. Five experimental diets were formulated to provide 40% crude protein and 21% dietary lipid (dry matter basis) with the raw or fermented lupin meal-based protein source replacing fish meal at 15% and 30%. Triplicate groups of fish (averaging 3.53 ± 0.05 g) were fed with experimental diets for 8 weeks. Fermentation process modified nutrient profile of lupin meal and enriched it with lactic, citric and acetic acids. Fish in the FL15% group showed a higher (P < 0.05) final body weight, weight gain, FCR, SGR, and PER compared to those of C group. Apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of protein and Nitrogen-free extract showed a significantly higher values in FL15% experimental group, compared to those shown in C group. Fish in the FL15% group showed a higher (P<0.05) lysozyme activity and leucocyte respiratory burst compared to that shown by fish samples in the C experimental group; phagocytic activity did not record differences among experimental groups. In conclusion, replacement of fish meal by raw or fermented lupin meal did not compromise growth, apparent digestibility coefficients and immune status of juvenile Atlantic salmon and even improve fish performance when supplemented at 15%.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Atlantic salmon
  • digestibility
  • growth
  • immunity
  • lupin meal
Otwarty dostęp

Skin Mucosal, Serum Immunity and Antioxidant Capacity of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Fed Artemisia (Artemisia annua)

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1011 - 1027

Abstrakt

Abstract

In this study, the effect of artemisia (Artemisia annua) leaves extract (ALE) on the immune system, growth performance and antioxidant capacity of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was investigated. Fish with initial weight (90.32 ± 1.12 g) were fed various levels of ALE (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g/kg) for 8 weeks. The results showed that the growth performance (FW, WG, SGR, PER, and LER) in fish fed 1 g/kg ALE was increased significantly (P<0.05) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was improved in fish fed 1 and 1.5 g/kg ALE in comparison to the control group (P<0.05). Skin mucus total protein was higher in fish fed diet containing 0.5 g/kg ALE than the other experimental groups (P<0.05), while the lysozyme, immunoglobulin and protease was increased by increasing of ALE in diets. Respiratory burst activity and serum immune parameters were higher in fish fed 0.5 g/kg ALE than the other treatments (P<0.05). Increasing of catalase (CAT) and decreasing of malondialdehyde (MDA) were observed in fish fed ALE, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) increased only in fish fed 0.5 g/kg ALE. Hence, it can be concluded that ALE has considerable potential as a natural immunostimulant and growth promotor supplement for the common carp’s aquaculture.

Słowa kluczowe

  • extract
  • antioxidant activity
  • growth performance
  • immune parameters
Otwarty dostęp

The Effects of Fish Feed Supplemented with Azolla Meal on the Growth Performance, Digestive Enzyme Activity, and Health Condition of Genetically-Improved Farmed Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1029 - 1045

Abstrakt

Abstract

Azolla meal was included in fish feed at different levels (10%, 20%, and 30%) and was fed to genetically-improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) for 90 days. The obtained results demonstrated that the final body weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate decreased significantly in fish fed 30% Azolla (P<0.05), while tilapia fed 10% and 20% did not differ significantly from those of the control (P>0.05). However, the feed conversion ratio increased significantly in fish fed 30% Azolla (P<0.05), while tilapia fed 10% and 20% did not differ significantly from those of the control (P>0.05). The body proximate analysis, amylase, lipase, protease, blood phagocytic index, and phagocytic and lysozyme activity were not affected by the inclusion of Azolla in tilapia diets and remained similar to those of the control group (P>0.05). The villus length of the foregut was not significantly affected by Azolla inclusion in tilapia diets (P>0.05). In the midgut, the villus length significantly (P<0.05) increased in fish fed Azolla at 20% and 30% compared to the control, with no differences from those fed at 10% (P>0.05). The villus length significantly (P<0.05) increased in the hind gut in fish fed Azolla at 30 % compared to the control, with no differences from those fed at 10% and 20% (P>0.05). The mucosal length of the tilapia foregut significantly (P<0.05) increased in fish fed Azolla at 10% compared to the control, with no differences from those fed at 20% and 30% (P>0.05). In the foregut and hindgut, the number of goblet cells significantly increased in fish fed Azolla at 3% compared to the control, with no differences from those fed at 10% and 20% (P>0.05), while in the midgut, the number of goblet cells significantly (P<0.05) increased in fish fed Azolla at 20% and 30% compared to the control, with no differences from those fed at 10% (P>0.05). Feeding tilapia with Azolla resulted in normal hematological and biochemical functions, with insignificant differences for the measured parameters except for the red blood cell count, which significantly (P<0.05) increased in fish fed Azolla at 20% compared to the control, with no differences from those fed at 20% and 30%.

Słowa kluczowe

  • meal
  • digestive enzyme activity
  • genetically-improved farmed tilapia
  • intestinal morphometry
  • immune response
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of the Use of Yarrowia lipolytica or Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast with a Probiotic in the Diet of Turkey Hens on Growth Performance and Gut Histology

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1047 - 1063

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine whether the alternative yeast species Yarrowia lipolytica in turkey feed would have a more beneficial effect on growth performance and intestinal histology than the commonly used species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An additional objective of the study was to test whether the addition of a probiotic to feed containing Yarrowia lipolytica or Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast would enhance its effect on growth performance and intestinal histology in turkeys. The experiment was carried out on 480 turkey hens randomly divided into six groups. Birds from the control group (C) and group P were fed standard feeds but group P additionally received a probiotic (0.05%). Groups Y and YP received feed containing Yarrowia lipolytica fodder yeast (3%), and the YP group received also the probiotic (0.05%). Similarly, in groups S and SP, the turkeys received feed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae fodder yeast (3%), and for the SP group the probiotic was added to the feed (0.05%). Yarrowia lipolytica yeast added in the amount of 3% to the turkey feed may be an alternative to the commonly used Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, because it improved growth performance, and above all, had a more beneficial effect on intestinal histology. The use of Yarrowia lipolytica alone can be beneficial for growth performance, while the combined use of 3% Yarrowia lipolytica in the feed and a 0.05% addition of a probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis has a more beneficial effect on gastrointestinal histology.

Słowa kluczowe

  • turkey hens
  • performance
  • intestinal histology
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Hybrid Rye and Maize Grain Processing on Ruminal and Postruminal Digestibility Parameters

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1065 - 1083

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the method of fragmentation of hybrid rye and maize grain on digestibility parameters for ruminants. Varying degrees of fragmentation – none (whole grains; WG), crushed (CG) or ground to pass through a 4.0 (GG4.0) or 1.5 mm (GG1.5) screen – were estimated by the in sacco nylon bag technique, in vitro true digestibility (IVTD), and the in vitro gas production (GP) technique. WG, CG, GG4.0 and GG1.5 were categorized as none, slight, moderate and extensive fragmentation of the grain kernel, respectively. Three non-lactating cows fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to determine the effective rumen degradability (ERD) and intestinal and total tract digestibility (ID and TTD, respectively) of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and starch. IVTD was determined with an ANKOM DaisyII Incubator, and GP and in vitro organic matter digestibility were determined with an ANKOMRF Gas Production System. Dry matter, CP and starch of hybrid rye grain were rapidly degraded in the rumen, and this degradability as well as ID and TTD was only marginally affected by the method of kernel fragmentation; however, among the methods used, the ERD of GG4.0 rye was the lowest. On the other hand, the greater the degree of kernel fragmentation, the higher ERD, ID and TTD were obtained for the DM, CP and starch of maize grain. In summary, rye grain is more susceptible to fermentation in the rumen than maize grain, but the means of grain processing may alter the rate, extent and site of their digestion, particularly for maize grain.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cereal grain
  • hybrid rye
  • processing
  • in vitro technique
  • digestibility
Otwarty dostęp

In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Artemisia argyi Powder and the Effect on Hepatic and Intestinal Antioxidant Indices in Broiler Chickens

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1085 - 1099

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant effect of Artemisia argyi powder (AAP). 240 mixed-sex one-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into five treatment groups, each consisting of six replicates (one replicate per cage) with eight broilers per replicate. Broilers were fed basal diets supplemented with 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 g AAP per kg feed, respectively. The hepatic and intestinal samples were collected on d 21 and 42 for analysis of antioxidant indices and antioxidative enzyme gene expression. The in vitro results showed that the scavenging activity of Artemisia argyi against •OH and DPPH were 34.99±1.11% and 74.12±0.50%, respectively; the ferric reducing power was 2.58±0.03%. The in vivo results showed that dietary 20 g/kg of AAP significantly enhanced the hepatic total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT) activity, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, also decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content; dietary10 g/kg of AAP significantly increased the gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and CAT on d 42. For the duodenum, 10 g/kg of AAP increased SOD activity (P<0.05), and reduced MDA level (P<0.05) on d 21; the gene expression of CAT and SOD were increased in the 20 g/kg of AAP treatment compared with the control group on d 42. For the jejunum, on d 21, the T-AOC level was increased by inclusion of 10 g/kg of AAP, and CAT activity was enhanced significantly at 5, 10, and 20 g/kg of AAP group; dietary AAP significantly decreased MDA level at the concentration of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 g/kg in contrast with control group on d 42; 5 and 20 g/kg of AAP increased the gene expression of SOD on d 21, and the gene expression of GSH-Px was increased (P<0.05) in 10 g/kg of AAP group on d 42. For the ileum, compared to the control group, 2.5 and 20 g/kg of AAP increased SOD activity (P<0.05); and dietary 10 and 20 g/kg of AAP significantly reduced MDA level; dietary 10 g/kg of AAP increased the gene expression of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px in broilers on d 42. In conclusion, dietary AAP could improve the antioxidant defenses of liver and small intestine, and the best concentration of the AAP improving hepatic and small intestinal antioxidant status was 20 g/kg and 10 g/kg, respectively.

Słowa kluczowe

  • powder
  • antioxidant
  • liver
  • small intestine
  • broiler

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Otwarty dostęp

Assessment of Genotype by Environment Interaction Via Reaction Norms for Milk Yield in Holstein Cattle of Southern Brazil

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1101 - 1112

Abstrakt

Abstract

The experiments reported in this research paper were aimed at assessing the genetic responses of a Holstein cow population, as a response to the variations in environmental temperature, through the analysis of the effects resulting from the genotype by environment interaction (GEI), based on reaction norms. Therefore, milk production data was collected from the database of the Paraná Holstein Breeders Association in Brazil for 67,360 primiparous cows born between 1990 and 2015, with the purpose of evaluating the temperature effect, considered as an environmental variable, distinguished under six gradients (17 ºC to 19.5 ºC) over the region. A random regression model was adopted, utilizing the fourth order under the Legendre polynomials, applying the mixed models of analysis by the REML method, and using the WOMBAT software. Additionally, the breeding value of the 15 most representative bulls was assessed, in response to the changes in the temperature gradient. The total milk production on average was estimated at 8,412.83 ± 2,012.08 kg. The heritabilities estimates were found in the low to moderate range, from 0.18 to 0.23, displaying a decline with a rise in the temperature, highlighting the influence it exerted on the heritabilities. Variations in the genetic expression of some bulls were noted to show differences of up to 289 kg of milk in response to the increase in the temperature from 17 ºC to 19.5 ºC. However, all the genetic correlations between the gradients for milk yield were above 0.80, in the range of 0.873 to 0.998, revealing no remarkable interaction between the genotype and environment. This result indicates that the application of the temperature variable in the models of genetic analysis in southern Brazil is not required.

Słowa kluczowe

  • environmental effects
  • dairy cattle
  • Legendre polynomials

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Age and Genotype of Native Breed Cockerels on Carcass and Meat Quality

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1113 - 1126

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine meat quality in cockerels of two multipurpose breeds reared to different ages. The study involved 30 cockerels each of two native breeds: Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) and Rhode Island Red (R-11). The results showed that cockerels of the native breeds Rhode Island Red (R-11) and Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) represent a good starting material for niche production of poultry meat R-11 cockerels exhibited a better rate of weight gain and their carcasses had higher yellowness and redness values compared to Ż-33 birds. The carcasses of both cockerel breeds had lower breast and higher leg muscle percentage, and their meat contained more collagen and protein and less fat. As birds aged, body weight and abdominal fat percentage increased, and giblets percentage decreased in the cockerels of both breeds, whereas in the R-11 breed dressing percentage increased, leg bone percentage decreased, yellowness (a*) increased and redness (b*) decreased. Neither genotype nor slaughter age had a significant effect on chemical composition of the breast and leg muscles. In both breeds, the breast and leg muscle quality traits were more affected by age than genotype.

Słowa kluczowe

  • slaughter cockerels
  • meat quality
  • native breeds
Otwarty dostęp

Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in Young Bulls Fed Virginia Fanpetals Silage

Data publikacji: 01 Aug 2020
Zakres stron: 1127 - 1140

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Virginia fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita) silage on carcass and beef quality characteristics. Forty Polish Holstein-Friesian bulls aged 16 months were assigned to 4 dietary treatments (n=10) and were fed different types of silage during a 7-month fattening period. The proportion (g/kg dry matter) of silage in the diets was as follows: (1) grass silage (GS) (600); (2) Sida silage (SS) (600); (3) SS (300) and GS (300); and (4) SS (300) and maize silage (MS) (300). Silage was supplemented with concentrate at 400 g/kg DM in each diet. The animals were slaughtered at the end of the fattening period. Silage type had no significant effect on BWG or feed to gain ratio. The carcasses of bulls fed Sida silage and maize silage received higher scores for conformation than the carcasses of bulls fed grass silage (P<0.05). The meat of bulls fed Sida silage had the lowest value of Warner-Bratzler shear force. Meat from SS+MS group bulls had the highest intramuscular fat (IMF) content and was lightest in color, whereas meat from bulls fed Sida silage and grass silage received the highest scores for color uniformity, aroma, taste and overall acceptability.

Słowa kluczowe

  • beef
  • diet composition
  • meat quality
  • shear force
  • sensory evaluation

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