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Special Edizione: Sociology of Sport edited by Natalia Organista, Michał Lenartowicz & Michał Jasny

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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 93 (2021): Edizione 1 (October 2021)
Special Edizione: Sociology of Sport edited by Natalia Organista, Michał Lenartowicz & Michał Jasny

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

6 Articoli
access type Accesso libero

Corporate social responsibility activities conducted by football clubs playing in the Polish top division – PKO Ekstraklasa

Pubblicato online: 27 Sep 2021
Pagine: 1 - 10

Astratto

Abstract

The main goal of this paper is to analyze how football clubs playing in the Polish top division approach the issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Professionalization processes in football clubs all over the world have led to the situation in which they are treated as companies and must follow the same rules. The goals of companies from all industries are no longer only about generating financial profits; they also want to meet the expectations of their shareholders, which can be done through CSR activities. Strong social bonds between football clubs and local societies indicate the CSR approach has massive potential for football clubs. The aim of this paper is to describe how PKO Ekstraklasa are approaching the concept of CSR and to answer the following questions: “To what extent were clubs playing in PKO Ekstraklasa during the 2020/2021 season active in the area of CSR? To what groups did they direct their activities?” The analysis was conducted based on data published by clubs on their websites. The results of the analysis show that PKO Ekstraklasa clubs are active in the field of CSR. However, they need to improve significantly in terms of the regularity of their activities and reporting in order to become truly socially responsible.

Parole chiave

  • Corporate social responsibility
  • football
  • PKO Ekstraklasa
  • stakeholders
access type Accesso libero

Motives of labour migrations of foreign elite athletes to Polish table tennis clubs

Pubblicato online: 27 Sep 2021
Pagine: 11 - 23

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents results of empirical study on elite foreign athletes working in Polish top table tennis clubs. It focuses on professional migration motives of elite table tennis players. In-depth interviews were carried out with 27 foreign table tennis players from 10 countries, who were playing for two top league clubs in Poland, and with 8 club coaches who were working with foreign players. Research was conducted during the 2014/2015 league season. The surveyed athletes came both from European countries of higher economic status than Poland and from outside Europe, from countries of lower economic status. A significant number of the surveyed players (11) arrived at Poland from China. The reasons why the surveyed players decided to come to Poland were varied and included both pull factors resulting from attractiveness of work abroad and factors pushing the players away from their home country sport system. Among the motives mentioned by the respondents, the major ones seem to be the desire to continue their professional career and to develop as players. Most of the respondents reported a few factors motivating them to come to Poland and play in the Polish table tennis league. Most often they gave several reasons altogether and it is not easy to classify them as exclusively one of the typo-logies of sport migrants presented in the literature. For some of the respondents, the decisive criterion was the high level of the Polish table tennis league, staying only slightly behind the French and German leagues. For others, good financial conditions offered by the Polish clubs and the possibility of improving living conditions were of key importance. Push factors were particularly important in the case of Asian players representing a very high level of sport skills, however slightly lower than the level of the Chinese national team.

Parole chiave

  • Sport migration
  • elite sport
  • athletes
  • migration motives
  • Poland
access type Accesso libero

New perspectives in social studies on recreational running: The case of Poland

Pubblicato online: 27 Sep 2021
Pagine: 24 - 37

Astratto

Abstract

The article concerns the phenomenon of the popularity of recreational running in Poland. A search of existing studies on this phenomenon shows a clear overrepresentation of survey studies (mostly self-completion questionnaires), which in practice narrows the scope of empirical findings to issues such as the structure of the population of amateur runners, runners’ motivations, and running practices themselves. In contrast, there is limited recognition of the perspectives and experiences of the institutional actors who co-create the running boom. These actors are referred to as the stakeholders of the running boom in the article. In the second part of the text, we discuss the results of our own research, which focused on running competitions open to amateurs. Every year, several thousands of such events are organized in Poland. The study (standardized online desk research) was carried out on two randomly selected nationwide samples: N = 338 and N = 349 (measurements for 2014 and 2017). The research documented the activity of stakeholders of the running boom in the form of organization, sponsorship, and patronage of running events. However, it should be emphasized that certain activities are conducted by public sector entities (local governments); the involvement of market players is less visible. The conducted research also provides characteristics of the landscape of running events in Poland: their location (including regional distribution), size, and their most important sport features (distance and accompanying events). The time variable (2014 versus 2017) and the regional variable (Eastern Poland versus the rest of the country) were used as the basic independent variables in the statistical analyses. The study as a whole can be considered to be complementary to previous studies on the Polish running boom.

Parole chiave

  • Running boom
  • running events
  • leisure-time sport
  • recreational running
  • Poland
access type Accesso libero

Self-assessment of football referees on their educational influence on children aged 9–12 during a sports competition

Pubblicato online: 27 Sep 2021
Pagine: 38 - 48

Astratto

Abstract

Proper use of the educational potential of sports depends on the entities organizing children’s sports competitions (coaches, parents, referees). Particularly important is their awareness of the purposefulness and legitimacy of actions taken. Numerous studies have been devoted to the role of the coach and parents in providing children and young people with positive sporting experiences. In contrast, the referee has often been overlooked. The behavior of the referees during the match is also important for young players. Assuming that referee-player interactions have a major contribution to educational influence, the purpose of this study was to explore the opinions of soccer referees refereeing matches of children aged 9 to 12 years about their interactions with players in terms of emotional support, game organization, and instructional support. It was also decided to verify whether referees’ self-assessment of their educational function is influenced by experience. The research was conducted among 116 referees licensed by Mazovian Football Association who referee matches of children aged 9–12 years (Orliki and Młodziki categories) in the Masovian Voivodeship in Poland. To assess the referee-players educational interaction, a questionnaire survey was developed. These interactions are present in three domains: emotional support, game organization and instructional support. The results showed significant differences between referees’ self-assessments in the three domains. Referees rated their educational interactions with players higher in the domain of emotional support than the instructional support. Moreover, the results indicated that there was no differences in the referees’ self-assessment between the groups distinguished by more experienced in the domains of emotional support and game organization, while less experienced referees rated the quality of their educational interactions in the instructional support domain higher than those more experienced. The main conclusion of the research is the postulate to introduce pedagogical and psychological issues into the referee training.

Parole chiave

  • Referee
  • football
  • youth sport
  • referee–players interactions
  • educational practice
access type Accesso libero

Identity reconstruction among people with physical disabilities practising Race Running

Pubblicato online: 27 Sep 2021
Pagine: 49 - 61

Astratto

Abstract

The main aim of the article is to present the results of research concerning the reconstruction of the identity of people with disabilities who practice Race Running. In the scientific literature focused on disability, sport is presented as one of the important elements serving for the reconstruction of the identity of people with disabilities and their integration, inclusion with the surrounding social world. However, previous studies did not analyze in this context the role of Race Running, which is a niche, developing sport discipline. Therefore, this article fills a significant gap in the scientific literature dedicated to the role of sport in the reconstruction of the identity of people with disabilities by undertaking an analysis of sport, which has not been the subject of research so far. Starting from the concept of ‘pendulum’ developed by Karen K. Yoshida, the following article provides a model of identity reconstruction based on five processes: Socialising, Becoming independent, Exposing, Proving, Realizing. The conceptualization of this model is based on the results of qualitative research using the in-depth interview technique. The respondents were people with disabilities practicing Race Running in Poland, their family members and their coaches. The results of the research show not only the possibilities for people with disabilities, which comes with practicing Race Running, but also limitations, because the specificity and technical requirements of this sport mean that its benefits can only be used by people with a certain type of disability.

Parole chiave

  • Disability
  • sport
  • identity
  • race running
  • qualitative methods
access type Accesso libero

“Playing with injury”: the health-related aspects of a career in women’s handball

Pubblicato online: 27 Sep 2021
Pagine: 62 - 71

Astratto

Abstract

Health, injury, and pain within the social contexts of sports remain relevant. Sociologists have repeatedly pointed out a set of factors that shape the sociocultural background of sports and aim to normalize the high risk of injury, pain, and negative impacts on health. The literature contains inspiring studies with valuable guidelines for conceptualizing this issue. Some researchers have focused on the social factors shaping athletes’ experiences with health-related risks and have proven that it is possible to oppose the deeply rooted “culture of risk.” The fact that most studies on the subject involve men’s sports increases the importance of those that address health-related risks in women’s sports. The literature includes few works concerning the sociocultural contexts of injury, pain, or health issues in handball. The aim of this study was to learn about the opinions and experiences of professional female handball players related to health in their discipline. Three main directions of research were followed: 1) health as a value; 2) significance of injury and pain; and 3) effect of health-related risks on a career in sports. The data were collected before the COVID-19 pandemic. The results do not reflect the opinions or experiences of the participants during the period of heightened epidemiological risk. The sample comprised female athletes (n=52) who participated in the Polish First League of women’s handball and represented the highest competitive level in their category in Poland.

Parole chiave

  • Health
  • injury
  • sport
  • women’s handball
6 Articoli
access type Accesso libero

Corporate social responsibility activities conducted by football clubs playing in the Polish top division – PKO Ekstraklasa

Pubblicato online: 27 Sep 2021
Pagine: 1 - 10

Astratto

Abstract

The main goal of this paper is to analyze how football clubs playing in the Polish top division approach the issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Professionalization processes in football clubs all over the world have led to the situation in which they are treated as companies and must follow the same rules. The goals of companies from all industries are no longer only about generating financial profits; they also want to meet the expectations of their shareholders, which can be done through CSR activities. Strong social bonds between football clubs and local societies indicate the CSR approach has massive potential for football clubs. The aim of this paper is to describe how PKO Ekstraklasa are approaching the concept of CSR and to answer the following questions: “To what extent were clubs playing in PKO Ekstraklasa during the 2020/2021 season active in the area of CSR? To what groups did they direct their activities?” The analysis was conducted based on data published by clubs on their websites. The results of the analysis show that PKO Ekstraklasa clubs are active in the field of CSR. However, they need to improve significantly in terms of the regularity of their activities and reporting in order to become truly socially responsible.

Parole chiave

  • Corporate social responsibility
  • football
  • PKO Ekstraklasa
  • stakeholders
access type Accesso libero

Motives of labour migrations of foreign elite athletes to Polish table tennis clubs

Pubblicato online: 27 Sep 2021
Pagine: 11 - 23

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents results of empirical study on elite foreign athletes working in Polish top table tennis clubs. It focuses on professional migration motives of elite table tennis players. In-depth interviews were carried out with 27 foreign table tennis players from 10 countries, who were playing for two top league clubs in Poland, and with 8 club coaches who were working with foreign players. Research was conducted during the 2014/2015 league season. The surveyed athletes came both from European countries of higher economic status than Poland and from outside Europe, from countries of lower economic status. A significant number of the surveyed players (11) arrived at Poland from China. The reasons why the surveyed players decided to come to Poland were varied and included both pull factors resulting from attractiveness of work abroad and factors pushing the players away from their home country sport system. Among the motives mentioned by the respondents, the major ones seem to be the desire to continue their professional career and to develop as players. Most of the respondents reported a few factors motivating them to come to Poland and play in the Polish table tennis league. Most often they gave several reasons altogether and it is not easy to classify them as exclusively one of the typo-logies of sport migrants presented in the literature. For some of the respondents, the decisive criterion was the high level of the Polish table tennis league, staying only slightly behind the French and German leagues. For others, good financial conditions offered by the Polish clubs and the possibility of improving living conditions were of key importance. Push factors were particularly important in the case of Asian players representing a very high level of sport skills, however slightly lower than the level of the Chinese national team.

Parole chiave

  • Sport migration
  • elite sport
  • athletes
  • migration motives
  • Poland
access type Accesso libero

New perspectives in social studies on recreational running: The case of Poland

Pubblicato online: 27 Sep 2021
Pagine: 24 - 37

Astratto

Abstract

The article concerns the phenomenon of the popularity of recreational running in Poland. A search of existing studies on this phenomenon shows a clear overrepresentation of survey studies (mostly self-completion questionnaires), which in practice narrows the scope of empirical findings to issues such as the structure of the population of amateur runners, runners’ motivations, and running practices themselves. In contrast, there is limited recognition of the perspectives and experiences of the institutional actors who co-create the running boom. These actors are referred to as the stakeholders of the running boom in the article. In the second part of the text, we discuss the results of our own research, which focused on running competitions open to amateurs. Every year, several thousands of such events are organized in Poland. The study (standardized online desk research) was carried out on two randomly selected nationwide samples: N = 338 and N = 349 (measurements for 2014 and 2017). The research documented the activity of stakeholders of the running boom in the form of organization, sponsorship, and patronage of running events. However, it should be emphasized that certain activities are conducted by public sector entities (local governments); the involvement of market players is less visible. The conducted research also provides characteristics of the landscape of running events in Poland: their location (including regional distribution), size, and their most important sport features (distance and accompanying events). The time variable (2014 versus 2017) and the regional variable (Eastern Poland versus the rest of the country) were used as the basic independent variables in the statistical analyses. The study as a whole can be considered to be complementary to previous studies on the Polish running boom.

Parole chiave

  • Running boom
  • running events
  • leisure-time sport
  • recreational running
  • Poland
access type Accesso libero

Self-assessment of football referees on their educational influence on children aged 9–12 during a sports competition

Pubblicato online: 27 Sep 2021
Pagine: 38 - 48

Astratto

Abstract

Proper use of the educational potential of sports depends on the entities organizing children’s sports competitions (coaches, parents, referees). Particularly important is their awareness of the purposefulness and legitimacy of actions taken. Numerous studies have been devoted to the role of the coach and parents in providing children and young people with positive sporting experiences. In contrast, the referee has often been overlooked. The behavior of the referees during the match is also important for young players. Assuming that referee-player interactions have a major contribution to educational influence, the purpose of this study was to explore the opinions of soccer referees refereeing matches of children aged 9 to 12 years about their interactions with players in terms of emotional support, game organization, and instructional support. It was also decided to verify whether referees’ self-assessment of their educational function is influenced by experience. The research was conducted among 116 referees licensed by Mazovian Football Association who referee matches of children aged 9–12 years (Orliki and Młodziki categories) in the Masovian Voivodeship in Poland. To assess the referee-players educational interaction, a questionnaire survey was developed. These interactions are present in three domains: emotional support, game organization and instructional support. The results showed significant differences between referees’ self-assessments in the three domains. Referees rated their educational interactions with players higher in the domain of emotional support than the instructional support. Moreover, the results indicated that there was no differences in the referees’ self-assessment between the groups distinguished by more experienced in the domains of emotional support and game organization, while less experienced referees rated the quality of their educational interactions in the instructional support domain higher than those more experienced. The main conclusion of the research is the postulate to introduce pedagogical and psychological issues into the referee training.

Parole chiave

  • Referee
  • football
  • youth sport
  • referee–players interactions
  • educational practice
access type Accesso libero

Identity reconstruction among people with physical disabilities practising Race Running

Pubblicato online: 27 Sep 2021
Pagine: 49 - 61

Astratto

Abstract

The main aim of the article is to present the results of research concerning the reconstruction of the identity of people with disabilities who practice Race Running. In the scientific literature focused on disability, sport is presented as one of the important elements serving for the reconstruction of the identity of people with disabilities and their integration, inclusion with the surrounding social world. However, previous studies did not analyze in this context the role of Race Running, which is a niche, developing sport discipline. Therefore, this article fills a significant gap in the scientific literature dedicated to the role of sport in the reconstruction of the identity of people with disabilities by undertaking an analysis of sport, which has not been the subject of research so far. Starting from the concept of ‘pendulum’ developed by Karen K. Yoshida, the following article provides a model of identity reconstruction based on five processes: Socialising, Becoming independent, Exposing, Proving, Realizing. The conceptualization of this model is based on the results of qualitative research using the in-depth interview technique. The respondents were people with disabilities practicing Race Running in Poland, their family members and their coaches. The results of the research show not only the possibilities for people with disabilities, which comes with practicing Race Running, but also limitations, because the specificity and technical requirements of this sport mean that its benefits can only be used by people with a certain type of disability.

Parole chiave

  • Disability
  • sport
  • identity
  • race running
  • qualitative methods
access type Accesso libero

“Playing with injury”: the health-related aspects of a career in women’s handball

Pubblicato online: 27 Sep 2021
Pagine: 62 - 71

Astratto

Abstract

Health, injury, and pain within the social contexts of sports remain relevant. Sociologists have repeatedly pointed out a set of factors that shape the sociocultural background of sports and aim to normalize the high risk of injury, pain, and negative impacts on health. The literature contains inspiring studies with valuable guidelines for conceptualizing this issue. Some researchers have focused on the social factors shaping athletes’ experiences with health-related risks and have proven that it is possible to oppose the deeply rooted “culture of risk.” The fact that most studies on the subject involve men’s sports increases the importance of those that address health-related risks in women’s sports. The literature includes few works concerning the sociocultural contexts of injury, pain, or health issues in handball. The aim of this study was to learn about the opinions and experiences of professional female handball players related to health in their discipline. Three main directions of research were followed: 1) health as a value; 2) significance of injury and pain; and 3) effect of health-related risks on a career in sports. The data were collected before the COVID-19 pandemic. The results do not reflect the opinions or experiences of the participants during the period of heightened epidemiological risk. The sample comprised female athletes (n=52) who participated in the Polish First League of women’s handball and represented the highest competitive level in their category in Poland.

Parole chiave

  • Health
  • injury
  • sport
  • women’s handball

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