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Special Edizione: Sociology of Sport edited by Natalia Organista, Michał Lenartowicz & Michał Jasny

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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 77 (2018): Edizione 1 (March 2018)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

7 Articoli
Accesso libero

Managed Play: The Media’s Impact on Play in the Australian Football League

Pubblicato online: 31 Mar 2018
Pagine: 5 - 16

Astratto

Abstract

No industry has influenced the transformation of the Australian Football League (AFL) into a professional, commercial business more than the media. Today, the AFL players are paid more than ever and are used as marketing tools to promote and sell the game, often to new fans in new markets of Australia - namely New South Wales and Queensland - who haven’t traditionally played Australian Football, preferring the rugby codes instead. But perhaps the biggest change in the AFL is that the play element is now used as function of business. Put simply, winning leads to more money. As such, the play element is now manipulated more than ever. The game has more coaches implementing more tactics, strategies, game plans and set plays than ever before. These changes can be linked back to the media’s influence on the game. This paper utilises the combined observations and theories of Johan Huizinga and Pierre Bourdieu to create a theoretical lens through which we can understand the media’s growing influence in sport and its impact on play’s transformation. The theory will then be expounded through an extensive analysis of the media’s influence in the AFL, particularly its play element. This analysis will be supported with insights and views from AFL fans, members, commentators and theorists.

Parole chiave

  • play
  • media
  • sport
  • Huizinga
  • Bourdieu
Accesso libero

Declared Pedagogical Values of Coaches at Hungarian Football Academies

Pubblicato online: 31 Mar 2018
Pagine: 17 - 24

Astratto

Abstract

This paper is based on empirical research that was carried out in the total population of the coaches employed at Hungarian football academies (N=196). The main objectives of the investigation were to reveal the coaches’ opinions about some major pedagogical views and to discover whether they realize their declared pedagogical values or not. The methods for collecting the data were a self-administered questionnaire, analysis of documents, and semi-structured interviews. The results are presented according to the following sub-topics: The content and the structure of the coaches’ pedagogical values and the place of education in coaching effectiveness. Based on the findings, it is concluded that the disregard of pedagogical values can cause continuous harm to both the athletes and the coaches. The personality of young players suffering from educational and emotional neglect might develop in a one-sided manner. The effect of dysfunctional consequences with the coaches might prevent them from achieving their goals. In the worst case scenario, ignoring the young players’ education can hinder the realization of the coaches’ intended objectives and can result in unintended and adverse outcomes.

Parole chiave

  • forbidden sport doping
  • abolition of a ban of doping
  • usefulness and necessity of sport doping
Accesso libero

Consequences of a Spectacle? Alleged Match-Fixing in the National Basketball Association Western Conference Finals of 2002

Pubblicato online: 31 Mar 2018
Pagine: 25 - 33

Astratto

Abstract

No major professional sports league epitomizes Guy Debord’s idea of the spectacle more than the NBA. The league was the first to understand the importance of highlights and global expansion, and participated in creating the first branded superstar in Michael Jordan. Naturally there are some controversies surrounding the rise to its present-day status, like the (supposedly) fixed 1985 draft or Michael Jordan’s (supposedly) enforced first retirement. One of the most controversial events in recent league history took place during Game Six of the 2002 Western Conference Finals between the Los Angeles Lakers and the Sacramento Kings. A lot of controversial calls by the referees allowed the Lakers to win the game and eventually the series. As the Lakers were about to get eliminated, the league officials allegedly encouraged referees to force a Game Seven. The problem with the allegations was that they were made public by former referee Tim Donaghy, who himself used to bet on games. David Stern, the league’s former commissioner was referring to Donaghy’s gambling addiction as the reason for the falsity of his statements. My paper uses the game in question as a case study in order to present the spectacular aspects of the NBA.

Parole chiave

  • spectacle
  • Debord
  • basketball
  • Lakers
  • NBA
Accesso libero

Effect of Social Intelligence on OCB and EB, with Effect on Social Capital as a Mediating Variable, in a Sport Organization in Iran

Pubblicato online: 31 Mar 2018
Pagine: 34 - 40

Astratto

Abstract

This study aimed to measure the effect of social intelligence on organizational citizenship behavior and entrepreneurial behaviors among staff members in a sport organization in Iran, with the effect on social capital as a mediating variable. The method of this study was survey, and 205 staff members were selected using stratified random sampling. The instrument in this study included four standard questionnaires measuring social intelligence (Silvera, Martinussen & Dahl, 2001), social capital (Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998), OCB (Organ, 1988), and EB (Mirsafian & Salimi, 2016). The data was analyzed by employing SPSS and AMOS Graphics software. The results indicated that the staff’s social intelligence had a direct effect on improving the social capital of the organization (β = 0.63). Also, social capital had a direct effect on increasing the staff’s OCB (β = 0.20) and EB (β = 0.25). Furthermore, the staff’s social intelligence had an indirect effect on increasing the social capital and improved their OCB (β = 0.51) and EB (β = 0.44). Hence, trying to increase the staff’s social intelligence in sport organizations in Iran led to improving the staff’s extra role behaviors as well as entrepreneurial behaviors at the organization, in addition to the effect of increasing the social capital in those organizations.

Parole chiave

  • human resource management
  • Isfahan
  • organizational behavior
  • sport organization
Accesso libero

The Effect of Aerobic and Core Exercises on Forced Vital Capacity

Pubblicato online: 31 Mar 2018
Pagine: 41 - 47

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aerobic and core strength exercises on forced vital capacity in sedentary women. A total of 40 healthy sedentary women (20 in an aerobic-step group and 20 in a core strength exercise group) with a mean age of 34.4±2.4 years participated voluntarily in this study. Two different exercises were applied to the women for 12 weeks, 4 days a week, at the intensity of 70% for 60 minutes. The women's resting heart rate (RHR), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced air volume in the first second of forced expiration (FEV1) were measured before and after exercise. For statistical analysis, the Paired Samples-t test was used for intra-group evaluations, and the Independent Samples-t test was used for inter-group evaluations. After the exercise program, significant increases were found in the VO2max, FVC, and FEV1 values, while both groups experienced a decreased RHR (p<0.01). Since the aerobic and forced vital capacities of the sedentary women show a parallel increase as a result of the applied 12-week aerobic and core strength exercises, it can be said that the RHR, VO2maxmax, FEV, and FEV1 respiratory parameters also improved in a positive manner. For this reason, it may be advisable to apply both exercise types for the development of the aerobic and vital capacities of sedentary women.

Parole chiave

  • exercise
  • VO2
  • max spirometer
  • sedentary woman
Accesso libero

Hegelian Phenomenology of Spirit and Boxing Fight

Pubblicato online: 31 Mar 2018
Pagine: 48 - 54

Astratto

Abstract

In the presented text the author points out to anthropological as well as axiological foundations of the boxing fight from the viewpoint of Hegel’s philosophy. In the genial idealist’s views it is possible to perceive the appreciation of the body, which constitutes a necessary basis for the man’s physical activity, for his work oriented towards the self-transformation and the transformation of the external world, as well as for rivalry and the hand-to-hand fight. While focusing our attention on the issue of rivalry and on the situation of the fight - and regarding it from the viewpoint of the master - slave theory (included in the phenomenology of spirit), it is possible to proclaim that even a conventionalised boxing fight - that is, restricted by cultural and sports rules of the game - has features of the fight to the death between two Hegelian forms of selfknowledge striving for self-affirmation and self-realisation. In the boxing fight, similarly as in the above mentioned Hegelian theory, a problem of work and of the development of the human individual (that is, of the subject, self-knowledge, the participant of the fight) appears. There appears also a prospect of death as a possible end of merciless rivalry. The fight revalues the human way in an important way, whereas the prospect for death, the awareness of its proximity, the feeling that its close and possible, saturates the life with additional values. It places the boxer, just like every subject fighting in a similar or a different way, on the path towards absolute abstraction - that is, it brings him closer to his self-fulfilment in the Absolute, to the absolute synthesis. The Hegelian viewpoint enables also to appreciate the boxing fight as a manifestation of low culture (being in contrast with high culture), to turn attention to the relations which - according to Hegel - take place between the Absolute and the man, as well as to show which place is occupied by the subject both in the process of the Absolute’s self-realisation and in the German thinker’s philosophical system. Independently of the dialectical, simultaneously pessimistic and optimistic overtone of considerations connected with the very boxing fight (regarding destruction and spiritualisation on a higher level), it is possible to perceive farreaching appreciation of the human individual in Hegel’s philosophy since the Absolute cannot make its own self-affirmation without the individual, without the human body, without the fight aimed at the destruction of the enemy and without the subjective consciousness and the collective consciousness which appear thanks to this fight. Thus, it is justified to suppose that the foundation of the whole Hegel’s philosophy is constituted by anthropology and that in the framework of this anthropology a special role is played by the fight and by work, which changes the subject and his(her) environment. Admittedly Hegel does not emphasise it explicitly, nevertheless his views (with their centre, which, according to Hegel himself and his interpreters, is constituted by the Absolute) have, as a matter of fact, an anthropocentric character and the main source of the subject’s development is the struggle which, irrespectively of its result, always primarily leads to the destruction or even to the death of one of the sides, just like in the boxing fight. However, it is also a germ of the positive re-orientation of the subject, the beginning and a continuation of that what the phenomenology of the spirit describes as a movement towards absolute abstraction.

Parole chiave

  • Absolute’s self-fulfilment
  • boxing
  • praise of corporeality
  • absolute abstraction
  • phenomenology of spirit
Accesso libero

Justice at Sport Clubs According to the Theory of Utilitarianism and Libertarianism

Pubblicato online: 31 Mar 2018
Pagine: 55 - 60

Astratto

Abstract

Today’s sport clubs are exposed to turbulently changing circumstances to which they must adapt. If we want to talk about quality sport clubs, we have to find the qualitative criterion that justifies them. This must then be accepted by society as well. Such aspects of quality and evaluation may show justice. Only one truth exists. Thus the question is how and by what principles we should interpret it. Justice can play a key role in the operation of sport clubs as a moral element. This justice must not necessarily be linked to equality. The goal of this study is to interpret justice as a quality factor in sport clubs. The other goal of the study is to present some theories of justice related to sport. The study examines Bentham’s utilitarianism, Mill’s higher pleasures, and the ideas of libertarianism concerning justice. The theories of justice in addition to social processes also play a key role in today’s sport clubs. During the interpretations, it is important to distinguish between competitive and non-competitive sport clubs in relation to justice. It also depends on the practical applicability of the theory of justice. The practical application of theories of justices should be thoroughly investigated in the life of sport clubs. Then the sport clubs’ management must decide which theory of justice should be introduced. The key question concerns how to apply it consistently in practice while taking into account the interests of existing and prospective members. Finding the potential qualitative key factors for the sport clubs’ qualification is a complex activity. Besides happiness and justice, many other ancient and presently valued virtues can be relevant qualities and distinctive aspects among sport clubs.

Parole chiave

  • quality
  • justice
  • utilitarianism
  • libertarianism
  • sport clubs
7 Articoli
Accesso libero

Managed Play: The Media’s Impact on Play in the Australian Football League

Pubblicato online: 31 Mar 2018
Pagine: 5 - 16

Astratto

Abstract

No industry has influenced the transformation of the Australian Football League (AFL) into a professional, commercial business more than the media. Today, the AFL players are paid more than ever and are used as marketing tools to promote and sell the game, often to new fans in new markets of Australia - namely New South Wales and Queensland - who haven’t traditionally played Australian Football, preferring the rugby codes instead. But perhaps the biggest change in the AFL is that the play element is now used as function of business. Put simply, winning leads to more money. As such, the play element is now manipulated more than ever. The game has more coaches implementing more tactics, strategies, game plans and set plays than ever before. These changes can be linked back to the media’s influence on the game. This paper utilises the combined observations and theories of Johan Huizinga and Pierre Bourdieu to create a theoretical lens through which we can understand the media’s growing influence in sport and its impact on play’s transformation. The theory will then be expounded through an extensive analysis of the media’s influence in the AFL, particularly its play element. This analysis will be supported with insights and views from AFL fans, members, commentators and theorists.

Parole chiave

  • play
  • media
  • sport
  • Huizinga
  • Bourdieu
Accesso libero

Declared Pedagogical Values of Coaches at Hungarian Football Academies

Pubblicato online: 31 Mar 2018
Pagine: 17 - 24

Astratto

Abstract

This paper is based on empirical research that was carried out in the total population of the coaches employed at Hungarian football academies (N=196). The main objectives of the investigation were to reveal the coaches’ opinions about some major pedagogical views and to discover whether they realize their declared pedagogical values or not. The methods for collecting the data were a self-administered questionnaire, analysis of documents, and semi-structured interviews. The results are presented according to the following sub-topics: The content and the structure of the coaches’ pedagogical values and the place of education in coaching effectiveness. Based on the findings, it is concluded that the disregard of pedagogical values can cause continuous harm to both the athletes and the coaches. The personality of young players suffering from educational and emotional neglect might develop in a one-sided manner. The effect of dysfunctional consequences with the coaches might prevent them from achieving their goals. In the worst case scenario, ignoring the young players’ education can hinder the realization of the coaches’ intended objectives and can result in unintended and adverse outcomes.

Parole chiave

  • forbidden sport doping
  • abolition of a ban of doping
  • usefulness and necessity of sport doping
Accesso libero

Consequences of a Spectacle? Alleged Match-Fixing in the National Basketball Association Western Conference Finals of 2002

Pubblicato online: 31 Mar 2018
Pagine: 25 - 33

Astratto

Abstract

No major professional sports league epitomizes Guy Debord’s idea of the spectacle more than the NBA. The league was the first to understand the importance of highlights and global expansion, and participated in creating the first branded superstar in Michael Jordan. Naturally there are some controversies surrounding the rise to its present-day status, like the (supposedly) fixed 1985 draft or Michael Jordan’s (supposedly) enforced first retirement. One of the most controversial events in recent league history took place during Game Six of the 2002 Western Conference Finals between the Los Angeles Lakers and the Sacramento Kings. A lot of controversial calls by the referees allowed the Lakers to win the game and eventually the series. As the Lakers were about to get eliminated, the league officials allegedly encouraged referees to force a Game Seven. The problem with the allegations was that they were made public by former referee Tim Donaghy, who himself used to bet on games. David Stern, the league’s former commissioner was referring to Donaghy’s gambling addiction as the reason for the falsity of his statements. My paper uses the game in question as a case study in order to present the spectacular aspects of the NBA.

Parole chiave

  • spectacle
  • Debord
  • basketball
  • Lakers
  • NBA
Accesso libero

Effect of Social Intelligence on OCB and EB, with Effect on Social Capital as a Mediating Variable, in a Sport Organization in Iran

Pubblicato online: 31 Mar 2018
Pagine: 34 - 40

Astratto

Abstract

This study aimed to measure the effect of social intelligence on organizational citizenship behavior and entrepreneurial behaviors among staff members in a sport organization in Iran, with the effect on social capital as a mediating variable. The method of this study was survey, and 205 staff members were selected using stratified random sampling. The instrument in this study included four standard questionnaires measuring social intelligence (Silvera, Martinussen & Dahl, 2001), social capital (Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998), OCB (Organ, 1988), and EB (Mirsafian & Salimi, 2016). The data was analyzed by employing SPSS and AMOS Graphics software. The results indicated that the staff’s social intelligence had a direct effect on improving the social capital of the organization (β = 0.63). Also, social capital had a direct effect on increasing the staff’s OCB (β = 0.20) and EB (β = 0.25). Furthermore, the staff’s social intelligence had an indirect effect on increasing the social capital and improved their OCB (β = 0.51) and EB (β = 0.44). Hence, trying to increase the staff’s social intelligence in sport organizations in Iran led to improving the staff’s extra role behaviors as well as entrepreneurial behaviors at the organization, in addition to the effect of increasing the social capital in those organizations.

Parole chiave

  • human resource management
  • Isfahan
  • organizational behavior
  • sport organization
Accesso libero

The Effect of Aerobic and Core Exercises on Forced Vital Capacity

Pubblicato online: 31 Mar 2018
Pagine: 41 - 47

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aerobic and core strength exercises on forced vital capacity in sedentary women. A total of 40 healthy sedentary women (20 in an aerobic-step group and 20 in a core strength exercise group) with a mean age of 34.4±2.4 years participated voluntarily in this study. Two different exercises were applied to the women for 12 weeks, 4 days a week, at the intensity of 70% for 60 minutes. The women's resting heart rate (RHR), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced air volume in the first second of forced expiration (FEV1) were measured before and after exercise. For statistical analysis, the Paired Samples-t test was used for intra-group evaluations, and the Independent Samples-t test was used for inter-group evaluations. After the exercise program, significant increases were found in the VO2max, FVC, and FEV1 values, while both groups experienced a decreased RHR (p<0.01). Since the aerobic and forced vital capacities of the sedentary women show a parallel increase as a result of the applied 12-week aerobic and core strength exercises, it can be said that the RHR, VO2maxmax, FEV, and FEV1 respiratory parameters also improved in a positive manner. For this reason, it may be advisable to apply both exercise types for the development of the aerobic and vital capacities of sedentary women.

Parole chiave

  • exercise
  • VO2
  • max spirometer
  • sedentary woman
Accesso libero

Hegelian Phenomenology of Spirit and Boxing Fight

Pubblicato online: 31 Mar 2018
Pagine: 48 - 54

Astratto

Abstract

In the presented text the author points out to anthropological as well as axiological foundations of the boxing fight from the viewpoint of Hegel’s philosophy. In the genial idealist’s views it is possible to perceive the appreciation of the body, which constitutes a necessary basis for the man’s physical activity, for his work oriented towards the self-transformation and the transformation of the external world, as well as for rivalry and the hand-to-hand fight. While focusing our attention on the issue of rivalry and on the situation of the fight - and regarding it from the viewpoint of the master - slave theory (included in the phenomenology of spirit), it is possible to proclaim that even a conventionalised boxing fight - that is, restricted by cultural and sports rules of the game - has features of the fight to the death between two Hegelian forms of selfknowledge striving for self-affirmation and self-realisation. In the boxing fight, similarly as in the above mentioned Hegelian theory, a problem of work and of the development of the human individual (that is, of the subject, self-knowledge, the participant of the fight) appears. There appears also a prospect of death as a possible end of merciless rivalry. The fight revalues the human way in an important way, whereas the prospect for death, the awareness of its proximity, the feeling that its close and possible, saturates the life with additional values. It places the boxer, just like every subject fighting in a similar or a different way, on the path towards absolute abstraction - that is, it brings him closer to his self-fulfilment in the Absolute, to the absolute synthesis. The Hegelian viewpoint enables also to appreciate the boxing fight as a manifestation of low culture (being in contrast with high culture), to turn attention to the relations which - according to Hegel - take place between the Absolute and the man, as well as to show which place is occupied by the subject both in the process of the Absolute’s self-realisation and in the German thinker’s philosophical system. Independently of the dialectical, simultaneously pessimistic and optimistic overtone of considerations connected with the very boxing fight (regarding destruction and spiritualisation on a higher level), it is possible to perceive farreaching appreciation of the human individual in Hegel’s philosophy since the Absolute cannot make its own self-affirmation without the individual, without the human body, without the fight aimed at the destruction of the enemy and without the subjective consciousness and the collective consciousness which appear thanks to this fight. Thus, it is justified to suppose that the foundation of the whole Hegel’s philosophy is constituted by anthropology and that in the framework of this anthropology a special role is played by the fight and by work, which changes the subject and his(her) environment. Admittedly Hegel does not emphasise it explicitly, nevertheless his views (with their centre, which, according to Hegel himself and his interpreters, is constituted by the Absolute) have, as a matter of fact, an anthropocentric character and the main source of the subject’s development is the struggle which, irrespectively of its result, always primarily leads to the destruction or even to the death of one of the sides, just like in the boxing fight. However, it is also a germ of the positive re-orientation of the subject, the beginning and a continuation of that what the phenomenology of the spirit describes as a movement towards absolute abstraction.

Parole chiave

  • Absolute’s self-fulfilment
  • boxing
  • praise of corporeality
  • absolute abstraction
  • phenomenology of spirit
Accesso libero

Justice at Sport Clubs According to the Theory of Utilitarianism and Libertarianism

Pubblicato online: 31 Mar 2018
Pagine: 55 - 60

Astratto

Abstract

Today’s sport clubs are exposed to turbulently changing circumstances to which they must adapt. If we want to talk about quality sport clubs, we have to find the qualitative criterion that justifies them. This must then be accepted by society as well. Such aspects of quality and evaluation may show justice. Only one truth exists. Thus the question is how and by what principles we should interpret it. Justice can play a key role in the operation of sport clubs as a moral element. This justice must not necessarily be linked to equality. The goal of this study is to interpret justice as a quality factor in sport clubs. The other goal of the study is to present some theories of justice related to sport. The study examines Bentham’s utilitarianism, Mill’s higher pleasures, and the ideas of libertarianism concerning justice. The theories of justice in addition to social processes also play a key role in today’s sport clubs. During the interpretations, it is important to distinguish between competitive and non-competitive sport clubs in relation to justice. It also depends on the practical applicability of the theory of justice. The practical application of theories of justices should be thoroughly investigated in the life of sport clubs. Then the sport clubs’ management must decide which theory of justice should be introduced. The key question concerns how to apply it consistently in practice while taking into account the interests of existing and prospective members. Finding the potential qualitative key factors for the sport clubs’ qualification is a complex activity. Besides happiness and justice, many other ancient and presently valued virtues can be relevant qualities and distinctive aspects among sport clubs.

Parole chiave

  • quality
  • justice
  • utilitarianism
  • libertarianism
  • sport clubs

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