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Special Edizione: Sociology of Sport edited by Natalia Organista, Michał Lenartowicz & Michał Jasny

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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 64 (2014): Edizione 1 (December 2014)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

7 Articoli
Accesso libero

Are Sportspersons Good Moral Role Models?

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 5 - 17

Astratto

Abstract

It has been thought that sportspersons, through their participation in sport, acquire moral attitudes and behavior that make them good moral role models. These moral attitudes and behavior can be called the ethos of sport, and consist of the principles of fair play and courage, justice, and honesty. In this article, it is argued that this belief is mistaken. Through four very common examples of sporting practice, it is shown that sport, contrary to providing a good basis for proper moral behavior, promotes what otherwise would be called non-moral attitudes and behavior. As a conclusion, it is pointed out that sportspersons might very well be good moral role models, but that they would be moral role models in spite of the fact that they are involved in sporting activities.

Parole chiave

  • ethos of sport
  • role model
  • sporting practice
Accesso libero

Attitudes of Iranian Male University Students Toward Sport and Exercise with Reference to Age, Educational Level, and Field of Study

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 18 - 28

Astratto

Abstract

This article aimed to discover the attitudes of Iranian male university students toward sport and exercise. This study is based on the same research as another published paper regarding the attitudes of Iranian female students toward sport and exercise. Participants (N = 821) were selected from different educational levels and fields of study from among 12 public universities. Data were collected by a modified and developed version of Kenyon's scale (1968), which measures the attitudes of people toward physical activity. For the analysis of the data, independent sample t-test and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were employed (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the attitudes of the respondents can be identified as fitness (3.96 ± 1.02), catharsis (3.84 ± 0.80), social (3.82 ± 1.10), aesthetic (3.03 ± 1.14), vertigo (2.15 ± 1.16), and ascetic (2.07 ± 0.79). Furthermore, it was found that various demographic and social characteristics affected participants' attitudes toward sport and exercise (p < 0.05). Based on the results, it was concluded that the sport programs should be organized around students' dominant attitudes toward regular activities. In addition, planning and organizing sport programs with regard to the wide attitudinal differences between male and female students could be a big step toward improving students' participation rate in sporting activities at Iranian universities.

Parole chiave

  • regular activity
  • health
  • motivation
  • perception
  • tendency
  • educational level
  • field of study
  • constraint
Accesso libero

Effects of Marginalization on School Physical Education Programs: a Literature Review

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 29 - 40

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to examine the causes of marginalization in Physical Education (PE) and to examine how PE teachers can counter the effects of this marginalization. Therefore, a recent literature review was conducted for the purpose of investigating the effects of marginalization. Four studies addressed feelings of burnout among PE teachers, including isolation, lack of equipment, and lack of space. Three research articles addressed communication with parents to encourage their support of PE. These three articles examined the use of PE websites as a tool to stay in constant communication with parents. In addition, one research study looked at how PE assessments needed to be consistent with other content areas and aligned with state and national standards. Moreover, one research article addressed the causes of parents' misconceptions of their children's PE programs. The final research article was a case study that related to how one teacher was able to change the parents' misconceptions about the PE programs. Results from this literature review study indicated that PE programs are being marginalized, yet there are ways for PE teachers to combat this issue.

Parole chiave

  • physical education
  • marginalization
  • school health policy
Accesso libero

The Olympic Games: The Experience of a Lifetime or Simply the Most Important Competition of an Athletic Career?

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 41 - 52

Astratto

Abstract

As a multi-sport event that only takes place every four years and is accompanied by intense media coverage, the Olympic Games are often described by athletes as a defining moment in their careers. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to describe differences in expectations of Olympic debutants towards the Olympics and their actual experiences while they were at the Games; and 2) to describe how the athletes negotiate the balance between performing at and enjoying the experience of the Olympic Games. Further, we will discuss the athletes' stories in light of the differences between the goals and expectations of the elite sport system and those of the individual athletes. Data was collected through a qualitative interview study with a pre- and post-Olympic competition design.

Using a semi-structured interview guide, we interviewed 14 Danish Olympic debutants about their Olympic goals and expectations within a month preceding their departure for the Olympic Games and about their actual experiences within a month following their return.

Condensed narratives from two Olympic debutants represent the spectrum of the athletes' expectations and experiences: one failed in his performance but had a great experience; the other was successful and won a silver medal but was truly unhappy with her experience. The debutants emphasize balancing their desire to perform with a desire for social experiences. They also discussed the challenges posed during preparation and goal setting.

Olympic debutants are caught in a very real dilemma between the Olympics as the “most important competition of their athletic careers” and “the Olympics as the experience of a lifetime.” This dilemma is linked to a wide rift between the perspectives and goals of the sport organization and those of the athletes.

Parole chiave

  • Olympic Games
  • debutants
  • performance stress
  • competition preparation
Accesso libero

Incentive System in Hungarian High Performance Sport

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 53 - 63

Astratto

Abstract

This study will attempt to describe the role of existing incentives which have a significant effect on Hungarian sport's performance. The aim of the paper is to understand why a large gap has emerged between successful elite sports and the popular but underperforming spectacular sport. According to the concept of dual competition, in addition to sport results, the analyzed fields also concern competition for resources, particularly for the attention of supporters and sponsors. The methodology of the analysis is fundamentally economic in nature; however, qualitative methods are also given emphasis, as the analyzed topic has specific characteristics. Based on new institutional economics, the study presumes that the behavior of organizations is determined by the decisions of bounded rational individuals, and highlights the significance of the created mechanisms and institutions.

Parole chiave

  • incentives
  • sport management
  • sport performance
  • elite sport
  • Hungary
Accesso libero

Social Problems in Canadian Ice Hockey: An Exploration Through Film

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 64 - 70

Astratto

Abstract

While celebrated as a highly popular sport in Canada, there are many social problems existing within and around Canadian ice hockey. These problems are often overlooked and rarely depicted in academic and journalistic research on sport. These social problems include, but are not limited to: extreme violence resulting in injuries and death, hazing rituals, multiple types of sexual violence, drug abuse, financial corruption, as well as various forms of prejudice and discrimination. Prompted by pop-cultural depictions in films, this paper further identifies and explores social problems in Canadian ice hockey revealing the realism embedded within various seemingly fictional films.

Parole chiave

  • social problem
  • violence
  • sexual violence
  • drug abuse
  • injury
  • death
  • hazing
  • exploration through film
Accesso libero

Youth Volunteering in Sport: A Case Study of The Benefits of “The European Voluntary Service” for a Sport Organization

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 71 - 85

Astratto

Abstract

The European Voluntary Service of the European Union is thought to play a key role in promoting and encouraging volunteering among young people. Integrating the social work of EVS volunteers into activities through sport organizations is believed to help develop the perception of volunteering as an element of social commitment. The aim of this study is to therefore examine a case of youth volunteering practice in an EVS project in Turkey within the context of the benefits of volunteering. Data was collected using various tools. These included semi-structured interviews, participant observation (non-structured), and document analyses. Content analyses were applied to the interview data. The study established that the EVS is a beneficial channel for youth volunteering and provides benefits for each of the parties: the volunteers, the organization, and the sport participants.

Parole chiave

  • volunteering
  • youth
  • volunteering in sports
  • european voluntary service
  • social exchange theory
  • serious leisure theory
7 Articoli
Accesso libero

Are Sportspersons Good Moral Role Models?

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 5 - 17

Astratto

Abstract

It has been thought that sportspersons, through their participation in sport, acquire moral attitudes and behavior that make them good moral role models. These moral attitudes and behavior can be called the ethos of sport, and consist of the principles of fair play and courage, justice, and honesty. In this article, it is argued that this belief is mistaken. Through four very common examples of sporting practice, it is shown that sport, contrary to providing a good basis for proper moral behavior, promotes what otherwise would be called non-moral attitudes and behavior. As a conclusion, it is pointed out that sportspersons might very well be good moral role models, but that they would be moral role models in spite of the fact that they are involved in sporting activities.

Parole chiave

  • ethos of sport
  • role model
  • sporting practice
Accesso libero

Attitudes of Iranian Male University Students Toward Sport and Exercise with Reference to Age, Educational Level, and Field of Study

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 18 - 28

Astratto

Abstract

This article aimed to discover the attitudes of Iranian male university students toward sport and exercise. This study is based on the same research as another published paper regarding the attitudes of Iranian female students toward sport and exercise. Participants (N = 821) were selected from different educational levels and fields of study from among 12 public universities. Data were collected by a modified and developed version of Kenyon's scale (1968), which measures the attitudes of people toward physical activity. For the analysis of the data, independent sample t-test and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were employed (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the attitudes of the respondents can be identified as fitness (3.96 ± 1.02), catharsis (3.84 ± 0.80), social (3.82 ± 1.10), aesthetic (3.03 ± 1.14), vertigo (2.15 ± 1.16), and ascetic (2.07 ± 0.79). Furthermore, it was found that various demographic and social characteristics affected participants' attitudes toward sport and exercise (p < 0.05). Based on the results, it was concluded that the sport programs should be organized around students' dominant attitudes toward regular activities. In addition, planning and organizing sport programs with regard to the wide attitudinal differences between male and female students could be a big step toward improving students' participation rate in sporting activities at Iranian universities.

Parole chiave

  • regular activity
  • health
  • motivation
  • perception
  • tendency
  • educational level
  • field of study
  • constraint
Accesso libero

Effects of Marginalization on School Physical Education Programs: a Literature Review

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 29 - 40

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to examine the causes of marginalization in Physical Education (PE) and to examine how PE teachers can counter the effects of this marginalization. Therefore, a recent literature review was conducted for the purpose of investigating the effects of marginalization. Four studies addressed feelings of burnout among PE teachers, including isolation, lack of equipment, and lack of space. Three research articles addressed communication with parents to encourage their support of PE. These three articles examined the use of PE websites as a tool to stay in constant communication with parents. In addition, one research study looked at how PE assessments needed to be consistent with other content areas and aligned with state and national standards. Moreover, one research article addressed the causes of parents' misconceptions of their children's PE programs. The final research article was a case study that related to how one teacher was able to change the parents' misconceptions about the PE programs. Results from this literature review study indicated that PE programs are being marginalized, yet there are ways for PE teachers to combat this issue.

Parole chiave

  • physical education
  • marginalization
  • school health policy
Accesso libero

The Olympic Games: The Experience of a Lifetime or Simply the Most Important Competition of an Athletic Career?

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 41 - 52

Astratto

Abstract

As a multi-sport event that only takes place every four years and is accompanied by intense media coverage, the Olympic Games are often described by athletes as a defining moment in their careers. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to describe differences in expectations of Olympic debutants towards the Olympics and their actual experiences while they were at the Games; and 2) to describe how the athletes negotiate the balance between performing at and enjoying the experience of the Olympic Games. Further, we will discuss the athletes' stories in light of the differences between the goals and expectations of the elite sport system and those of the individual athletes. Data was collected through a qualitative interview study with a pre- and post-Olympic competition design.

Using a semi-structured interview guide, we interviewed 14 Danish Olympic debutants about their Olympic goals and expectations within a month preceding their departure for the Olympic Games and about their actual experiences within a month following their return.

Condensed narratives from two Olympic debutants represent the spectrum of the athletes' expectations and experiences: one failed in his performance but had a great experience; the other was successful and won a silver medal but was truly unhappy with her experience. The debutants emphasize balancing their desire to perform with a desire for social experiences. They also discussed the challenges posed during preparation and goal setting.

Olympic debutants are caught in a very real dilemma between the Olympics as the “most important competition of their athletic careers” and “the Olympics as the experience of a lifetime.” This dilemma is linked to a wide rift between the perspectives and goals of the sport organization and those of the athletes.

Parole chiave

  • Olympic Games
  • debutants
  • performance stress
  • competition preparation
Accesso libero

Incentive System in Hungarian High Performance Sport

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 53 - 63

Astratto

Abstract

This study will attempt to describe the role of existing incentives which have a significant effect on Hungarian sport's performance. The aim of the paper is to understand why a large gap has emerged between successful elite sports and the popular but underperforming spectacular sport. According to the concept of dual competition, in addition to sport results, the analyzed fields also concern competition for resources, particularly for the attention of supporters and sponsors. The methodology of the analysis is fundamentally economic in nature; however, qualitative methods are also given emphasis, as the analyzed topic has specific characteristics. Based on new institutional economics, the study presumes that the behavior of organizations is determined by the decisions of bounded rational individuals, and highlights the significance of the created mechanisms and institutions.

Parole chiave

  • incentives
  • sport management
  • sport performance
  • elite sport
  • Hungary
Accesso libero

Social Problems in Canadian Ice Hockey: An Exploration Through Film

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 64 - 70

Astratto

Abstract

While celebrated as a highly popular sport in Canada, there are many social problems existing within and around Canadian ice hockey. These problems are often overlooked and rarely depicted in academic and journalistic research on sport. These social problems include, but are not limited to: extreme violence resulting in injuries and death, hazing rituals, multiple types of sexual violence, drug abuse, financial corruption, as well as various forms of prejudice and discrimination. Prompted by pop-cultural depictions in films, this paper further identifies and explores social problems in Canadian ice hockey revealing the realism embedded within various seemingly fictional films.

Parole chiave

  • social problem
  • violence
  • sexual violence
  • drug abuse
  • injury
  • death
  • hazing
  • exploration through film
Accesso libero

Youth Volunteering in Sport: A Case Study of The Benefits of “The European Voluntary Service” for a Sport Organization

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 71 - 85

Astratto

Abstract

The European Voluntary Service of the European Union is thought to play a key role in promoting and encouraging volunteering among young people. Integrating the social work of EVS volunteers into activities through sport organizations is believed to help develop the perception of volunteering as an element of social commitment. The aim of this study is to therefore examine a case of youth volunteering practice in an EVS project in Turkey within the context of the benefits of volunteering. Data was collected using various tools. These included semi-structured interviews, participant observation (non-structured), and document analyses. Content analyses were applied to the interview data. The study established that the EVS is a beneficial channel for youth volunteering and provides benefits for each of the parties: the volunteers, the organization, and the sport participants.

Parole chiave

  • volunteering
  • youth
  • volunteering in sports
  • european voluntary service
  • social exchange theory
  • serious leisure theory

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