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Special Edizione: Sociology of Sport edited by Natalia Organista, Michał Lenartowicz & Michał Jasny

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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
ISSN
2081-2221
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 56 (2012): Edizione 1 (December 2012)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
ISSN
2081-2221
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

8 Articoli
Accesso libero

The Referee as Educator: Hermeneutical and Pedagogical Perspectives

Pubblicato online: 29 Dec 2012
Pagine: 5 - 11

Astratto

Abstract

Nowadays, in contemporary sports studies scarce attention is devoted to studying the referee and his/her functions in light of the philosophical and pedagogical approach. For this reason, the main aim of this study is to use a hermeneutical philosophic methodology to reflect on the role and functions of this figure, and to show his or her importance in preserving the intrinsic values of sport in front of youth and society. Starting with a historical analysis of the referee and the sport judge in ancient Greek athletics, this study will highlight how such this important figure has always been a key element of competitive sport. This study will demonstrate that refereeing is a practice that needs a specific set of hermeneutical skills and the development of complex pedagogical knowledge and ways of acting. It will also define the concept of “refereeing” in light of a pedagogical approach demonstrating that this practice is, fundamentally, a communicative action implying an ethical and hermeneutical dimension of the referee as a critical-reflective professional committed to enforcing sport’s rules and values. In conclusion, the study will stress the importance of looking at referees and sport judges not as a mere technicians and evaluators of performances in competitions but as educators whose specific knowledge must be developed in all of the courses for their training and education.

Keywords

  • referee
  • education
  • philosophy
  • hermeneutics
Accesso libero

Achieving Income Justice in Professional Sports: Limitation, Taxation, or Donation

Pubblicato online: 29 Dec 2012
Pagine: 12 - 22

Astratto

Abstract

This paper is based on the assumption that the high incomes of some professional sports athletes, such as players in professional leagues in the United States and Europe, pose an ethical problem of social justice. I deal with the questions of what should follow from this evaluation and in which ways those incomes should be regulated. I discuss three different options: a) the idea that the incomes of professional athletes should be limited, b) the idea that they should be vastly taxed by the state, and c) the idea that there is a moral obligation for the athletes to spend portions of their incomes on good causes. I will conclude that in today’s circumstances there are good reasons to advocate both option one (limitation) and option two (taxation), but that priority should be given to taxation.

Keywords

  • social justice
  • professional sports
  • income justice
  • philosophy of sport
Accesso libero

Critical Moments in Elite Premiership Football: Who Do You Think You Are?

Pubblicato online: 29 Dec 2012
Pagine: 23 - 32

Astratto

Abstract

The present paper aims to specifically outline the critical moments that permeate professional football players’ development and existence in elite level English Premiership football. It also recognises the role of the applied sport psychologist in working with top players to address issues that challenge, impact (and change) player identity and personal meaning as they travel through their career from youth to professional to retirement. We conclude the paper by introducing some alternative perspectives on theory and practice. The paper is a result of the combined interests and applied activity of the authors and draws from theoretical frameworks and concepts in social psychology, existential phenomenological psychology and sociology. In this regard the paper attempts to synthesise (and celebrate) complimentary disciplines in order to allow us to consider the individual player within their social context.

Parole chiave

  • critical moments
  • football
  • identity
Accesso libero

Concerning Abolitionism, Black People, and Capoeira in the History of Brazil: Social and Moral (Im)Balances

Pubblicato online: 29 Dec 2012
Pagine: 33 - 40

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to discuss the changes that took place in relation to the peculiarities of Capoeira within Brazilian society. This popular practice, which is considered a martial art, a dance and a game, developed during the 19th century, where it was practiced by individuals from the lower walks of life. Practicing Capoeira was a felony, as it posed a threat to public safety, order, and morality. Presently, it has been upgraded to a Brazilian cultural asset, which shows how the perception of its practice has changed. These changes follow the different views of the historical processes related to abolitionism and the perverse incorporation of blacks into society at that time, which have continued until present time, having undergone significant changes and grown as a valued physical expression

Parole chiave

  • capoeira
  • Brazil
  • cultural asset
  • abolitionism
Accesso libero

Legal Prevention of Ambush Marketing – Case Study of UEFA Euro 2012

Pubblicato online: 29 Dec 2012
Pagine: 41 - 50

Astratto

Abstract

Given the seriousness and negative consequences of the ambush marketing phenomenon, it was necessary to fight with great force and strength ambush marketing activities by developing effective prevention strategies. There might be two categories of strategies distinguished: reactive and proactive strategies (Burton & Chadwick, 2008). The most common proactive strategy is to pass normative acts regulating the issues of ambush marketing by the host-country of the sporting event.

The purpose of this paper is an analysis of Polish preparations to host the 2012 UEFA European Football Championship in the context of the legal response to unfair practices of ambush marketing.

The scope of existing legislation of general application provides sufficient protection for the obligations arising from the Polish international agreements. Issues relating to the protection of intellectual property rights are governed by acts dealing with combating unfair competition, copyright and industrial property law.

Poland has not introduced additional regulations protecting the rights of the organizers and official sponsors of major sporting events against fraudulent marketing activities. When analyzing the current legal status it can be concluded that Poland fulfilled the guarantees provided to UEFA. The government adopted the simplest solution: they accepted the facts and did not make any amendments to the existing legal system.

Parole chiave

  • ambush marketing
  • mega events
  • UEFA EURO 2012
  • Poland
Accesso libero

The Influence of Age and Gender on the Value Orientation of Extreme Sports Participants

Pubblicato online: 29 Dec 2012
Pagine: 51 - 58

Astratto

Abstract

Research has shown that the popularity of extreme sports is on the rise in Hungary just as in developed countries. While we cannot question the influence of the press, it is very likely that shifts and changes in the value orientation of a society also play an important role in fostering the process. In the first stage of the present study, the value orientation of a group of Hungarian people involved in action sports is mapped where the values are arranged into a latent structure using principal component analysis. In the second stage of research, it is checked whether the examined group is a homogenous community regarding their value orientations, and researchers examine if two variables - age and gender - significantly influence the value orientations of the respondents. Our conclusion is that there is little difference between group members regarding their high preferences for community values and the low preferences for traditional values, but age and gender significantly influence respondents’ attitudes to post-materialist values and partially those to materialist values. Younger participants report higher preferences for both materialist and postmaterialist values, while females attribute higher importance to post-materialist values.

Parole chiave

  • action or extreme sports
  • age
  • gender
  • value orientation
Accesso libero

Are Sportsmen Willing to Practice Sports during their Holidays? The Case of Sports Faculty Students in France

Pubblicato online: 29 Dec 2012
Pagine: 59 - 64

Astratto

Abstract

The study was conducted in northern France at the sport management department at the University of Lille. It attempts to highlight the type of summer vacation of its students. Previous studies have shown the modalities of mobility (Urry, 2000; Seewer, 2004). Although models exist to explain destination choice, many of these have limitations, including the assumption of a rational consumer and a focus on the functional attributes of travel and tourism (Lewis, Kerr, & Pomering, 2010). However, few studies handle the behavior of consumption of students during their holidays, especially the sports students. In making their travel decisions, consumers assess the attractiveness of a destination (Sirakaya et al., 2001). Positive associations with a destination increase the likelihood of selection (Woodside & Lyson-ski, 1989). The main hypothesis concerned the type of sports that students were engaged while on vacation. That is, we postulated that students also practiced sport during their vacation time. The second hypothesis concerned the mobility that these students should be accustomed to in order to travel in competitions abroad or at least away from home. The study was conducted in a quantitative manner, with questionnaires (N=451). The main results are based on 451 Physical Education (PE) students from the area of Lille, France, who participated in this study. In this population, 55.2% were single, 44.8% were married or in a relationship (10.2% had children). Initial results show that the average household income per month is about EUR 2,500; over 74% of them go on holiday for two weeks, on average. These students are coming from wealthy families. When they say that they are “going on vacation”, a majority of them (68.7%) indicate that the main reason is to relax. Contrary to the announced hypothesis, few PE students (4.9%) wish to practice physical activities during the holiday. Independently, we noticed that a majority of student (79.5%) preferred a single destination when the purpose was to make cultural trips (51.5%). However, the question of the budget remains an issue and they favor (78%) being hosted in the cheapest accommodations. For instance, the accommodations concerned are mostly camping or holiday villages. These findings can be interesting to satisfy this kind of demand and help providers build better strategies.

Parole chiave

  • mobility
  • youth
  • holidays
  • tourism
  • sport
Accesso libero

Considerations on General Methodological Assumptions of the Sciences of Sport

Pubblicato online: 29 Dec 2012
Pagine: 65 - 101

Astratto

Abstract

The considerations included in the article are the result of several years of teaching general methodology for doctoral studies at Josef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw.

The presented text consists of two basic parts. The first includes reminiscences and associated methodological resentment. The second presents a wide panorama of standpoints concerning functions and kinds of hypotheses, their role and significance in contemporary research programs of formal, empirical (connected with natural sciences and biology), and humanities nature. Sketchy and encyclopaedic interpretations, presented in the context of commentaries by the author of this paper, thereby dominate.

The aim of the first part is to draw attention to some methodological mistakes which often appear and which have become common in some academic milieus to such a degree that some intervention and postulatory correction, referring to Polish and Western methodological literature, is advisable. These shortcomings are connected, among other things, with the structure of the scientific work, with the formulation and application of hypotheses, with relations taking place between the general methodology and specialized methodologies, kinds and types of research work, with reliability of information on sources of creative information, as well with the category of verification in its relation, on the one hand, to confirmation and corroboration, and on the other hand, to testing, checking, falsification, and terms close in meaning to the last one.

The abovementioned resentment results, first of all, from the fact that the authors discussed in the first part usually insist on erroneous solutions, negating a priori, without becoming acquainted with the literature on the subject or making attempts to explain or initiate a methodological argument referring to sources and studies.

That resentment is significant, among other things, in the causal sense - that is, because of the fact that, firstly, it justifies and substantiates the need for a statement presenting controversial questions in a content-related and formal way. Secondly, because thanks to such (that is, cognitive-emotional) introduction, the whole argument - not only in the first, but also in the second part - is much more interesting. It is saturated with authenticity. Many readers know the figures mentioned and are familiar with their - sometimes too insouciant (sometimes not very reliable) - attitudes to important issues from the field of research methods. It is also interesting why the people cited make mistakes. Hence, it is also advisable to look at a wider methodological context of justification (included in the much longer second part) dedicated to perhaps the most thorough characteristics of the hypothesis in the literature on the subject, which is available to the author. Without presentation of the controversial issues in the first part, the second part, more important from the methodological viewpoint, might be omitted by a considerable proportion of readers. In that part attention is paid mainly to issues concerning working, initial, zero, primary, introductory, directing, gradual, auxiliary, ad hoc auxiliary, bridge, futile and true, dangerous and safe, quite natural and neutral, individual and general, complete and incomplete, deep, strong, probabilistic and non-probabilistic (that is, deterministic), related, falsifying, basic, psychological, metaphysical and materialist hypotheses, as well as those concluding ones - that is, those constituting the final effect of definite (concluded here and now) research; hence, those which have undergone verification, confirmation, corroboration or modification as those which predict and explain a given research problem in the best possible way.

Parole chiave

  • methodology
  • hypothesis
  • research procedure
8 Articoli
Accesso libero

The Referee as Educator: Hermeneutical and Pedagogical Perspectives

Pubblicato online: 29 Dec 2012
Pagine: 5 - 11

Astratto

Abstract

Nowadays, in contemporary sports studies scarce attention is devoted to studying the referee and his/her functions in light of the philosophical and pedagogical approach. For this reason, the main aim of this study is to use a hermeneutical philosophic methodology to reflect on the role and functions of this figure, and to show his or her importance in preserving the intrinsic values of sport in front of youth and society. Starting with a historical analysis of the referee and the sport judge in ancient Greek athletics, this study will highlight how such this important figure has always been a key element of competitive sport. This study will demonstrate that refereeing is a practice that needs a specific set of hermeneutical skills and the development of complex pedagogical knowledge and ways of acting. It will also define the concept of “refereeing” in light of a pedagogical approach demonstrating that this practice is, fundamentally, a communicative action implying an ethical and hermeneutical dimension of the referee as a critical-reflective professional committed to enforcing sport’s rules and values. In conclusion, the study will stress the importance of looking at referees and sport judges not as a mere technicians and evaluators of performances in competitions but as educators whose specific knowledge must be developed in all of the courses for their training and education.

Keywords

  • referee
  • education
  • philosophy
  • hermeneutics
Accesso libero

Achieving Income Justice in Professional Sports: Limitation, Taxation, or Donation

Pubblicato online: 29 Dec 2012
Pagine: 12 - 22

Astratto

Abstract

This paper is based on the assumption that the high incomes of some professional sports athletes, such as players in professional leagues in the United States and Europe, pose an ethical problem of social justice. I deal with the questions of what should follow from this evaluation and in which ways those incomes should be regulated. I discuss three different options: a) the idea that the incomes of professional athletes should be limited, b) the idea that they should be vastly taxed by the state, and c) the idea that there is a moral obligation for the athletes to spend portions of their incomes on good causes. I will conclude that in today’s circumstances there are good reasons to advocate both option one (limitation) and option two (taxation), but that priority should be given to taxation.

Keywords

  • social justice
  • professional sports
  • income justice
  • philosophy of sport
Accesso libero

Critical Moments in Elite Premiership Football: Who Do You Think You Are?

Pubblicato online: 29 Dec 2012
Pagine: 23 - 32

Astratto

Abstract

The present paper aims to specifically outline the critical moments that permeate professional football players’ development and existence in elite level English Premiership football. It also recognises the role of the applied sport psychologist in working with top players to address issues that challenge, impact (and change) player identity and personal meaning as they travel through their career from youth to professional to retirement. We conclude the paper by introducing some alternative perspectives on theory and practice. The paper is a result of the combined interests and applied activity of the authors and draws from theoretical frameworks and concepts in social psychology, existential phenomenological psychology and sociology. In this regard the paper attempts to synthesise (and celebrate) complimentary disciplines in order to allow us to consider the individual player within their social context.

Parole chiave

  • critical moments
  • football
  • identity
Accesso libero

Concerning Abolitionism, Black People, and Capoeira in the History of Brazil: Social and Moral (Im)Balances

Pubblicato online: 29 Dec 2012
Pagine: 33 - 40

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to discuss the changes that took place in relation to the peculiarities of Capoeira within Brazilian society. This popular practice, which is considered a martial art, a dance and a game, developed during the 19th century, where it was practiced by individuals from the lower walks of life. Practicing Capoeira was a felony, as it posed a threat to public safety, order, and morality. Presently, it has been upgraded to a Brazilian cultural asset, which shows how the perception of its practice has changed. These changes follow the different views of the historical processes related to abolitionism and the perverse incorporation of blacks into society at that time, which have continued until present time, having undergone significant changes and grown as a valued physical expression

Parole chiave

  • capoeira
  • Brazil
  • cultural asset
  • abolitionism
Accesso libero

Legal Prevention of Ambush Marketing – Case Study of UEFA Euro 2012

Pubblicato online: 29 Dec 2012
Pagine: 41 - 50

Astratto

Abstract

Given the seriousness and negative consequences of the ambush marketing phenomenon, it was necessary to fight with great force and strength ambush marketing activities by developing effective prevention strategies. There might be two categories of strategies distinguished: reactive and proactive strategies (Burton & Chadwick, 2008). The most common proactive strategy is to pass normative acts regulating the issues of ambush marketing by the host-country of the sporting event.

The purpose of this paper is an analysis of Polish preparations to host the 2012 UEFA European Football Championship in the context of the legal response to unfair practices of ambush marketing.

The scope of existing legislation of general application provides sufficient protection for the obligations arising from the Polish international agreements. Issues relating to the protection of intellectual property rights are governed by acts dealing with combating unfair competition, copyright and industrial property law.

Poland has not introduced additional regulations protecting the rights of the organizers and official sponsors of major sporting events against fraudulent marketing activities. When analyzing the current legal status it can be concluded that Poland fulfilled the guarantees provided to UEFA. The government adopted the simplest solution: they accepted the facts and did not make any amendments to the existing legal system.

Parole chiave

  • ambush marketing
  • mega events
  • UEFA EURO 2012
  • Poland
Accesso libero

The Influence of Age and Gender on the Value Orientation of Extreme Sports Participants

Pubblicato online: 29 Dec 2012
Pagine: 51 - 58

Astratto

Abstract

Research has shown that the popularity of extreme sports is on the rise in Hungary just as in developed countries. While we cannot question the influence of the press, it is very likely that shifts and changes in the value orientation of a society also play an important role in fostering the process. In the first stage of the present study, the value orientation of a group of Hungarian people involved in action sports is mapped where the values are arranged into a latent structure using principal component analysis. In the second stage of research, it is checked whether the examined group is a homogenous community regarding their value orientations, and researchers examine if two variables - age and gender - significantly influence the value orientations of the respondents. Our conclusion is that there is little difference between group members regarding their high preferences for community values and the low preferences for traditional values, but age and gender significantly influence respondents’ attitudes to post-materialist values and partially those to materialist values. Younger participants report higher preferences for both materialist and postmaterialist values, while females attribute higher importance to post-materialist values.

Parole chiave

  • action or extreme sports
  • age
  • gender
  • value orientation
Accesso libero

Are Sportsmen Willing to Practice Sports during their Holidays? The Case of Sports Faculty Students in France

Pubblicato online: 29 Dec 2012
Pagine: 59 - 64

Astratto

Abstract

The study was conducted in northern France at the sport management department at the University of Lille. It attempts to highlight the type of summer vacation of its students. Previous studies have shown the modalities of mobility (Urry, 2000; Seewer, 2004). Although models exist to explain destination choice, many of these have limitations, including the assumption of a rational consumer and a focus on the functional attributes of travel and tourism (Lewis, Kerr, & Pomering, 2010). However, few studies handle the behavior of consumption of students during their holidays, especially the sports students. In making their travel decisions, consumers assess the attractiveness of a destination (Sirakaya et al., 2001). Positive associations with a destination increase the likelihood of selection (Woodside & Lyson-ski, 1989). The main hypothesis concerned the type of sports that students were engaged while on vacation. That is, we postulated that students also practiced sport during their vacation time. The second hypothesis concerned the mobility that these students should be accustomed to in order to travel in competitions abroad or at least away from home. The study was conducted in a quantitative manner, with questionnaires (N=451). The main results are based on 451 Physical Education (PE) students from the area of Lille, France, who participated in this study. In this population, 55.2% were single, 44.8% were married or in a relationship (10.2% had children). Initial results show that the average household income per month is about EUR 2,500; over 74% of them go on holiday for two weeks, on average. These students are coming from wealthy families. When they say that they are “going on vacation”, a majority of them (68.7%) indicate that the main reason is to relax. Contrary to the announced hypothesis, few PE students (4.9%) wish to practice physical activities during the holiday. Independently, we noticed that a majority of student (79.5%) preferred a single destination when the purpose was to make cultural trips (51.5%). However, the question of the budget remains an issue and they favor (78%) being hosted in the cheapest accommodations. For instance, the accommodations concerned are mostly camping or holiday villages. These findings can be interesting to satisfy this kind of demand and help providers build better strategies.

Parole chiave

  • mobility
  • youth
  • holidays
  • tourism
  • sport
Accesso libero

Considerations on General Methodological Assumptions of the Sciences of Sport

Pubblicato online: 29 Dec 2012
Pagine: 65 - 101

Astratto

Abstract

The considerations included in the article are the result of several years of teaching general methodology for doctoral studies at Josef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw.

The presented text consists of two basic parts. The first includes reminiscences and associated methodological resentment. The second presents a wide panorama of standpoints concerning functions and kinds of hypotheses, their role and significance in contemporary research programs of formal, empirical (connected with natural sciences and biology), and humanities nature. Sketchy and encyclopaedic interpretations, presented in the context of commentaries by the author of this paper, thereby dominate.

The aim of the first part is to draw attention to some methodological mistakes which often appear and which have become common in some academic milieus to such a degree that some intervention and postulatory correction, referring to Polish and Western methodological literature, is advisable. These shortcomings are connected, among other things, with the structure of the scientific work, with the formulation and application of hypotheses, with relations taking place between the general methodology and specialized methodologies, kinds and types of research work, with reliability of information on sources of creative information, as well with the category of verification in its relation, on the one hand, to confirmation and corroboration, and on the other hand, to testing, checking, falsification, and terms close in meaning to the last one.

The abovementioned resentment results, first of all, from the fact that the authors discussed in the first part usually insist on erroneous solutions, negating a priori, without becoming acquainted with the literature on the subject or making attempts to explain or initiate a methodological argument referring to sources and studies.

That resentment is significant, among other things, in the causal sense - that is, because of the fact that, firstly, it justifies and substantiates the need for a statement presenting controversial questions in a content-related and formal way. Secondly, because thanks to such (that is, cognitive-emotional) introduction, the whole argument - not only in the first, but also in the second part - is much more interesting. It is saturated with authenticity. Many readers know the figures mentioned and are familiar with their - sometimes too insouciant (sometimes not very reliable) - attitudes to important issues from the field of research methods. It is also interesting why the people cited make mistakes. Hence, it is also advisable to look at a wider methodological context of justification (included in the much longer second part) dedicated to perhaps the most thorough characteristics of the hypothesis in the literature on the subject, which is available to the author. Without presentation of the controversial issues in the first part, the second part, more important from the methodological viewpoint, might be omitted by a considerable proportion of readers. In that part attention is paid mainly to issues concerning working, initial, zero, primary, introductory, directing, gradual, auxiliary, ad hoc auxiliary, bridge, futile and true, dangerous and safe, quite natural and neutral, individual and general, complete and incomplete, deep, strong, probabilistic and non-probabilistic (that is, deterministic), related, falsifying, basic, psychological, metaphysical and materialist hypotheses, as well as those concluding ones - that is, those constituting the final effect of definite (concluded here and now) research; hence, those which have undergone verification, confirmation, corroboration or modification as those which predict and explain a given research problem in the best possible way.

Parole chiave

  • methodology
  • hypothesis
  • research procedure

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