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Special Edizione: Sociology of Sport edited by Natalia Organista, Michał Lenartowicz & Michał Jasny

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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 71 (2016): Edizione 1 (October 2016)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

7 Articoli
Accesso libero

The Importance of Role Modeling in Mentoring Women: Lessons from Pat Summitt Legacy

Pubblicato online: 24 Oct 2016
Pagine: 5 - 13

Astratto

Abstract

The role of mentoring for women in sports industry has gathered attention among researchers in the past years (Bower, 2009; Bower, & Hums 2009, 2014; Weaver, & Chelladurai, 1999, 2002). Since few women are in leadership positions (Acosta, & Carpenter, 2014), cross-gender mentoring relationships are more likely to happen (Hopkins et al., 2008). However, according to Kram (1985), cross-gender mentoring relationships are more complex in terms of individual development and quality of the developmental relationship. In particular, role modeling function is limited (Kram, 1985). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the functions of the same gender mentoring relationships looking at coach Pat Summitt, the winningest coach in NCAA Division I basketball history and a woman in leadership position (Becker & Wrisberg, 2008). Due to the exploratory nature of the study and the huge impact of Pat Summitt on sport (Janssen, & Dale, 2002, De Marco, & Mccullick, 1997), a single case study design to analyze her relationships from the staff and players’ perspectives was utilized as the method for data collection. This study collected data published on American news sites located using Internet search engines Google News (http://www.google.com) for 7 days. The dataset included content published through national and regional online news media, radio, television and entertainment websites and blogs. Texts were qualitatively reviewed with a content analysis and coded (Patton, 2002). This study identified career and psychosocial functions that were important in developing an effective mentoring relationships. In particular, the psychosocial functions of “role modeling” was identified as the most important for the relationship. In fact a female mentor as a role model can be perceived as a woman that has successfully overcome discriminatory barriers to career advancement.

Parole chiave

  • mentoring
  • women
  • role model
  • summitt
Accesso libero

Effect of Cultural Intelligence on the Work Adjustment of PE Teachers in Primary and Secondary Schools in a Large City in Iran

Pubblicato online: 24 Oct 2016
Pagine: 14 - 20

Astratto

Abstract

This study aimed to measure the cultural intelligence of physical education (PE) teachers’ work adjustment in primary and secondary schools in a large city in Iran (Isfahan). The method of this research was descriptive (correlation) and the total population included all of the PE teachers at three educational levels in Isfahan in 1393 (2014) (N= 559). Participants (N= 226) were selected by using the stratified random sampling method according to the total population of the PE teachers in all six educational regions of Isfahan. A self-constructed cultural intelligence questionnaire (20 items) as well as a work adjustment scale (Davis & Lofqist, 1991) including 20 items were employed in this research. The regression and correlation tests were used for analyzing data. The results indicated that cultural intelligence significantly affects the PE teachers’ work adjustment. There was also a significant correlation between cultural intelligence and the PE teachers’ work adjustment.

Parole chiave

  • cultural intelligence
  • motivation
  • PE teachers
  • value
  • work adjustment
Accesso libero

The Effect of Coaching Practices on Psychological Contract Fulfillment of Student-Athletes

Pubblicato online: 24 Oct 2016
Pagine: 21 - 29

Astratto

Abstract

We examine the relationships between coaching practices, psychological contract fulfillment and the impact it has on satisfaction and in-role behavior of student-athletes. We surveyed a total of 183 student-athletes in Canada. Utilizing Partial Least Squares path modeling algorithm, the results confirm that the extent of psychological contract fulfillment is positively related to satisfaction and role-behavior. In addition, practices of compensation, information sharing, and security (i.e. ensuring continuation of position on the team) are related to fulfillment of psychological contracts. However, the data does not provide support for the idea that training is related to the fulfillment of psychological contracts. The results suggest that universities can manage students-athletes’ expectations by institutionalizing coaching practices that signal commitments for compensation, information sharing, and provide assurance of position on the team. Such practices have potential to improve the athlete’s performance.

Parole chiave

  • psychological contract
  • social exchange
  • coaching and development
  • coach-athlete relationship
Accesso libero

The Open Sore of Football: Aggressive Violent Behavior and Hooliganism

Pubblicato online: 24 Oct 2016
Pagine: 30 - 37

Astratto

Abstract

Aggression and violence have been a customary part of life that mankind has had to live with from the beginning of time; it has been accepted by society even though it expresses endless negativity. Aggression and violence can find a place in sports events and football games because of the social problems of the audience watching the competitions or games, which sometimes fall into the category of hooliganism. Turkey is one of the countries that should consider this problem to be a serious social problem. Even during 2014 and 2015, a relatively short period of time, there were significant hazardous acts committed by hooligans. In February 2014, one supporter was killed after a game between Liverpool and Arsenal in England; in March 2014, a game between Trabzonspor and Fenerbahce was left half-finished because of violent acts in the stadium that caused players in the pitch to believe that they could not leave stadium alive, although they finally left after a few hours; in another incident in March 2014, one supporter was killed after a game between Helsingborg and Djugarden in Sweden; in November 2014, one supporter was killed and 14 supporters were injured before the game between Atletico Madrid and Deportivo in Spain. These are all examples of aggression, violence, and hooliganism in football. This paper aims to discuss aggression, violence, and hooliganism in football, especially in recent years, and investigate what can be done to prevent these acts from occurring again in the future by examining them in hindsight.

Parole chiave

  • football
  • aggression
  • violence
  • hooliganism
  • fair play
Accesso libero

Conditions of the Implementation of Selected Early Prevention Behaviours by High School Students from Radom

Pubblicato online: 24 Oct 2016
Pagine: 38 - 52

Astratto

Abstract

The specific type of human activities that aim to maintain full health by maintaining biological, psychological and social comfort indicate the need to adopt a holistic perspective in any analysis of determinants of pro-health behaviour. When analysing the aetiology of somatic diseases, it is important to take into account biological and mental well-being as well as the connections between needs, interests and lifestyle decisions and their consequences. One of the measures used to reduce the risk of a progressive lack of immunity to non-infectious diseases is prevention, understood as actions aimed at preventing diseases or other adverse health phenomena by controlling their causes and risk factors. An important component of prevention programmes is preventing the occurrence of negative social behaviour patterns that contribute to the increased risk of diseases. Three basic components of a healthy lifestyle – regular physical activity, proper nutrition and sufficient rest and relaxation (stress management) – justify the importance of practising healthy habits from an early age. The role of promoting pro-health behaviours among children and adolescents is of particular importance in the context of increasingly sedentary lifestyles, obesity and weight problems.

The aim of this study is to analyse the determinants of physical activity and a balanced diet in the lifestyle of high school students in Radom aged 16-19. The study was conducted in 2013 at VII Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński High School in Radom and involved 140 students. The results of the study indicate that only one-third of respondents fulfilled the requirements for minimal physical activity for their subjective and objective needs of this phase of ontogenetic development, such as being in the company of their peers, spending time in open air and taking care of their physical fitness. Unfortunately, the majority of the parents of the surveyed high school students, who were at the time about 40 years old, did not engage in any systematic physical activity. In other words, the family environment of the studied young people did not promote patterns of physical activity. Similarly, healthy nutrition in the study group was lacking. Both the boys and girls ate around five meals a day, but many respondents snacked between meals on sweets and crisps. The majority of students drank water. The vast majority of them ate their meals at home, ensuring that their meals were freshly prepared and not pre-cooked.

Although school children prefer to spend time with their peers, the family is still a point of reference in terms of values and ways of spending free time. The authors of this paper must take into account the minimal impact of the family on choices regarding physical activity. The studied group of high school students demonstrated a lack of preventive care for their health and did not have a well-established systematic approach to physical activity and healthy eating habits.

Parole chiave

  • prevention behaviours
  • high school students
  • healthy nutrition
  • physical activity
Accesso libero

Conceptualizing Leisure Within the Highly Regimented World of Elite Hockey

Pubblicato online: 24 Oct 2016
Pagine: 53 - 62

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to offer a conceptualization of leisure that can help us understand what constitutes as leisure and how leisure is attained in a highly regimented context such as elite hockey. Leisure researchers are unable to agree on a definition of leisure that best represents the field, which is perhaps why leisure has lost its significance within contemporary academia. In this paper, a conceptualization is provided that was developed through research on Junior level ice hockey players. Junior level hockey has a highly structured and professionalized regiment but yet, leisure is still attainable for players despite having little control over their involvement. Traditional definitions of leisure do not capture what it means to be in leisure even though theoretically Junior level hockey players are considered to be in serious leisure as amateurs. Thus, this paper can help justify and lets us understand how leisure is attained in Junior level hockey.

Parole chiave

  • leisure
  • behavior
  • capitalism
  • hockey
Accesso libero

From Boxing to Philosophy

Pubblicato online: 24 Oct 2016
Pagine: 63 - 77

Astratto

Abstract

This article begins the cycle of portraits of the members of the Editorial Board and Editorial Advisory Board of the journal Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research, who are eminent social scientists researching the issue of sport. Among them, there are many world-class professors, rectors and deans of excellent universities, founders, presidents and secretaries-general of continental and international scientific societies and editors of high-scoring journals related to social sciences focusing on sport. The journal Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research started its activities in 2008 and gathered many readers, distinguished authors and outstanding reviewers. It is worth taking a moment to present the profiles of the individual editors, thanks to whom the journal keeps getting better and better. The journal is increasingly appreciated internationally particular among the scientists from the humanist and social areas of investigations. The rapidly increasing number of its readers and its surprisingly wide reception, indicated by the number of visits and downloads in English-speaking countries, including hundreds of universities (up to 791 were interested in the content of issue 62 of our magazine), research institutes and related libraries, as well as academics, researchers and students, should be celebrated. These data are derived only from one bibliographic data base (EBSCO). It must be noted that the journal is indexed in 43 bases.

Portraits presenting the journal’s editors include, among others, their most important professional, organizational and scientific achievements. Each subsequent issue of PCSSR will include one such portrait. We shall begin with the portrait of Professor Jerzy Kosiewicz, Ph.D., who is the Editor-in-Chief of the journal.

Parole chiave

  • psychological contract
  • social exchange
  • coaching and development
  • coach-athlete relationship
7 Articoli
Accesso libero

The Importance of Role Modeling in Mentoring Women: Lessons from Pat Summitt Legacy

Pubblicato online: 24 Oct 2016
Pagine: 5 - 13

Astratto

Abstract

The role of mentoring for women in sports industry has gathered attention among researchers in the past years (Bower, 2009; Bower, & Hums 2009, 2014; Weaver, & Chelladurai, 1999, 2002). Since few women are in leadership positions (Acosta, & Carpenter, 2014), cross-gender mentoring relationships are more likely to happen (Hopkins et al., 2008). However, according to Kram (1985), cross-gender mentoring relationships are more complex in terms of individual development and quality of the developmental relationship. In particular, role modeling function is limited (Kram, 1985). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the functions of the same gender mentoring relationships looking at coach Pat Summitt, the winningest coach in NCAA Division I basketball history and a woman in leadership position (Becker & Wrisberg, 2008). Due to the exploratory nature of the study and the huge impact of Pat Summitt on sport (Janssen, & Dale, 2002, De Marco, & Mccullick, 1997), a single case study design to analyze her relationships from the staff and players’ perspectives was utilized as the method for data collection. This study collected data published on American news sites located using Internet search engines Google News (http://www.google.com) for 7 days. The dataset included content published through national and regional online news media, radio, television and entertainment websites and blogs. Texts were qualitatively reviewed with a content analysis and coded (Patton, 2002). This study identified career and psychosocial functions that were important in developing an effective mentoring relationships. In particular, the psychosocial functions of “role modeling” was identified as the most important for the relationship. In fact a female mentor as a role model can be perceived as a woman that has successfully overcome discriminatory barriers to career advancement.

Parole chiave

  • mentoring
  • women
  • role model
  • summitt
Accesso libero

Effect of Cultural Intelligence on the Work Adjustment of PE Teachers in Primary and Secondary Schools in a Large City in Iran

Pubblicato online: 24 Oct 2016
Pagine: 14 - 20

Astratto

Abstract

This study aimed to measure the cultural intelligence of physical education (PE) teachers’ work adjustment in primary and secondary schools in a large city in Iran (Isfahan). The method of this research was descriptive (correlation) and the total population included all of the PE teachers at three educational levels in Isfahan in 1393 (2014) (N= 559). Participants (N= 226) were selected by using the stratified random sampling method according to the total population of the PE teachers in all six educational regions of Isfahan. A self-constructed cultural intelligence questionnaire (20 items) as well as a work adjustment scale (Davis & Lofqist, 1991) including 20 items were employed in this research. The regression and correlation tests were used for analyzing data. The results indicated that cultural intelligence significantly affects the PE teachers’ work adjustment. There was also a significant correlation between cultural intelligence and the PE teachers’ work adjustment.

Parole chiave

  • cultural intelligence
  • motivation
  • PE teachers
  • value
  • work adjustment
Accesso libero

The Effect of Coaching Practices on Psychological Contract Fulfillment of Student-Athletes

Pubblicato online: 24 Oct 2016
Pagine: 21 - 29

Astratto

Abstract

We examine the relationships between coaching practices, psychological contract fulfillment and the impact it has on satisfaction and in-role behavior of student-athletes. We surveyed a total of 183 student-athletes in Canada. Utilizing Partial Least Squares path modeling algorithm, the results confirm that the extent of psychological contract fulfillment is positively related to satisfaction and role-behavior. In addition, practices of compensation, information sharing, and security (i.e. ensuring continuation of position on the team) are related to fulfillment of psychological contracts. However, the data does not provide support for the idea that training is related to the fulfillment of psychological contracts. The results suggest that universities can manage students-athletes’ expectations by institutionalizing coaching practices that signal commitments for compensation, information sharing, and provide assurance of position on the team. Such practices have potential to improve the athlete’s performance.

Parole chiave

  • psychological contract
  • social exchange
  • coaching and development
  • coach-athlete relationship
Accesso libero

The Open Sore of Football: Aggressive Violent Behavior and Hooliganism

Pubblicato online: 24 Oct 2016
Pagine: 30 - 37

Astratto

Abstract

Aggression and violence have been a customary part of life that mankind has had to live with from the beginning of time; it has been accepted by society even though it expresses endless negativity. Aggression and violence can find a place in sports events and football games because of the social problems of the audience watching the competitions or games, which sometimes fall into the category of hooliganism. Turkey is one of the countries that should consider this problem to be a serious social problem. Even during 2014 and 2015, a relatively short period of time, there were significant hazardous acts committed by hooligans. In February 2014, one supporter was killed after a game between Liverpool and Arsenal in England; in March 2014, a game between Trabzonspor and Fenerbahce was left half-finished because of violent acts in the stadium that caused players in the pitch to believe that they could not leave stadium alive, although they finally left after a few hours; in another incident in March 2014, one supporter was killed after a game between Helsingborg and Djugarden in Sweden; in November 2014, one supporter was killed and 14 supporters were injured before the game between Atletico Madrid and Deportivo in Spain. These are all examples of aggression, violence, and hooliganism in football. This paper aims to discuss aggression, violence, and hooliganism in football, especially in recent years, and investigate what can be done to prevent these acts from occurring again in the future by examining them in hindsight.

Parole chiave

  • football
  • aggression
  • violence
  • hooliganism
  • fair play
Accesso libero

Conditions of the Implementation of Selected Early Prevention Behaviours by High School Students from Radom

Pubblicato online: 24 Oct 2016
Pagine: 38 - 52

Astratto

Abstract

The specific type of human activities that aim to maintain full health by maintaining biological, psychological and social comfort indicate the need to adopt a holistic perspective in any analysis of determinants of pro-health behaviour. When analysing the aetiology of somatic diseases, it is important to take into account biological and mental well-being as well as the connections between needs, interests and lifestyle decisions and their consequences. One of the measures used to reduce the risk of a progressive lack of immunity to non-infectious diseases is prevention, understood as actions aimed at preventing diseases or other adverse health phenomena by controlling their causes and risk factors. An important component of prevention programmes is preventing the occurrence of negative social behaviour patterns that contribute to the increased risk of diseases. Three basic components of a healthy lifestyle – regular physical activity, proper nutrition and sufficient rest and relaxation (stress management) – justify the importance of practising healthy habits from an early age. The role of promoting pro-health behaviours among children and adolescents is of particular importance in the context of increasingly sedentary lifestyles, obesity and weight problems.

The aim of this study is to analyse the determinants of physical activity and a balanced diet in the lifestyle of high school students in Radom aged 16-19. The study was conducted in 2013 at VII Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński High School in Radom and involved 140 students. The results of the study indicate that only one-third of respondents fulfilled the requirements for minimal physical activity for their subjective and objective needs of this phase of ontogenetic development, such as being in the company of their peers, spending time in open air and taking care of their physical fitness. Unfortunately, the majority of the parents of the surveyed high school students, who were at the time about 40 years old, did not engage in any systematic physical activity. In other words, the family environment of the studied young people did not promote patterns of physical activity. Similarly, healthy nutrition in the study group was lacking. Both the boys and girls ate around five meals a day, but many respondents snacked between meals on sweets and crisps. The majority of students drank water. The vast majority of them ate their meals at home, ensuring that their meals were freshly prepared and not pre-cooked.

Although school children prefer to spend time with their peers, the family is still a point of reference in terms of values and ways of spending free time. The authors of this paper must take into account the minimal impact of the family on choices regarding physical activity. The studied group of high school students demonstrated a lack of preventive care for their health and did not have a well-established systematic approach to physical activity and healthy eating habits.

Parole chiave

  • prevention behaviours
  • high school students
  • healthy nutrition
  • physical activity
Accesso libero

Conceptualizing Leisure Within the Highly Regimented World of Elite Hockey

Pubblicato online: 24 Oct 2016
Pagine: 53 - 62

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to offer a conceptualization of leisure that can help us understand what constitutes as leisure and how leisure is attained in a highly regimented context such as elite hockey. Leisure researchers are unable to agree on a definition of leisure that best represents the field, which is perhaps why leisure has lost its significance within contemporary academia. In this paper, a conceptualization is provided that was developed through research on Junior level ice hockey players. Junior level hockey has a highly structured and professionalized regiment but yet, leisure is still attainable for players despite having little control over their involvement. Traditional definitions of leisure do not capture what it means to be in leisure even though theoretically Junior level hockey players are considered to be in serious leisure as amateurs. Thus, this paper can help justify and lets us understand how leisure is attained in Junior level hockey.

Parole chiave

  • leisure
  • behavior
  • capitalism
  • hockey
Accesso libero

From Boxing to Philosophy

Pubblicato online: 24 Oct 2016
Pagine: 63 - 77

Astratto

Abstract

This article begins the cycle of portraits of the members of the Editorial Board and Editorial Advisory Board of the journal Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research, who are eminent social scientists researching the issue of sport. Among them, there are many world-class professors, rectors and deans of excellent universities, founders, presidents and secretaries-general of continental and international scientific societies and editors of high-scoring journals related to social sciences focusing on sport. The journal Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research started its activities in 2008 and gathered many readers, distinguished authors and outstanding reviewers. It is worth taking a moment to present the profiles of the individual editors, thanks to whom the journal keeps getting better and better. The journal is increasingly appreciated internationally particular among the scientists from the humanist and social areas of investigations. The rapidly increasing number of its readers and its surprisingly wide reception, indicated by the number of visits and downloads in English-speaking countries, including hundreds of universities (up to 791 were interested in the content of issue 62 of our magazine), research institutes and related libraries, as well as academics, researchers and students, should be celebrated. These data are derived only from one bibliographic data base (EBSCO). It must be noted that the journal is indexed in 43 bases.

Portraits presenting the journal’s editors include, among others, their most important professional, organizational and scientific achievements. Each subsequent issue of PCSSR will include one such portrait. We shall begin with the portrait of Professor Jerzy Kosiewicz, Ph.D., who is the Editor-in-Chief of the journal.

Parole chiave

  • psychological contract
  • social exchange
  • coaching and development
  • coach-athlete relationship

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