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Special Edizione: Sociology of Sport edited by Natalia Organista, Michał Lenartowicz & Michał Jasny

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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
ISSN
2081-2221
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 57 (2013): Edizione 1 (March 2013)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
ISSN
2081-2221
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

7 Articoli
Accesso libero

Sexual Coercion Risk and Women’s Sport Participation

Pubblicato online: 15 Mar 2013
Pagine: 5 - 11

Astratto

Abstract

Sexual coercion affects approximately 58% of college-age females. Victims of sexual coercion often share similar characteristics, such as lower self-esteem, lower assertiveness, higher depressive symptoms, higher alcohol use, increased number of sexual partners, more romantic relationships, prior victimization, and relationship insecurity. Female athletes, on the other hand, have in common such protective factors as higher self-esteem, higher assertiveness, lower alcohol use, and fewer sexual partners. These, then, are assumed to guard against sexual coercion. The purpose of this study was to determine if female athletes were at a lower risk for sexual coercion and whether differences existed in levels of assertiveness, sexual assertiveness, self-esteem, sexual esteem, alcohol use, and the number of sexual partners. Participants included 174 college females (aged 19.94 ± 1.87 years). Participants were identified as an athlete if they reported a history of at least three years of athl iation etic involvement and described themselves as either a high school athlete or having participated in competitive sports (n=125). From among all the participants, 49 were classified as non-athletes. Data demonstrated no differences in either forced or coerced sexual contact history. Athletes and nonathletes differed neither in global nor sexual self-esteem, nor did they differ in global or sexual assertiveness. There was a significant difference across the groups in alcohol use: athletes scored higher on the AUDIT than non-athletes. The number of years of sport involvement positively correlated with the level of alcohol use. Athletes and non-athletes reported similar numbers of sexual partners. The findings of this study imply that athletics may indirectly place females at risk for sexual coercion through an assocwith higher alcohol use.

Keywords

  • self-esteem
  • assertiveness
  • alcohol consumption
  • sexual behavior
Accesso libero

Cyborgsportpersons: Between Disability and Enhancement

Pubblicato online: 15 Mar 2013
Pagine: 12 - 21

Astratto

Abstract

The cyborgization of sport has occupied a noticeable role in the fields of sport and medicine in recent years due to the fact that this issue calls into question the very foundations of contemporary sport. As a result, it gives rise to doubt about whether cyborg athletes should be able to take part in different athletic competitions, and if they are allowed, under what circumstances. After examining the impact of enhancing implants and prosthesis in sport, I have considered which objections can be raised to this particular sort of enhancement. In this regard, I think that several aspects have to be taken into account: 1. The possibility of producing severe harm to the athletes; 2. The effect it has on equality among athletes when the improvement grants an obvious advantage; 3. The dehumanization of sport, and 4. The aesthetic problem My position has been to temper the “moral panic” that some may feel given the progressive (and future) use of enhancing implants and prosthesis as used by (cyborg)athletes.

Keywords

  • cyborg
  • disability
  • enhancement
  • sport nature
Accesso libero

Photographs and Film Recordings as Valuable Documents in Sports History Research

Pubblicato online: 15 Mar 2013
Pagine: 22 - 28

Astratto

Abstract

Photographs and film recordings have not been commonly used as source material in sports history research. However, every moment and every movement captured in photographs tell us things that researchers could have seen if they had been on the spot when the picture was taken. I suggest that photos and films can be read in the same way as any sign systems, such as writing or maps. The points of departure for my analysis of movement in photographs and film recordings are kinesthetic empathy and the idea that the meanings of most body movements are established to the extent that they are part of our cultural heritage and contain signs and symbols we can relate to. Furthermore, observations made from these documents can be analyzed with the help of theories from other research fields. Using the methods of dance research, such as Rudolf Laban’s movement analysis, Janet Adshead’s dance performance analysis, Marcel Mauss’s habitus concept, and John Martin’s dance analysis, styles, movement languages, and conventions of exercise and sport in photos and films can be identified. In addition, in accordance with photographic research by Roland Barthes, I will reflect on the fringe conditions of the use of photographs as research material, the kind of opportunities they offer, and the kind of limitations they set for the researcher.

Parole chiave

  • methods of sports history research
  • photographs and film recordings analysis
  • dance research and photographic research
Accesso libero

An Exploration of Transformational Leadership Preferences Among Women Sports Leaders in the Kingdom of Bahrain

Pubblicato online: 15 Mar 2013
Pagine: 29 - 32

Astratto

Abstract

The topic of leadership has attracted considerable interest amongst academics and practitioners. Much of the interest in the area of leadership is based on explicit and implicit claims that leadership styles are linked to organizational performance. This study aimed to examine the transformational leadership style among women sports leaders in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A total of 16 female sports leaders from the Kingdom of Bahrain participated in this study. The Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was used to determine the transformational leadership style of individuals. A demographic questionnaire was also administered to collect participants’ personal data. The results indicated that transformational leadership style is moderate among women sports leaders in the Kingdom of Bahrain, thus we need to develop the leadership skills of women sports leaders in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Parole chiave

  • transformational leadership
  • Women Leaders
  • Kingdom of Bahrain
Accesso libero

Sport and Recreation Grounds: Urban Society Expectations

Pubblicato online: 15 Mar 2013
Pagine: 33 - 43

Astratto

Abstract

Recently, changes to our pace of living and to our quality of life (including demands of our leisure possibilities) have been rapid. We now expect higher standards of living filled with goods, services, and recreation activities unimaginable some decades ago. In the last two decades, there have been massive changes in work, communication, and travel resulting in what could be described as “leisure revolution.” The opportunities have increased in terms of both the time available and the variety of ways in which we can spend this time. Several aspects of physical exercise benefits are well recognized: we know that active recreation is especially stimulating and rewarding and that it helps to achieve sharper mental awareness and heightened consciousness. To be able to enjoy everyday outdoor active recreation and sports (netball, badminton, etc.), there has to be a network of recreation grounds and a supply of facilities that respond to the needs and expectations of society.

The study of contemporary trends of leisure provision could be an essential spatial planning tool when contemporary housing estates functional programs are considered. Our research study (conducted on the basis of grants ds-114 and ds-144 AWF JP Warsaw; 2008-2012, supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education) aimed to provide information on present trends in the area of active recreation that could impinge on leisure facilities expected at urban housing estates (outdoor recreation grounds).

Keywords

  • sport and recreation grounds
  • urban society
  • healthy lifestyle
Accesso libero

Tourism and Sport: Strategic Synergies to Enhance the Sustainable Development of a Local Context

Pubblicato online: 15 Mar 2013
Pagine: 44 - 57

Astratto

Abstract

In recent years sport has become a phenomenon of large dimensions and it is an important resource for the development of a local context (Hautbois, Desbordes, 2008; Maier, Weber, 1993; Weed, Bull, 2004). The combination of physical and sports practices within a natural environment (outdoor) broadens the range of activities that people can choose in their free time (nordic walking, hiking, rediscovering rural districts, walking and cycling in urban spaces, etc.). The demand of this kind of activities is continuously evolving. Sports tourism is a new opportunity for the development of tourism offer. Cities, regions, rural areas, etc. through the exploitation of local resources, vocations and specializations can promote a destination in terms of reputation and tourism flows.

This research aims to stimulate a reflection on the role that the synergies between tourism and sport, combined with the use of resources, services and local products (cultural and artistic paths, local artefacts, wine tastings, etc.) may have for the development of a specific territory and its socio-economic environment.

Keywords

  • sport
  • tourism
  • sustainable development
  • local context
Accesso libero

The Social Sciences of Sport: Assumptions, Associations, and Conferences

Pubblicato online: 15 Mar 2013
Pagine: 58 - 68

Astratto

Abstract

New national and international societies that examine sports have been created and developed in Europe as well as on other continents. These societies, which examine the complex phenomena, issues, and questions concerning sports as seen from the different scientific points of view, are rooted in two main research directions: the natural sciences on the one hand, and the social sciences on the other.

The authors of the paper point to the significant and ongoing development of the social sciences of sport. In particular, the authors discuss the development of the sociology of sport, philosophy of sport, psychology of sport, pedagogy of sport, history of physical culture, sports and Olympics, the organization and management of sport, social and cultural foundations of tourism and recreation, social relationships associated with sports training and tactics, as well as the humanistic theories of Eastern martial arts.

The authors have listed several national, continental, and international scientific organizations that unite representatives of the aforementioned disciplines. However, the authors’ main focus is on theoretical and organizational assumptions of the International Society for the Social Sciences of Sport, an organization founded in 2009.

The society’s main objectives are to unite the particular social sciences of sport in one organized and scientific body (while maintaining the existing differences between the sciences); to enable the annual debate and exchange of views on the substantive and methodological matters; as well as to provide joint scientific publications connected with common work of the group and with the journal Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research.

The authors discuss the research and publishing activities of the Polish Society for Social Sciences of Sport, introducing the organization as an example of any future organization that could cooperate with the International Society for the Social Sciences of Sport.

Keywords

  • social sciences of sport
  • assumptions
  • organizational activities
  • conferences
7 Articoli
Accesso libero

Sexual Coercion Risk and Women’s Sport Participation

Pubblicato online: 15 Mar 2013
Pagine: 5 - 11

Astratto

Abstract

Sexual coercion affects approximately 58% of college-age females. Victims of sexual coercion often share similar characteristics, such as lower self-esteem, lower assertiveness, higher depressive symptoms, higher alcohol use, increased number of sexual partners, more romantic relationships, prior victimization, and relationship insecurity. Female athletes, on the other hand, have in common such protective factors as higher self-esteem, higher assertiveness, lower alcohol use, and fewer sexual partners. These, then, are assumed to guard against sexual coercion. The purpose of this study was to determine if female athletes were at a lower risk for sexual coercion and whether differences existed in levels of assertiveness, sexual assertiveness, self-esteem, sexual esteem, alcohol use, and the number of sexual partners. Participants included 174 college females (aged 19.94 ± 1.87 years). Participants were identified as an athlete if they reported a history of at least three years of athl iation etic involvement and described themselves as either a high school athlete or having participated in competitive sports (n=125). From among all the participants, 49 were classified as non-athletes. Data demonstrated no differences in either forced or coerced sexual contact history. Athletes and nonathletes differed neither in global nor sexual self-esteem, nor did they differ in global or sexual assertiveness. There was a significant difference across the groups in alcohol use: athletes scored higher on the AUDIT than non-athletes. The number of years of sport involvement positively correlated with the level of alcohol use. Athletes and non-athletes reported similar numbers of sexual partners. The findings of this study imply that athletics may indirectly place females at risk for sexual coercion through an assocwith higher alcohol use.

Keywords

  • self-esteem
  • assertiveness
  • alcohol consumption
  • sexual behavior
Accesso libero

Cyborgsportpersons: Between Disability and Enhancement

Pubblicato online: 15 Mar 2013
Pagine: 12 - 21

Astratto

Abstract

The cyborgization of sport has occupied a noticeable role in the fields of sport and medicine in recent years due to the fact that this issue calls into question the very foundations of contemporary sport. As a result, it gives rise to doubt about whether cyborg athletes should be able to take part in different athletic competitions, and if they are allowed, under what circumstances. After examining the impact of enhancing implants and prosthesis in sport, I have considered which objections can be raised to this particular sort of enhancement. In this regard, I think that several aspects have to be taken into account: 1. The possibility of producing severe harm to the athletes; 2. The effect it has on equality among athletes when the improvement grants an obvious advantage; 3. The dehumanization of sport, and 4. The aesthetic problem My position has been to temper the “moral panic” that some may feel given the progressive (and future) use of enhancing implants and prosthesis as used by (cyborg)athletes.

Keywords

  • cyborg
  • disability
  • enhancement
  • sport nature
Accesso libero

Photographs and Film Recordings as Valuable Documents in Sports History Research

Pubblicato online: 15 Mar 2013
Pagine: 22 - 28

Astratto

Abstract

Photographs and film recordings have not been commonly used as source material in sports history research. However, every moment and every movement captured in photographs tell us things that researchers could have seen if they had been on the spot when the picture was taken. I suggest that photos and films can be read in the same way as any sign systems, such as writing or maps. The points of departure for my analysis of movement in photographs and film recordings are kinesthetic empathy and the idea that the meanings of most body movements are established to the extent that they are part of our cultural heritage and contain signs and symbols we can relate to. Furthermore, observations made from these documents can be analyzed with the help of theories from other research fields. Using the methods of dance research, such as Rudolf Laban’s movement analysis, Janet Adshead’s dance performance analysis, Marcel Mauss’s habitus concept, and John Martin’s dance analysis, styles, movement languages, and conventions of exercise and sport in photos and films can be identified. In addition, in accordance with photographic research by Roland Barthes, I will reflect on the fringe conditions of the use of photographs as research material, the kind of opportunities they offer, and the kind of limitations they set for the researcher.

Parole chiave

  • methods of sports history research
  • photographs and film recordings analysis
  • dance research and photographic research
Accesso libero

An Exploration of Transformational Leadership Preferences Among Women Sports Leaders in the Kingdom of Bahrain

Pubblicato online: 15 Mar 2013
Pagine: 29 - 32

Astratto

Abstract

The topic of leadership has attracted considerable interest amongst academics and practitioners. Much of the interest in the area of leadership is based on explicit and implicit claims that leadership styles are linked to organizational performance. This study aimed to examine the transformational leadership style among women sports leaders in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A total of 16 female sports leaders from the Kingdom of Bahrain participated in this study. The Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was used to determine the transformational leadership style of individuals. A demographic questionnaire was also administered to collect participants’ personal data. The results indicated that transformational leadership style is moderate among women sports leaders in the Kingdom of Bahrain, thus we need to develop the leadership skills of women sports leaders in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Parole chiave

  • transformational leadership
  • Women Leaders
  • Kingdom of Bahrain
Accesso libero

Sport and Recreation Grounds: Urban Society Expectations

Pubblicato online: 15 Mar 2013
Pagine: 33 - 43

Astratto

Abstract

Recently, changes to our pace of living and to our quality of life (including demands of our leisure possibilities) have been rapid. We now expect higher standards of living filled with goods, services, and recreation activities unimaginable some decades ago. In the last two decades, there have been massive changes in work, communication, and travel resulting in what could be described as “leisure revolution.” The opportunities have increased in terms of both the time available and the variety of ways in which we can spend this time. Several aspects of physical exercise benefits are well recognized: we know that active recreation is especially stimulating and rewarding and that it helps to achieve sharper mental awareness and heightened consciousness. To be able to enjoy everyday outdoor active recreation and sports (netball, badminton, etc.), there has to be a network of recreation grounds and a supply of facilities that respond to the needs and expectations of society.

The study of contemporary trends of leisure provision could be an essential spatial planning tool when contemporary housing estates functional programs are considered. Our research study (conducted on the basis of grants ds-114 and ds-144 AWF JP Warsaw; 2008-2012, supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education) aimed to provide information on present trends in the area of active recreation that could impinge on leisure facilities expected at urban housing estates (outdoor recreation grounds).

Keywords

  • sport and recreation grounds
  • urban society
  • healthy lifestyle
Accesso libero

Tourism and Sport: Strategic Synergies to Enhance the Sustainable Development of a Local Context

Pubblicato online: 15 Mar 2013
Pagine: 44 - 57

Astratto

Abstract

In recent years sport has become a phenomenon of large dimensions and it is an important resource for the development of a local context (Hautbois, Desbordes, 2008; Maier, Weber, 1993; Weed, Bull, 2004). The combination of physical and sports practices within a natural environment (outdoor) broadens the range of activities that people can choose in their free time (nordic walking, hiking, rediscovering rural districts, walking and cycling in urban spaces, etc.). The demand of this kind of activities is continuously evolving. Sports tourism is a new opportunity for the development of tourism offer. Cities, regions, rural areas, etc. through the exploitation of local resources, vocations and specializations can promote a destination in terms of reputation and tourism flows.

This research aims to stimulate a reflection on the role that the synergies between tourism and sport, combined with the use of resources, services and local products (cultural and artistic paths, local artefacts, wine tastings, etc.) may have for the development of a specific territory and its socio-economic environment.

Keywords

  • sport
  • tourism
  • sustainable development
  • local context
Accesso libero

The Social Sciences of Sport: Assumptions, Associations, and Conferences

Pubblicato online: 15 Mar 2013
Pagine: 58 - 68

Astratto

Abstract

New national and international societies that examine sports have been created and developed in Europe as well as on other continents. These societies, which examine the complex phenomena, issues, and questions concerning sports as seen from the different scientific points of view, are rooted in two main research directions: the natural sciences on the one hand, and the social sciences on the other.

The authors of the paper point to the significant and ongoing development of the social sciences of sport. In particular, the authors discuss the development of the sociology of sport, philosophy of sport, psychology of sport, pedagogy of sport, history of physical culture, sports and Olympics, the organization and management of sport, social and cultural foundations of tourism and recreation, social relationships associated with sports training and tactics, as well as the humanistic theories of Eastern martial arts.

The authors have listed several national, continental, and international scientific organizations that unite representatives of the aforementioned disciplines. However, the authors’ main focus is on theoretical and organizational assumptions of the International Society for the Social Sciences of Sport, an organization founded in 2009.

The society’s main objectives are to unite the particular social sciences of sport in one organized and scientific body (while maintaining the existing differences between the sciences); to enable the annual debate and exchange of views on the substantive and methodological matters; as well as to provide joint scientific publications connected with common work of the group and with the journal Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research.

The authors discuss the research and publishing activities of the Polish Society for Social Sciences of Sport, introducing the organization as an example of any future organization that could cooperate with the International Society for the Social Sciences of Sport.

Keywords

  • social sciences of sport
  • assumptions
  • organizational activities
  • conferences

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