Rivista e Edizione

Volume 95 (2022): Edizione 1 (June 2022)

Volume 94 (2022): Edizione 1 (March 2022)

Volume 93 (2021): Edizione 1 (October 2021)
Special Edizione: Sociology of Sport edited by Natalia Organista, Michał Lenartowicz & Michał Jasny

Volume 92 (2021): Edizione 1 (December 2021)

Volume 91 (2021): Edizione 1 (September 2021)

Volume 90 (2021): Edizione 1 (June 2021)

Volume 89 (2021): Edizione 1 (March 2021)

Volume 88 (2020): Edizione 1 (December 2020)

Volume 87 (2020): Edizione 1 (September 2020)

Volume 86 (2020): Edizione 1 (June 2020)

Volume 85 (2020): Edizione 1 (March 2020)

Volume 84 (2019): Edizione 1 (December 2019)

Volume 83 (2019): Edizione 1 (September 2019)

Volume 82 (2019): Edizione 1 (June 2019)

Volume 81 (2019): Edizione 1 (March 2019)

Volume 80 (2018): Edizione 1 (December 2018)

Volume 79 (2018): Edizione 1 (September 2018)

Volume 78 (2018): Edizione 1 (June 2018)

Volume 77 (2018): Edizione 1 (March 2018)

Volume 76 (2017): Edizione 1 (December 2017)

Volume 75 (2017): Edizione 1 (October 2017)

Volume 74 (2017): Edizione 1 (June 2017)

Volume 73 (2017): Edizione 1 (March 2017)

Volume 72 (2016): Edizione 1 (December 2016)

Volume 71 (2016): Edizione 1 (October 2016)

Volume 70 (2016): Edizione 1 (June 2016)

Volume 69 (2016): Edizione 1 (March 2016)

Volume 68 (2015): Edizione 1 (December 2015)

Volume 67 (2015): Edizione 1 (September 2015)

Volume 66 (2015): Edizione 1 (June 2015)

Volume 65 (2015): Edizione 1 (March 2015)

Volume 64 (2014): Edizione 1 (December 2014)

Volume 63 (2014): Edizione 1 (September 2014)

Volume 62 (2014): Edizione 1 (June 2014)

Volume 61 (2014): Edizione 1 (June 2014)

Volume 60 (2013): Edizione 1 (December 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Edizione 1 (October 2013)

Volume 58 (2013): Edizione 1 (June 2013)

Volume 57 (2013): Edizione 1 (March 2013)

Volume 56 (2012): Edizione 1 (December 2012)

Volume 55 (2012): Edizione 1 (October 2012)

Volume 54 (2012): Edizione 1 (June 2012)

Volume 53 (2011): Edizione 1 (December 2011)

Volume 52 (2011): Edizione 1 (October 2011)

Volume 51 (2011): Edizione 1 (June 2011)

Volume 50 (2010): Edizione 1 (December 2010)

Volume 49 (2010): Edizione 1 (October 2010)

Volume 48 (2010): Edizione 1 (June 2010)

Volume 47 (2009): Edizione 1 (December 2009)

Volume 46 (2009): Edizione 1 (December 2009)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 94 (2022): Edizione 1 (March 2022)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

6 Articoli
Accesso libero

The Corruption Formation Process in Iranian Football

Pubblicato online: 17 Mar 2022
Pagine: 1 - 10

Astratto

Abstract

This study investigates the corruption formation process in Iranian football. Data was collected using library studies as well as 18 in-depth and semi-structured interviews with football industry stakeholders. The research data were analyzed through the coding process in three stages: open, pivotal and selective. Grounded Theory was used to determine the initial list of corruption causes. Then, interpretive structural modeling and MICMAC analysis were utilized. Having analyzed the data, the researchers classified the variables into four different levels, and after MICMAC analysis, we divided the variables into two groups of independent and dependent variables. None of the variables were included in the group of autonomous and linkage variables. The results showed that at the highest level, corrupt governance of football (including weak football federation statutes, government control of football, and weak governance in football) was the most influential factor. At the third level, the key factor was structural dysfunction which was underpinned by both weak management and supervision in football. At the second level, defective agreements and monitoring (consisting of weak rules and regulations and inefficient national and club contracts) was significant. At the first level, financial dysfunction (including money laundering and economic and financial factors), bias and opportunism (by journalists and agents), and corruption of human resources (comprising coercion and nurturing corrupt forces) were influential. The findings showed that the managerial level has a major role in preventing corruption.

Parole chiave

  • Corruption
  • transparency
  • accountability
  • structural-interpretive modeling
  • governance
  • sport
Accesso libero

Prevalence of Bullying in Grassroots Soccer in Spain: Victims, Bullies, and Bystanders

Pubblicato online: 17 Mar 2022
Pagine: 11 - 20

Astratto

Abstract

Bullying is a social problem that has been studied most in schools but affects other social contexts. However, there is a general lack of studies on bullying in sports. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bullying among youth soccer players. Participants were 1,980 soccer players (88.2% boys) aged 8 to 13 years (Mage = 10.5, SD = 1.68) from 25 clubs in Catalonia, Spain. An ad hoc questionnaire was administered to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of bullying from the perspective of victims, bullies, and bystanders. The overall bullying victimization rate was 8.9%, with higher rates observed in the younger categories (p < .001); 5.2% of victims experienced bullying in both their soccer club and at school. The bullying and bystander rates were 14.8% and 34.7%, respectively, with significant differences between boys and girls (15.5% of boys and 9% of girls were bullies [p < .05], while 36.4% of boys and 21.9% of girls were bystanders [p < .001]). Verbal bullying was the main type of bullying reported. The locker room and pitch were the most common locations, and victims were more likely to deal with bullying on their own than to ask for help. Bullying is present in grassroots soccer, and anti-bullying programs are needed to instill ethical and moral values in athletes and equip coaches with the necessary skills to prevent, detect, and address bullying situations.

Parole chiave

  • Bullying
  • soccer
  • sport
  • victimization
  • youth
Accesso libero

Effect of Customer Experience Quality on Loyalty in Fitness Services

Pubblicato online: 17 Mar 2022
Pagine: 21 - 34

Astratto

Abstract

Customer experience quality is an important and relatively new concept for service businesses in gaining a sustainable competitive advantage. Although the literature on customer experience quality is expanding, there is a gap concerning the antecedent and consequences of customer experience in fitness services. In this context, we tested a model that explains the precursors and implications of customer experience quality in the context of fitness services. This study was based on a non-experimental, depictive, and descriptive design. Within the scope of this study, 287 participants (216 male, 71 female) selected through a convenience sampling technique applied a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis and a structural equation model. The findings show that service result quality, customer–employee interaction quality, and customer–customer interaction quality affect customer experience quality, which in turn affects customer loyalty. These results show that improving the service outcome quality results in customers who experience high-quality customer–employee and customer–customer interactions becoming loyal customers.

Parole chiave

  • Interaction quality
  • experience quality
  • customer loyalty
  • fitness services
Accesso libero

Applying Dyer’s Star Theory to Sport: Understanding the Cultivation of Athlete Stardom

Pubblicato online: 17 Mar 2022
Pagine: 35 - 45

Astratto

Abstract

Sports stars and heroes have always been a product of the times in which they have existed and, as such, athlete stars, largely constructed by and through the media, have evolved over time. In particular, the meanings of characteristics that have defined stars of different generations have changed as society’s expectations and social norms have evolved. This can be understood through Richard Dyer’s (1998) star theory, which states that to cultivate their stardom a celebrity must resonate with the ideals, values, and spirit of the time.

This theoretical paper aims to highlight how Dyer’s star theory – originally developed as a means of understanding the construction of movie stars by mainstream media – can be used to understand the ways in which athlete stars can promote star attributes to cultivate their stardom by displaying modern values and presenting themselves as both “ordinary” and “extraordinary.” By creating a framework for understanding the process of creating athlete stardom, we are also able to begin to understand how athletes’ social media activities and stardom will evolve in the future, thus creating an important tool for athletes and their managers responsible for enhancing their brand. To expound and enrich the theory a survey of sports fans is included. The survey responses provide insights into how the expectations of fans can influence social athlete social media strategies and the cultivation of athlete stars.

Parole chiave

  • Stars
  • stardom
  • athletes
  • sport
  • social media
Accesso libero

The Culture of Narcissism: A Philosophical Analysis of “Fitspiration” and the Objectified Self

Pubblicato online: 17 Mar 2022
Pagine: 46 - 55

Astratto

Abstract

This article is a philosophical examination of the social media culture of fitness and the behavior which most distinctly characterizes it. Of the numerous and varied digital subcultures emerging with the rise of photo-based social media during the 2010s, the culture surrounding fitness, or “fitspiration,” stands out as one of the more notable. Research has identified the phenomenon as consisting to a large extent of users engaging in behaviors of self-sexualization and self-objectification, following, not unexpectedly, the inherent focus within fitness on the body, its maintenance and ultimately its appearance. Research also demonstrates that, for many, viewing and engaging in this behavior is linked to a deterioration of body-image, general self-perception and mental well-being. In this article, I analyze the phenomenon within a philosophical framework in which I combine the philosophical theory of Jean Baudrillard on media and the consumption of signs and the psychoanalytic perspective of Jacques Lacan on subjectivity, narcissism and desire. Using this framework, I discuss the body assuming the properties of a commodified object deriving its cultural value and meaning from the signs which adorn it, resulting in the “fitspiration” user imperative becoming the identification with an artificial object alien to the self, necessitating a narcissistically oriented, yet pernicious self-objectification. I argue that “fitspiration,” as well as the photo-based social media which both enables and defines it, indulges narcissism, detrimentally exaggerating the narcissistic inclinations lying at the center of subjectivity.

Parole chiave

  • Fitness
  • fitspiration
  • social media
  • narcissism
  • Baudrillard
Accesso libero

The Crisis of Physical Education in the Discourse of Mimicry: Ukrainian and Global Contexts

Pubblicato online: 17 Mar 2022
Pagine: 56 - 66

Astratto

Abstract

This study presents a qualitative analytical approach through a critical analysis of data to critically describe, interpret, and explain the crisis in physical education (PE) in Ukraine and the world. The subject of consideration is the Ukrainian PE curriculum, which must be followed by all teachers when making lesson plans. Among the many different obstacles for Ukrainian PE, the study focused on one of the most important and hidden barriers, which is a kind of multiplier of the crisis – the culture of mimicry. Institutional mimicry is a serious problem that has been poorly analyzed, but it is actually very significant and often causes crises or slows down the progress of PE. Ignoring or failing to understand the factor of mimicry reduces the possibility of escaping a crisis or even makes escape impossible. The results show that the mimicry of PE is at least two-tiered: on the one hand, it is bureaucratic (external), and on the other, it is “internal” (based on tradition). Mimicry in the Ukrainian reality of PE is not advertised, but there is almost no alternative path for development. The constant mimicry of PE in Ukraine has created a paradoxical situation in which scientific expediency yields to politics and eventually leads to a new crisis. The study shows that there is a missing culture of influence on political decisions in Ukraine. Ukrainian PE teachers have a culture of mimicry, not a culture of leadership. The Ukrainian PE curriculum for secondary schools contains contradictions in its theoretical and practical parts.

Parole chiave

  • Curriculum
  • bureaucratic
  • tradition
  • policy
  • Ukraine
6 Articoli
Accesso libero

The Corruption Formation Process in Iranian Football

Pubblicato online: 17 Mar 2022
Pagine: 1 - 10

Astratto

Abstract

This study investigates the corruption formation process in Iranian football. Data was collected using library studies as well as 18 in-depth and semi-structured interviews with football industry stakeholders. The research data were analyzed through the coding process in three stages: open, pivotal and selective. Grounded Theory was used to determine the initial list of corruption causes. Then, interpretive structural modeling and MICMAC analysis were utilized. Having analyzed the data, the researchers classified the variables into four different levels, and after MICMAC analysis, we divided the variables into two groups of independent and dependent variables. None of the variables were included in the group of autonomous and linkage variables. The results showed that at the highest level, corrupt governance of football (including weak football federation statutes, government control of football, and weak governance in football) was the most influential factor. At the third level, the key factor was structural dysfunction which was underpinned by both weak management and supervision in football. At the second level, defective agreements and monitoring (consisting of weak rules and regulations and inefficient national and club contracts) was significant. At the first level, financial dysfunction (including money laundering and economic and financial factors), bias and opportunism (by journalists and agents), and corruption of human resources (comprising coercion and nurturing corrupt forces) were influential. The findings showed that the managerial level has a major role in preventing corruption.

Parole chiave

  • Corruption
  • transparency
  • accountability
  • structural-interpretive modeling
  • governance
  • sport
Accesso libero

Prevalence of Bullying in Grassroots Soccer in Spain: Victims, Bullies, and Bystanders

Pubblicato online: 17 Mar 2022
Pagine: 11 - 20

Astratto

Abstract

Bullying is a social problem that has been studied most in schools but affects other social contexts. However, there is a general lack of studies on bullying in sports. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bullying among youth soccer players. Participants were 1,980 soccer players (88.2% boys) aged 8 to 13 years (Mage = 10.5, SD = 1.68) from 25 clubs in Catalonia, Spain. An ad hoc questionnaire was administered to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of bullying from the perspective of victims, bullies, and bystanders. The overall bullying victimization rate was 8.9%, with higher rates observed in the younger categories (p < .001); 5.2% of victims experienced bullying in both their soccer club and at school. The bullying and bystander rates were 14.8% and 34.7%, respectively, with significant differences between boys and girls (15.5% of boys and 9% of girls were bullies [p < .05], while 36.4% of boys and 21.9% of girls were bystanders [p < .001]). Verbal bullying was the main type of bullying reported. The locker room and pitch were the most common locations, and victims were more likely to deal with bullying on their own than to ask for help. Bullying is present in grassroots soccer, and anti-bullying programs are needed to instill ethical and moral values in athletes and equip coaches with the necessary skills to prevent, detect, and address bullying situations.

Parole chiave

  • Bullying
  • soccer
  • sport
  • victimization
  • youth
Accesso libero

Effect of Customer Experience Quality on Loyalty in Fitness Services

Pubblicato online: 17 Mar 2022
Pagine: 21 - 34

Astratto

Abstract

Customer experience quality is an important and relatively new concept for service businesses in gaining a sustainable competitive advantage. Although the literature on customer experience quality is expanding, there is a gap concerning the antecedent and consequences of customer experience in fitness services. In this context, we tested a model that explains the precursors and implications of customer experience quality in the context of fitness services. This study was based on a non-experimental, depictive, and descriptive design. Within the scope of this study, 287 participants (216 male, 71 female) selected through a convenience sampling technique applied a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis and a structural equation model. The findings show that service result quality, customer–employee interaction quality, and customer–customer interaction quality affect customer experience quality, which in turn affects customer loyalty. These results show that improving the service outcome quality results in customers who experience high-quality customer–employee and customer–customer interactions becoming loyal customers.

Parole chiave

  • Interaction quality
  • experience quality
  • customer loyalty
  • fitness services
Accesso libero

Applying Dyer’s Star Theory to Sport: Understanding the Cultivation of Athlete Stardom

Pubblicato online: 17 Mar 2022
Pagine: 35 - 45

Astratto

Abstract

Sports stars and heroes have always been a product of the times in which they have existed and, as such, athlete stars, largely constructed by and through the media, have evolved over time. In particular, the meanings of characteristics that have defined stars of different generations have changed as society’s expectations and social norms have evolved. This can be understood through Richard Dyer’s (1998) star theory, which states that to cultivate their stardom a celebrity must resonate with the ideals, values, and spirit of the time.

This theoretical paper aims to highlight how Dyer’s star theory – originally developed as a means of understanding the construction of movie stars by mainstream media – can be used to understand the ways in which athlete stars can promote star attributes to cultivate their stardom by displaying modern values and presenting themselves as both “ordinary” and “extraordinary.” By creating a framework for understanding the process of creating athlete stardom, we are also able to begin to understand how athletes’ social media activities and stardom will evolve in the future, thus creating an important tool for athletes and their managers responsible for enhancing their brand. To expound and enrich the theory a survey of sports fans is included. The survey responses provide insights into how the expectations of fans can influence social athlete social media strategies and the cultivation of athlete stars.

Parole chiave

  • Stars
  • stardom
  • athletes
  • sport
  • social media
Accesso libero

The Culture of Narcissism: A Philosophical Analysis of “Fitspiration” and the Objectified Self

Pubblicato online: 17 Mar 2022
Pagine: 46 - 55

Astratto

Abstract

This article is a philosophical examination of the social media culture of fitness and the behavior which most distinctly characterizes it. Of the numerous and varied digital subcultures emerging with the rise of photo-based social media during the 2010s, the culture surrounding fitness, or “fitspiration,” stands out as one of the more notable. Research has identified the phenomenon as consisting to a large extent of users engaging in behaviors of self-sexualization and self-objectification, following, not unexpectedly, the inherent focus within fitness on the body, its maintenance and ultimately its appearance. Research also demonstrates that, for many, viewing and engaging in this behavior is linked to a deterioration of body-image, general self-perception and mental well-being. In this article, I analyze the phenomenon within a philosophical framework in which I combine the philosophical theory of Jean Baudrillard on media and the consumption of signs and the psychoanalytic perspective of Jacques Lacan on subjectivity, narcissism and desire. Using this framework, I discuss the body assuming the properties of a commodified object deriving its cultural value and meaning from the signs which adorn it, resulting in the “fitspiration” user imperative becoming the identification with an artificial object alien to the self, necessitating a narcissistically oriented, yet pernicious self-objectification. I argue that “fitspiration,” as well as the photo-based social media which both enables and defines it, indulges narcissism, detrimentally exaggerating the narcissistic inclinations lying at the center of subjectivity.

Parole chiave

  • Fitness
  • fitspiration
  • social media
  • narcissism
  • Baudrillard
Accesso libero

The Crisis of Physical Education in the Discourse of Mimicry: Ukrainian and Global Contexts

Pubblicato online: 17 Mar 2022
Pagine: 56 - 66

Astratto

Abstract

This study presents a qualitative analytical approach through a critical analysis of data to critically describe, interpret, and explain the crisis in physical education (PE) in Ukraine and the world. The subject of consideration is the Ukrainian PE curriculum, which must be followed by all teachers when making lesson plans. Among the many different obstacles for Ukrainian PE, the study focused on one of the most important and hidden barriers, which is a kind of multiplier of the crisis – the culture of mimicry. Institutional mimicry is a serious problem that has been poorly analyzed, but it is actually very significant and often causes crises or slows down the progress of PE. Ignoring or failing to understand the factor of mimicry reduces the possibility of escaping a crisis or even makes escape impossible. The results show that the mimicry of PE is at least two-tiered: on the one hand, it is bureaucratic (external), and on the other, it is “internal” (based on tradition). Mimicry in the Ukrainian reality of PE is not advertised, but there is almost no alternative path for development. The constant mimicry of PE in Ukraine has created a paradoxical situation in which scientific expediency yields to politics and eventually leads to a new crisis. The study shows that there is a missing culture of influence on political decisions in Ukraine. Ukrainian PE teachers have a culture of mimicry, not a culture of leadership. The Ukrainian PE curriculum for secondary schools contains contradictions in its theoretical and practical parts.

Parole chiave

  • Curriculum
  • bureaucratic
  • tradition
  • policy
  • Ukraine

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