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Special Edizione: Sociology of Sport edited by Natalia Organista, Michał Lenartowicz & Michał Jasny

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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
ISSN
2081-2221
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 58 (2013): Edizione 1 (June 2013)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
ISSN
2081-2221
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

7 Articoli
Accesso libero

Rhythmic Gymnastics vs. Boxing: Gender Stereotypes From the Two Poles of Female Sport

Pubblicato online: 05 Jun 2013
Pagine: 5 - 16

Astratto

Abstract

In recent decades, women have begun to take up types of physical activity traditionally considered masculine. They appeared in previously one-gender team sports such as football or water polo, and nowadays they are also involved in ice hockey, canoeing, and are active in numerous combat sports as well. On the other hand, men have entered sport fields previously only available to women, such as rhythmic gymnastics. By this, sport can be regarded not only as a scene of gender stereotyping, but also a scene of redefining the concepts of masculinity-femininity in the negotiating of gender relations. Owing to these phenomena, there has been an emergence of studies analyzing sports from a gender aspect as well as the generalizations related to athletes involved in these sports. These studies have primarily focused on the constructions of gender identities and gender roles of women participating in traditionally masculine sports (football, weightlifting, and bodybuilding). This paper presents the results of empirical research designed to explore the opinions of top athletes involved in sports considered to be the most masculine and most feminine by the public and by sport experts: rhythmic gymnastics and boxing. They discussed their own sport and each other’s sport. With the information obtained from the structured interviews (n=22), it became possible to compare their social background, sport socialization and sport selection, as well as their conceptions of gender roles, femininity, and masculinity. As a conclusion of the research, it can be stated that from the aspects examined differences could mostly be observed in the circumstances of sport selection, but representatives of the two sports also diverged remarkably in their judgments about each other’s sport. While female boxers did not voice extreme opinions about rhythmic gymnastics, representatives of the sport regarded to be the most feminine reflected on boxing in a stereotypical and prejudiced way, even given their lack of experience.

KEYWORDS

  • women’s boxing
  • rhythmic gymnastics
  • gender stereotypes
  • sporting roles
Accesso libero

Tourism Activities of Deaf Poles

Pubblicato online: 05 Jun 2013
Pagine: 17 - 32

Astratto

Abstract

The chief aim of the research was to identify tourism activities of Deaf Poles. The study was conducted in 2007, and it included 191 Deaf adult Poles. The research data was collected mainly on the basis of questionnaire surveys conducted with the assistance of a sign language interpreter, individual interviews, and participant observation during tourist trips. The results were used as a basis for developing a conceptual framework for creating databanks for analyzing the data. The following statistical methods were employed: statistical significance level (p) and Tourist Information Systems (TIS), adapted to the needs of sign language users. The conceptual framework is based on the idea of active participation of Deaf individuals in creating Tourist Information Systems, cooperation networks (clusters), and the potential of Information Communications Technologies (ICTs).

Parole chiave

  • deaf
  • deaf culture
  • tourism activities of deaf people
  • Tourist Information System (TIS)
Accesso libero

Models of Development and Management of Brazilian University Sports: An Interpretation according to its Relationship with the State

Pubblicato online: 05 Jun 2013
Pagine: 33 - 42

Astratto

Abstract

The present study is intended to discuss the way in which the state is constituted as a major element for the management of Brazilian university teams, pointing out, above all, the most recent moment that represents a hybrid model of development. To do so, empirical resources of research has been used: 1. Documents that belong to the file of the FPDU (an institution in the state of Paraná which is in charge of university teams), 2. The existing legislation on the theme, 3. Interviews with some of the agents who took part in the FPDU as members of the directory board throughout its history. It has been concluded that the state is directly responsible for the development of university sports in Brazil, mainly because between them there is an inter-dependence relationship through the financial support of sports.

KEYWORDS

  • university sports
  • state
  • financing
  • Brazil
Accesso libero

Examining the Levels of Self-Leadership Perceptions of University Student- Athletes in Terms of Sociodemographic Characteristics

Pubblicato online: 05 Jun 2013
Pagine: 43 - 52

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of the present study is to determine the difference of self-leadership perceptions for university student-athletes in terms of sociodemographic characteristics. The research involved 167 university student-athletes aged 18-21 years (Muğla and Kocaeli at Turkey). Self-leadership perceptions were measured by the Revised Self-Leadership Questionnaire. The number of strategies of selfleadership was calculated in the distribution of mean scores. It was found that variables such as age, education status of mother, and monthly income of the university students do not cause any difference in the levels of self-leadership perceptions. On the other hand, other factors were determined to create statistically significant differences in the use of self-leadership strategies: gender; dealing with sport outside of school; taking part in teams; branch of interested sport; education status of father; socioeconomic status; personal sport history of athletes. It has revealed that not only the psychical factors but also behavioral, cognitive, and psychological factors of self-leadership have important roles in increasing the performance of student-athletes in sport activities.

KEYWORDS

  • self-leadership
  • student
  • athlete
  • self-regulation
Accesso libero

Quality of Life Indicators of University Students in Hungary

Pubblicato online: 05 Jun 2013
Pagine: 53 - 60

Astratto

Abstract

Quality of life is a new research field in the postmodern world. Results show that there are several factors beyond the material world which have an impact on our happiness and which can be influenced and developed by us. To transfer the knowledge that can help improve quality of life requires authentic channels. One of these channels could be the stratum of educated intellectuals as an influential group of society, but they are authentic only if their quality of life is really better than nonqualified population’s quality of life. We investigated this issue in Hungary. On the basis of empirical research, we compared university students’ quality of life indicators with those of common people of similar ages. The objective of this paper is to present the relevant results of this research, which show that a) the examined indicators of quality of life are not more favorable with university students than the same indicators with the non-student population; b) the quality of life indicators of female university students are worse in some respects than those of non-student women; c) the impact of some psychological factors is stronger with university students than with common persons. The major conclusion of this paper is that an appropriate intervention is needed in health education programs at universities in order to contribute to the improvement of students’ quality of life.

KEYWORDS

  • quality of life research
  • health consciousness
  • higher education
Accesso libero

Life After a Sports Career: the Case of Polish Ex-fencers

Pubblicato online: 05 Jun 2013
Pagine: 61 - 75

Astratto

Abstract

The present study focuses on the issue of the achievement of stability in life by former amateur fencers in the context of post-communist Polish society. The main aim of the study was an analysis of non-sport spheres of life of former fencers, such as occupation, material situation, family life, and health. The sample consisted of 51 former Polish fencers. A diagnostic survey was conducted with the use of the questionnaire technique. It was revealed that the subjects successfully achieved social stability after they retired from sports. However, since they had been amateur athletes, they had been forced to choose appropriate strategies and actions during their sports careers to ensure professional, economic, and family stability in their future lives. Those who experienced difficulties in combining the role of athlete with other social roles were most often forced to give up fencing. The former fencers observe a multidirectional impact of sports on all aspects of their lives.

KEYWORDS

  • ex-athletes
  • sports retirement
  • sports career
  • post-communism
  • fencers
Accesso libero

Bernard Shaw’s Admirable Bashville: Playwright and Prizefighter

Pubblicato online: 05 Jun 2013
Pagine: 76 - 83

Astratto

Abstract

Bernard Shaw’s little blank-verse play, The Admirable Bashville, or, Constancy Unrewarded is a play where two types of performance, sport and drama, interact on the stage. It was written in 1901 and it was performed three times in London under Shaw's auspices in 1901, in 1904, and in January-February 1909. Its next performance was in Vienna in 1924; then it was performed in Sydney in 1927. Shaw was an enthusiastic admirer of the bare - knuckled art of fighting, though he has written Bashville as a portrait of a period when this art was disapearing to be replaced by the noble art of boxing, under the new Queenberry’s rulling. This essay examines both the play itself, throwing new lights over obscur characters of the play, such as Cetewayo the Black African king, and even over Bashville, the prize-fighter. As copyrights laws of that period did not guarantee Shaw’s rights over his works, the paper shows Shaw’s attempts to keep the copyrights over his work, by performing the play as many times and under any conditions. Under copyright laws he could lose all his rights if the play were performed by other producers beforehand. The Admirable Bashville is a minor play by a major playwright, and Shaw never pretended it was anything more.

KEYWORDS

  • Bernard Shaw
  • Admirable Bashville
  • prizefighting
7 Articoli
Accesso libero

Rhythmic Gymnastics vs. Boxing: Gender Stereotypes From the Two Poles of Female Sport

Pubblicato online: 05 Jun 2013
Pagine: 5 - 16

Astratto

Abstract

In recent decades, women have begun to take up types of physical activity traditionally considered masculine. They appeared in previously one-gender team sports such as football or water polo, and nowadays they are also involved in ice hockey, canoeing, and are active in numerous combat sports as well. On the other hand, men have entered sport fields previously only available to women, such as rhythmic gymnastics. By this, sport can be regarded not only as a scene of gender stereotyping, but also a scene of redefining the concepts of masculinity-femininity in the negotiating of gender relations. Owing to these phenomena, there has been an emergence of studies analyzing sports from a gender aspect as well as the generalizations related to athletes involved in these sports. These studies have primarily focused on the constructions of gender identities and gender roles of women participating in traditionally masculine sports (football, weightlifting, and bodybuilding). This paper presents the results of empirical research designed to explore the opinions of top athletes involved in sports considered to be the most masculine and most feminine by the public and by sport experts: rhythmic gymnastics and boxing. They discussed their own sport and each other’s sport. With the information obtained from the structured interviews (n=22), it became possible to compare their social background, sport socialization and sport selection, as well as their conceptions of gender roles, femininity, and masculinity. As a conclusion of the research, it can be stated that from the aspects examined differences could mostly be observed in the circumstances of sport selection, but representatives of the two sports also diverged remarkably in their judgments about each other’s sport. While female boxers did not voice extreme opinions about rhythmic gymnastics, representatives of the sport regarded to be the most feminine reflected on boxing in a stereotypical and prejudiced way, even given their lack of experience.

KEYWORDS

  • women’s boxing
  • rhythmic gymnastics
  • gender stereotypes
  • sporting roles
Accesso libero

Tourism Activities of Deaf Poles

Pubblicato online: 05 Jun 2013
Pagine: 17 - 32

Astratto

Abstract

The chief aim of the research was to identify tourism activities of Deaf Poles. The study was conducted in 2007, and it included 191 Deaf adult Poles. The research data was collected mainly on the basis of questionnaire surveys conducted with the assistance of a sign language interpreter, individual interviews, and participant observation during tourist trips. The results were used as a basis for developing a conceptual framework for creating databanks for analyzing the data. The following statistical methods were employed: statistical significance level (p) and Tourist Information Systems (TIS), adapted to the needs of sign language users. The conceptual framework is based on the idea of active participation of Deaf individuals in creating Tourist Information Systems, cooperation networks (clusters), and the potential of Information Communications Technologies (ICTs).

Parole chiave

  • deaf
  • deaf culture
  • tourism activities of deaf people
  • Tourist Information System (TIS)
Accesso libero

Models of Development and Management of Brazilian University Sports: An Interpretation according to its Relationship with the State

Pubblicato online: 05 Jun 2013
Pagine: 33 - 42

Astratto

Abstract

The present study is intended to discuss the way in which the state is constituted as a major element for the management of Brazilian university teams, pointing out, above all, the most recent moment that represents a hybrid model of development. To do so, empirical resources of research has been used: 1. Documents that belong to the file of the FPDU (an institution in the state of Paraná which is in charge of university teams), 2. The existing legislation on the theme, 3. Interviews with some of the agents who took part in the FPDU as members of the directory board throughout its history. It has been concluded that the state is directly responsible for the development of university sports in Brazil, mainly because between them there is an inter-dependence relationship through the financial support of sports.

KEYWORDS

  • university sports
  • state
  • financing
  • Brazil
Accesso libero

Examining the Levels of Self-Leadership Perceptions of University Student- Athletes in Terms of Sociodemographic Characteristics

Pubblicato online: 05 Jun 2013
Pagine: 43 - 52

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of the present study is to determine the difference of self-leadership perceptions for university student-athletes in terms of sociodemographic characteristics. The research involved 167 university student-athletes aged 18-21 years (Muğla and Kocaeli at Turkey). Self-leadership perceptions were measured by the Revised Self-Leadership Questionnaire. The number of strategies of selfleadership was calculated in the distribution of mean scores. It was found that variables such as age, education status of mother, and monthly income of the university students do not cause any difference in the levels of self-leadership perceptions. On the other hand, other factors were determined to create statistically significant differences in the use of self-leadership strategies: gender; dealing with sport outside of school; taking part in teams; branch of interested sport; education status of father; socioeconomic status; personal sport history of athletes. It has revealed that not only the psychical factors but also behavioral, cognitive, and psychological factors of self-leadership have important roles in increasing the performance of student-athletes in sport activities.

KEYWORDS

  • self-leadership
  • student
  • athlete
  • self-regulation
Accesso libero

Quality of Life Indicators of University Students in Hungary

Pubblicato online: 05 Jun 2013
Pagine: 53 - 60

Astratto

Abstract

Quality of life is a new research field in the postmodern world. Results show that there are several factors beyond the material world which have an impact on our happiness and which can be influenced and developed by us. To transfer the knowledge that can help improve quality of life requires authentic channels. One of these channels could be the stratum of educated intellectuals as an influential group of society, but they are authentic only if their quality of life is really better than nonqualified population’s quality of life. We investigated this issue in Hungary. On the basis of empirical research, we compared university students’ quality of life indicators with those of common people of similar ages. The objective of this paper is to present the relevant results of this research, which show that a) the examined indicators of quality of life are not more favorable with university students than the same indicators with the non-student population; b) the quality of life indicators of female university students are worse in some respects than those of non-student women; c) the impact of some psychological factors is stronger with university students than with common persons. The major conclusion of this paper is that an appropriate intervention is needed in health education programs at universities in order to contribute to the improvement of students’ quality of life.

KEYWORDS

  • quality of life research
  • health consciousness
  • higher education
Accesso libero

Life After a Sports Career: the Case of Polish Ex-fencers

Pubblicato online: 05 Jun 2013
Pagine: 61 - 75

Astratto

Abstract

The present study focuses on the issue of the achievement of stability in life by former amateur fencers in the context of post-communist Polish society. The main aim of the study was an analysis of non-sport spheres of life of former fencers, such as occupation, material situation, family life, and health. The sample consisted of 51 former Polish fencers. A diagnostic survey was conducted with the use of the questionnaire technique. It was revealed that the subjects successfully achieved social stability after they retired from sports. However, since they had been amateur athletes, they had been forced to choose appropriate strategies and actions during their sports careers to ensure professional, economic, and family stability in their future lives. Those who experienced difficulties in combining the role of athlete with other social roles were most often forced to give up fencing. The former fencers observe a multidirectional impact of sports on all aspects of their lives.

KEYWORDS

  • ex-athletes
  • sports retirement
  • sports career
  • post-communism
  • fencers
Accesso libero

Bernard Shaw’s Admirable Bashville: Playwright and Prizefighter

Pubblicato online: 05 Jun 2013
Pagine: 76 - 83

Astratto

Abstract

Bernard Shaw’s little blank-verse play, The Admirable Bashville, or, Constancy Unrewarded is a play where two types of performance, sport and drama, interact on the stage. It was written in 1901 and it was performed three times in London under Shaw's auspices in 1901, in 1904, and in January-February 1909. Its next performance was in Vienna in 1924; then it was performed in Sydney in 1927. Shaw was an enthusiastic admirer of the bare - knuckled art of fighting, though he has written Bashville as a portrait of a period when this art was disapearing to be replaced by the noble art of boxing, under the new Queenberry’s rulling. This essay examines both the play itself, throwing new lights over obscur characters of the play, such as Cetewayo the Black African king, and even over Bashville, the prize-fighter. As copyrights laws of that period did not guarantee Shaw’s rights over his works, the paper shows Shaw’s attempts to keep the copyrights over his work, by performing the play as many times and under any conditions. Under copyright laws he could lose all his rights if the play were performed by other producers beforehand. The Admirable Bashville is a minor play by a major playwright, and Shaw never pretended it was anything more.

KEYWORDS

  • Bernard Shaw
  • Admirable Bashville
  • prizefighting

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