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Special Edizione: Sociology of Sport edited by Natalia Organista, Michał Lenartowicz & Michał Jasny

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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 72 (2016): Edizione 1 (December 2016)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

7 Articoli
Accesso libero

Efficiency Play, Games, Competitions, Production – How to Analyze the Configurations of Sport?

Pubblicato online: 01 Dec 2016
Pagine: 5 - 16

Astratto

Abstract

The comparative, differential phenomenology of play and games has a critical political point. A mainstream discourse identifies – more or less – sport with play and game and describes sport as just a modernized extension of play or as a universal phenomenon that has existed since the Stone Age or the ancient Greek Olympics. This may be problematical, as there was no sport before industrial modernity. Before 1800, people were involved in a richness of play and games, competitions, festivities, and dances, which to large extent have disappeared or were marginalized, suppressed, and replaced by sport. The established rhetoric of “ancient Greek sport”, “medieval tournament sport”, etc., can be questioned.

Configurational analysis as a procedure of differential phenomenology can help in analyzing sport as a specific modern game which produces objectified results through bodily movement. This analysis casts light not only on the phenomenon of sport itself, but also on the methodological and epistemological challenge of studying play, movement, and body culture.

Parole chiave

  • configurational analysis
  • differential phenomenology
  • historical relativity
  • basis and superstructure
  • modernity
  • riding
  • space
  • time
  • energy
Accesso libero

HEPA Promotion in the Environment of Academic Scientists - Preliminary Research

Pubblicato online: 01 Dec 2016
Pagine: 17 - 22

Astratto

Abstract

The theoretical framework for this research is the sociology of leisure and the sociology of health. Because sedentary behaviour (of employees) is a relevant new research area with important health risks, we decided to focus our attention on this subject. Moreover, sedentary behaviour in the workplace seems to be an important topic for the future.

The general aim of the research is to provide a platform for exchange on effective approaches for promoting health-enhancing physical activity among workers, to learn from experiences in different European countries and to promote the most effective approaches across Europe.

Two methods of qualitative research were used. The first was the method of expert judges. By way of direct interview, the statements of nine persons were collected, all of whom were recognised as competent judges. The second method was the analysis of the content of the literature (quality method). Using the computer program Atlas.ti, the respondents and their answers were examined.

Most of the indications (89%) concerned responses indicating physical activity. In general, the experts are quite physically active and keep a healthy (in their opinion) diet. They have both knowledge and appropriate skills in physical education. They point to the growing interest of younger academics in health and fitness, which may be associated with trends in popular culture, such as a sporty lifestyle, the cult of the body, various healthy diets and supplements, etc., that are becoming the universal fashion.

The aim of this work was to provide a platform for exchange on effective approaches to the promotion of health-enhancing physical activity among workers, to learn from experience in different European countries and to promote the most effective approaches across the region. Because the sedentary behaviour of employees is a relevant new research area with important health risks, we decided to focus our attention on this subject.

Parole chiave

  • health
  • health promotion
  • prevention
Accesso libero

From Forever Foreigners to Model Minority: Asian American Men in Sports

Pubblicato online: 01 Dec 2016
Pagine: 23 - 32

Astratto

Abstract

Despite their long history in the United States, relatively little scholarly attention has been paid to Asian Americans and their lived experience in sports. The purpose of this study was to give voices to Asian American men by focusing on their experiences in sports. In particular, this study examined the experiences of East Asian and Southeast Asian American male college students who were often perceived as “foreign” and “pejoratively feminine” racialized minority yet participated in sports that were associated with dominant masculinity in the U.S. The setting of the study was as a predominately White institution located in Upstate New York where Asian Americans make up about one percent of the total student population. Qualitative research method was employed for the study. Six Asian American male students were recruited through snowball and purposeful sampling methods. In-depth interviews were conducted to reveal the rich stories of these Asian American men. The research showed that the stories of Asian American male college students were much nuanced and complicated. Specifically, this study revealed that Asian American men were constantly otherized as “forever foreigners” who did not have a legitimate citizenship in the United States. Also, Asian Americans faced unique ideas about their manhood that either highlighted emasculated and feminized masculinity or hyper-masculinity. In dealing with these situations, Asian American men employed unique cultural strategies to challenge and resist racial stereotypes through sports.

Parole chiave

  • Asian American men
  • race
  • masculinity
  • intersectionality
  • sports
Accesso libero

Does Sport Event Involvement Influence Brand Recognition of Official Sponsors and Ambush Marketers?

Pubblicato online: 01 Dec 2016
Pagine: 33 - 40

Astratto

Abstract

The main aim of the study is to verify how event involvement in the UEFA Euro 2012 influenced the recognition of both sponsors’ and ambushers’ brands. Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews were conducted on a representative sample of the Polish society (N = 1,000). On the basis of five groups of consumers regarding involvement in the event, authors examined brand recognition, using Top of Mind Awareness (TOMA) tests of official sponsors and ambushers.

The highest TOMA rate was observed in the group of heavy viewers. The lower the quantity and intensity of the matches watched, the lower the percentage of people who recalled a brand of the official sponsor at first. An inverse relationship exists in the case of people who identified the ambush marketers.

Ambush marketing phenomenon does not seem to threaten official sponsors of the event among consumers involved in the event. Therefore, it seems to be crucial to take into account the division between fans and non- fans of the event and level of their event involvement whilst measuring brand recognition.

It is noticeable that in the current literature the issue of effects of ambushing on consumers divided into groups of fans and non-fans has been largely ignored. Thus this study shows how important conducting a test of brand recognisability based on involvement of consumers in the sport event is.

Parole chiave

  • sponsorship
  • ambush marketing
  • brand recognition
  • event involvement
  • EURO 2012
Accesso libero

Efficiency of Governmental Funding in Hungary

Pubblicato online: 01 Dec 2016
Pagine: 41 - 50

Astratto

Abstract

This paper presents the initial results of a significant research project conducted under the IOC PhD Student Research Grant Program with the support of the Hungarian Olympic Committee. Macro- and meso-level analyses were conducted within the framework of this research to analyze the competitive position of the Hungarian elite sport policy system. In the following, an essential part of the research will be presented with the aim of modeling the efficiency of the Hungarian sport funding system as the increasingly international sporting competition forces governments to invest more money in elite sport development just so they can maintain their elite sport success as the supply of medals remains basically constant. Due to these diminishing returns to the scale of investment, an elite sporting system with an efficient structure will be key in future sporting success. Data collection was based on information gained through a general questionnaire and interviews with the main stakeholders of national sport federations and the Hungarian Olympic Committee, which is the main governing body of Hungarian high-performance sport. Data collection focused on the sixteen prioritized sport federations and the five team sports that benefited from a tax relief system. Secondary data were collected regarding the national public funding for sport, elite sport, and sport by sport since 2006, and Gracenote’s database was used to analyze historical performance in the different disciplines and compare Hungarian performance with that of other countries. This research will provide information to policy makers about the competitive position of Hungary in elite sport and, in this respect, explore the critical success factors that will allow Hungary to assess how best to manage its future success in an increasingly competitive international environment.

Parole chiave

  • elite sport
  • efficiency
  • public funding
  • Hungary
Accesso libero

Tourist Activity of Senior Citizens (60+) Residing in Urban and Rural Areas

Pubblicato online: 01 Dec 2016
Pagine: 51 - 65

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of place of permanent residence (urban or rural) on the tourist activity of senior citizens (60+) of different socioeconomic statuses. The study involved 380 senior citizens (305 female and 75 male) aged 60 years and older who were permanent residents of the region of Warmia and Mazury, Poland. In this group, 244 subjects resided in urban areas and 136 participants were rural dwellers. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their socioeconomic status (place of permanent residence, age, gender, educational attainment, financial status, membership in senior organizations, marital status, and professional activity) and tourist activity. A significance test of two structure coefficients (α=0.05) was applied. Factors such as gender, professional activity, and marital status were not related with the travel propensity of seniors from different groups (urban and rural), but were significant when rural residents were compared with urban dwellers. Seniors residing in urban areas of Warmia and Mazury, Poland, were significantly more likely to travel for leisure than those residing in rural areas. The tourist activity of seniors decreased significantly (p<0.05) with the age (60-74 years) and financial status of rural residents. The travel propensity of elderly people increased significantly (p<0.05) with educational attainment and membership in senior organizations. The study revealed considerable differences in the socioeconomic status and social characteristics of seniors residing in rural and urban areas, and those variations significantly influenced their propensity for travel: urban residents traveled more frequently than rural residents. It can be concluded that place of residence was a crucial factor determining the tourist behavior of senior citizens, and urban dwellers were more likely to travel.

Parole chiave

  • senior citizens
  • tourist activity
  • urban area
  • rural area
  • socioeconomic factors
Accesso libero

Body Culture, Play and Identity

Pubblicato online: 01 Dec 2016
Pagine: 66 - 77

Astratto

Abstract

This is the second article of the cycle of portraits of the members of the Editorial Board and Editorial Advisory Board of the journal Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research, who are eminent social scientists researching the issue of sport. Among them, there are many world-class professors, rectors and deans of excellent universities, founders, presidents and secretaries-general of continental and international scientific societies and editors of high-scoring journals related to social sciences focusing on sport. The journal Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research started its activities in 2008 and gathered many readers, distinguished authors and outstanding reviewers. It is worth taking a moment to present the profiles of the individual editors, thanks to whom the journal keeps getting better and better. The journal is increasingly appreciated internationally particular among the scientists from the humanist and social areas of investigations. The rapidly increasing number of its readers and its surprisingly wide reception, indicated by the number of visits and downloads in English-speaking countries, including hundreds of universities (up to 791 were interested in the content of issue 62 of our magazine), research institutes and related libraries, as well as academics, researchers and students, should be celebrated. These data are derived only from one bibliographic data base (EBSCO). It must be noted that the journal is indexed in 43 bases.

Parole chiave

  • Education
  • academic achievements
  • scientific assumptions
  • publications
7 Articoli
Accesso libero

Efficiency Play, Games, Competitions, Production – How to Analyze the Configurations of Sport?

Pubblicato online: 01 Dec 2016
Pagine: 5 - 16

Astratto

Abstract

The comparative, differential phenomenology of play and games has a critical political point. A mainstream discourse identifies – more or less – sport with play and game and describes sport as just a modernized extension of play or as a universal phenomenon that has existed since the Stone Age or the ancient Greek Olympics. This may be problematical, as there was no sport before industrial modernity. Before 1800, people were involved in a richness of play and games, competitions, festivities, and dances, which to large extent have disappeared or were marginalized, suppressed, and replaced by sport. The established rhetoric of “ancient Greek sport”, “medieval tournament sport”, etc., can be questioned.

Configurational analysis as a procedure of differential phenomenology can help in analyzing sport as a specific modern game which produces objectified results through bodily movement. This analysis casts light not only on the phenomenon of sport itself, but also on the methodological and epistemological challenge of studying play, movement, and body culture.

Parole chiave

  • configurational analysis
  • differential phenomenology
  • historical relativity
  • basis and superstructure
  • modernity
  • riding
  • space
  • time
  • energy
Accesso libero

HEPA Promotion in the Environment of Academic Scientists - Preliminary Research

Pubblicato online: 01 Dec 2016
Pagine: 17 - 22

Astratto

Abstract

The theoretical framework for this research is the sociology of leisure and the sociology of health. Because sedentary behaviour (of employees) is a relevant new research area with important health risks, we decided to focus our attention on this subject. Moreover, sedentary behaviour in the workplace seems to be an important topic for the future.

The general aim of the research is to provide a platform for exchange on effective approaches for promoting health-enhancing physical activity among workers, to learn from experiences in different European countries and to promote the most effective approaches across Europe.

Two methods of qualitative research were used. The first was the method of expert judges. By way of direct interview, the statements of nine persons were collected, all of whom were recognised as competent judges. The second method was the analysis of the content of the literature (quality method). Using the computer program Atlas.ti, the respondents and their answers were examined.

Most of the indications (89%) concerned responses indicating physical activity. In general, the experts are quite physically active and keep a healthy (in their opinion) diet. They have both knowledge and appropriate skills in physical education. They point to the growing interest of younger academics in health and fitness, which may be associated with trends in popular culture, such as a sporty lifestyle, the cult of the body, various healthy diets and supplements, etc., that are becoming the universal fashion.

The aim of this work was to provide a platform for exchange on effective approaches to the promotion of health-enhancing physical activity among workers, to learn from experience in different European countries and to promote the most effective approaches across the region. Because the sedentary behaviour of employees is a relevant new research area with important health risks, we decided to focus our attention on this subject.

Parole chiave

  • health
  • health promotion
  • prevention
Accesso libero

From Forever Foreigners to Model Minority: Asian American Men in Sports

Pubblicato online: 01 Dec 2016
Pagine: 23 - 32

Astratto

Abstract

Despite their long history in the United States, relatively little scholarly attention has been paid to Asian Americans and their lived experience in sports. The purpose of this study was to give voices to Asian American men by focusing on their experiences in sports. In particular, this study examined the experiences of East Asian and Southeast Asian American male college students who were often perceived as “foreign” and “pejoratively feminine” racialized minority yet participated in sports that were associated with dominant masculinity in the U.S. The setting of the study was as a predominately White institution located in Upstate New York where Asian Americans make up about one percent of the total student population. Qualitative research method was employed for the study. Six Asian American male students were recruited through snowball and purposeful sampling methods. In-depth interviews were conducted to reveal the rich stories of these Asian American men. The research showed that the stories of Asian American male college students were much nuanced and complicated. Specifically, this study revealed that Asian American men were constantly otherized as “forever foreigners” who did not have a legitimate citizenship in the United States. Also, Asian Americans faced unique ideas about their manhood that either highlighted emasculated and feminized masculinity or hyper-masculinity. In dealing with these situations, Asian American men employed unique cultural strategies to challenge and resist racial stereotypes through sports.

Parole chiave

  • Asian American men
  • race
  • masculinity
  • intersectionality
  • sports
Accesso libero

Does Sport Event Involvement Influence Brand Recognition of Official Sponsors and Ambush Marketers?

Pubblicato online: 01 Dec 2016
Pagine: 33 - 40

Astratto

Abstract

The main aim of the study is to verify how event involvement in the UEFA Euro 2012 influenced the recognition of both sponsors’ and ambushers’ brands. Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews were conducted on a representative sample of the Polish society (N = 1,000). On the basis of five groups of consumers regarding involvement in the event, authors examined brand recognition, using Top of Mind Awareness (TOMA) tests of official sponsors and ambushers.

The highest TOMA rate was observed in the group of heavy viewers. The lower the quantity and intensity of the matches watched, the lower the percentage of people who recalled a brand of the official sponsor at first. An inverse relationship exists in the case of people who identified the ambush marketers.

Ambush marketing phenomenon does not seem to threaten official sponsors of the event among consumers involved in the event. Therefore, it seems to be crucial to take into account the division between fans and non- fans of the event and level of their event involvement whilst measuring brand recognition.

It is noticeable that in the current literature the issue of effects of ambushing on consumers divided into groups of fans and non-fans has been largely ignored. Thus this study shows how important conducting a test of brand recognisability based on involvement of consumers in the sport event is.

Parole chiave

  • sponsorship
  • ambush marketing
  • brand recognition
  • event involvement
  • EURO 2012
Accesso libero

Efficiency of Governmental Funding in Hungary

Pubblicato online: 01 Dec 2016
Pagine: 41 - 50

Astratto

Abstract

This paper presents the initial results of a significant research project conducted under the IOC PhD Student Research Grant Program with the support of the Hungarian Olympic Committee. Macro- and meso-level analyses were conducted within the framework of this research to analyze the competitive position of the Hungarian elite sport policy system. In the following, an essential part of the research will be presented with the aim of modeling the efficiency of the Hungarian sport funding system as the increasingly international sporting competition forces governments to invest more money in elite sport development just so they can maintain their elite sport success as the supply of medals remains basically constant. Due to these diminishing returns to the scale of investment, an elite sporting system with an efficient structure will be key in future sporting success. Data collection was based on information gained through a general questionnaire and interviews with the main stakeholders of national sport federations and the Hungarian Olympic Committee, which is the main governing body of Hungarian high-performance sport. Data collection focused on the sixteen prioritized sport federations and the five team sports that benefited from a tax relief system. Secondary data were collected regarding the national public funding for sport, elite sport, and sport by sport since 2006, and Gracenote’s database was used to analyze historical performance in the different disciplines and compare Hungarian performance with that of other countries. This research will provide information to policy makers about the competitive position of Hungary in elite sport and, in this respect, explore the critical success factors that will allow Hungary to assess how best to manage its future success in an increasingly competitive international environment.

Parole chiave

  • elite sport
  • efficiency
  • public funding
  • Hungary
Accesso libero

Tourist Activity of Senior Citizens (60+) Residing in Urban and Rural Areas

Pubblicato online: 01 Dec 2016
Pagine: 51 - 65

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of place of permanent residence (urban or rural) on the tourist activity of senior citizens (60+) of different socioeconomic statuses. The study involved 380 senior citizens (305 female and 75 male) aged 60 years and older who were permanent residents of the region of Warmia and Mazury, Poland. In this group, 244 subjects resided in urban areas and 136 participants were rural dwellers. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their socioeconomic status (place of permanent residence, age, gender, educational attainment, financial status, membership in senior organizations, marital status, and professional activity) and tourist activity. A significance test of two structure coefficients (α=0.05) was applied. Factors such as gender, professional activity, and marital status were not related with the travel propensity of seniors from different groups (urban and rural), but were significant when rural residents were compared with urban dwellers. Seniors residing in urban areas of Warmia and Mazury, Poland, were significantly more likely to travel for leisure than those residing in rural areas. The tourist activity of seniors decreased significantly (p<0.05) with the age (60-74 years) and financial status of rural residents. The travel propensity of elderly people increased significantly (p<0.05) with educational attainment and membership in senior organizations. The study revealed considerable differences in the socioeconomic status and social characteristics of seniors residing in rural and urban areas, and those variations significantly influenced their propensity for travel: urban residents traveled more frequently than rural residents. It can be concluded that place of residence was a crucial factor determining the tourist behavior of senior citizens, and urban dwellers were more likely to travel.

Parole chiave

  • senior citizens
  • tourist activity
  • urban area
  • rural area
  • socioeconomic factors
Accesso libero

Body Culture, Play and Identity

Pubblicato online: 01 Dec 2016
Pagine: 66 - 77

Astratto

Abstract

This is the second article of the cycle of portraits of the members of the Editorial Board and Editorial Advisory Board of the journal Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research, who are eminent social scientists researching the issue of sport. Among them, there are many world-class professors, rectors and deans of excellent universities, founders, presidents and secretaries-general of continental and international scientific societies and editors of high-scoring journals related to social sciences focusing on sport. The journal Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research started its activities in 2008 and gathered many readers, distinguished authors and outstanding reviewers. It is worth taking a moment to present the profiles of the individual editors, thanks to whom the journal keeps getting better and better. The journal is increasingly appreciated internationally particular among the scientists from the humanist and social areas of investigations. The rapidly increasing number of its readers and its surprisingly wide reception, indicated by the number of visits and downloads in English-speaking countries, including hundreds of universities (up to 791 were interested in the content of issue 62 of our magazine), research institutes and related libraries, as well as academics, researchers and students, should be celebrated. These data are derived only from one bibliographic data base (EBSCO). It must be noted that the journal is indexed in 43 bases.

Parole chiave

  • Education
  • academic achievements
  • scientific assumptions
  • publications

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