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Special Edizione: Sociology of Sport edited by Natalia Organista, Michał Lenartowicz & Michał Jasny

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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 67 (2015): Edizione 1 (September 2015)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1899-4849
Pubblicato per la prima volta
31 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

7 Articoli
Accesso libero

A Hermeneutical Analysis of the InternalistApproachin the Philosophy of Sport

Pubblicato online: 26 Nov 2015
Pagine: 5 - 12

Astratto

Abstract

In this paper, we make a hermeneutical analysis of internalism, the dominant tradition in the philosophy of sports. In order to accomplish this, we identify the prejudices that guide the internalist view of sports, namely the Platonic-Analytic prejudice introduced by Suits, one of the forefathers of internalism. Then, we critically analyze four consequences of following such a prejudice: a) its reductive nature, b) the production of a unrealistic view of sports, c) the vagueness of the idea of excellence; and d) the leap from the descriptive analysis of the sporting phenomenon to the setting of normative requirements for the practice of sports.

Keywords

  • hermeneutics
  • philosophy of sports
  • internalism
  • Heidegger
  • excellency
  • prejudice
Accesso libero

Cardinal Virtues in Sport: Prudentia

Pubblicato online: 26 Nov 2015
Pagine: 13 - 19

Astratto

Abstract

Cardinal virtues present one of the oldest anthropological theories and ethical systems in the western philosophical tradition. Among other great ancient philosophers, Plato talked about four main virtues: prudence (practical wisdom), justice, fortitude (courage), and temperance (moderation). As these virtues are not arbitrary, but instead correspond to some fundamental characteristics of human beings, they are not only useful for moral decision-making, but they also present an original anthropological theory. This paper focuses on the role of prudence in sports.

Prudence has two aspects: it is a) cognitive, and b) decision-making. Perceptively it is turned toward reality, “imperatively” toward volition and action. As such, it is a fundamental virtue in sports practices. First of all, its role is in the cognition of the specific situations an athlete is in. In addition, it gives instructions as to how to respond to them. Prudence directed into the cognition of reality involves two main elements, namely memoria and docilitas. The role of memoria consists in developing and enriching special motor memory from past experiences, and so it is one of the goals of any practice of technical elements. Docilitas is the kind of open-mindedness which recognizes the true variety of things and situations to be experienced and does not cage itself in any presumption of deceptive knowledge. As such, it can be recognized in the concept of sports as “knowledge-gaining activity”.

The other aspect of prudence is directed towards deciding what actions to take. With solertia, the athlete can swiftly, but with open eyes and clear-sighted vision, decide to do something good in a concrete situation. The second element is providentia (foresight), meaning the capacity to estimate with a sure instinct for the future whether or not a particular action will lead to the realization of a goal. This is demanded of all sports, especially competitive sports, where the deciding factor between top and average athletes is often not physical or technical abilities but the intellectual capacity (or tactics) to foresee what is going to happen on the field in the next few moments.

Keywords

  • cardinal virtues
  • prudence
  • sports anthropology
  • sports ethics
Accesso libero

Everyday Physical Education: Functional and Dysfunctional Consequences in Hungarian Public Education

Pubblicato online: 26 Nov 2015
Pagine: 20 - 30

Astratto

Abstract

In Participation in physical education is considered to be a fundamental right of pupils all over the world. In Hungary, where the rich elite sports traditions of the country are paralleled by the population’s moderate physical activity, the challenge posed by non-communicable diseases and growing obesity figures among youth was addressed by the introduction of daily P.E. in public education starting in the 2012/13 academic year. The objective of the present paper is to discuss, based on empirical research, the intended and unintended consequences of this measure in an educational and social context using the qualitative analysis of the views of key stakeholders and the quantitative analysis of statistical data on the infrastructural and personal conditions of P.E. The results indicate that neither before nor after the enforcement of the Act on Public Education were the infrastructural and personal conditions of daily P.E. created and, in addition to the intended consequences, a number of unintended consequences have also been encountered by various stakeholders. The study can also be regarded as an attempt to reveal these dysfunctions in order to contribute to positive changes in the area.

Keywords

  • physical education
  • Hungary,public education
Accesso libero

The Assessment of the Quality of Life in Visually Impaired People with Different Level of Physical Activity

Pubblicato online: 26 Nov 2015
Pagine: 31 - 41

Astratto

Abstract

Quality of life (QOL) is associated with factors such as health, physical functioning, life satisfaction, a sense of happiness, and others. In case of disabled people, much attention is paid to their QOL rather than only the improvement of physiological variables. In a group of blind and visually impaired people, the effect of physical activity (PA) on the socialization process, the ability to explore own personality traits, developing creativity, and more motivation and desire to overcome the difficulties associated with visual impairment were observed.

The study involved 53 people: visually impaired (NT) sedentary lifestyle people (n=18; 51±12 years) and visually impaired tandem cycling athletes (N) (n=17; 42±13 years). Properly sighted people (P) (n=18; 38±12 years) were partners in tandem with visually impaired athletes. To determine the level of PA, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used. The WHO-Quality of Life (WHO-QOL-BREF), the National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25, version 2000), and the Retina AMD Poland Association questionnaire were used to assess QOL.

In visually impaired athletes, significantly greater PA with moderate intensity, moving by bike, and energy expenditure for vigorous recreational exercise and sport in leisuretime was found. Sedentary lifestyle people mainly participated in moderate physical activity around the house. Significant greater satisfaction with health was observed in the case of visually impaired athletes in comparison with NT. All disabled groups rarely had negative feelings such as despair, depression, and anxiety.

Moderate correlations between variables according to physical activity and quality of life in all participants were observed. The meaningfulness of life and life satisfaction also depended on cycling training and moderate physical activity around the house. The obtained data indicate that all available forms of regular PA in visually impaired people could have a beneficial effect on their quality of life.

Keywords

  • quality of life
  • visual impairment
  • physical activity
  • cycling
Accesso libero

Problem-Solving Skills of High School Students Exercising Regularly in Sport Teams

Pubblicato online: 26 Nov 2015
Pagine: 42 - 52

Astratto

Abstract

In this article, the effect of regular sport activities on the problem-solving approaches performed by high school students when they encountered said problem was analyzed. Six hundred male high school students participated in the study (Mage=15.45 years, age range: 14-17 years). The Problem-Solving Inventory (PSI) was used to evaluate students’ problem-solving solutions. Student-athletes were selected from the students who took charge in school teams, exercised for 6 days a week, provided that this exercise did not exceed 1 h 30 min, and who also participated in competitions. Mann-Whitney U test, which is nonparametrictest, was used to examine two samples (athlete, & non-athlete) and Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis was used to make intergroup (branches of sport) examinations. According to the findings that were obtained, a significant difference was found among selfconfident approach values of athlete and non-athlete students (U=45.0, p=0.008). A significant difference was observed among assessor approach values of athlete and non-athlete students (U=46.2, p=0.033). The students who did sports regularly were more self-confident than those who did not do sports regularly and were of the same age when they encountered a problem, and student-athletes evaluated the phase of solving the problem and results that they obtained more carefully than those who did not do sport regularly and were of the same age. Student-athletes believed that they would solve the problem that they encountered. Further, student athletes preferred using a systematic method while solving a problem and making a decision more often than those who were not athletes and were of the same age.

Keywords

  • problem solving
  • sport
  • exercising
  • school
  • education
Accesso libero

Impact of Sport-related Games on High School Students’ Communication Skills

Pubblicato online: 26 Nov 2015
Pagine: 53 - 64

Astratto

Abstract

In Recent studies underline the fact that adolescents are, at many times, likely to experience serious communication problems with their families and close environments. So, the aim of this study is to determine positive impact of sport-related games, which are performed as extracurricular activities, on high school students’ communication skills. In the study, pre, & post-tests was utilized with the control group’s experimental patterns. Two participant groups were made up of totally 30 high school students, 15 of whom would be in the experimental group and the rest of whom were in the control group. The former group was given sport- related 20 applications for 10 weeks during which the latter group would not deal with any extracurricular activities. Meanwhile, before and after the applications, data was collected by means of “The Communication Skills Scale” which was developed by Korkut (1996) and then analysed through “two-way ANCOVA” test techniques. Results clarify that the considerable gap in scores of the students’ pre, & post-tests perception concerning their communication skills are clearly attributed to sport-related games and it was also established that scores of the students in the experimental group were meaningfully higher than ones in the control group. However, perception of communication skills in the both groups was not significantly different by sex of the students. Moreover, the common effect of sex and participation on sport- related games was not found statistically meaningful in terms of communication skills. Consequently, it could be said that sport-related games impact positively communication skills.

Keywords

  • extracurricular activities
  • communication skills
  • sport-related games
  • high school students
Accesso libero

New Paradigm: Science on Aggression with Sport in the Background

Pubblicato online: 26 Nov 2015
Pagine: 65 - 75

Astratto

Abstract

In this work, the author focuses in particular on aggressive behavior in competitive sports (highly ranked professional, spectator, and Olympic sports) and on the behavior of fans accompanying sporting events.

Aggression in sports, when considered from the point of view of the regulations in specific disciplines, has two main variants. The first variant is necessary aggression, which is both instrumental and non-instrumental and is potential in the sense that it allows the manifestation of emotions which are not outlined in the rules of the discipline. Thus, aggression is considered necessary when it results from the rules of a given sport.

The second form of aggression is a non-instrumental and unpredictable aggression which is of an emotional origin. It is reactive, characterized by anger, and aims to cause harm. It is not stimulated by the rules of a given sport, but on the contrary is restricted and punished by the rules.

The author also points out that the aggressive behavior of fans before, during, and outside a sporting event will never be necessary in this respect because the rules, guidelines, or specific regulations of a sport apply to the behavior of players, not fans. Therefore, their aggression is potential, emotional, planned, or spontaneous, but never necessary.

Keywords

  • sport
  • aggression
  • instrumental and non-instrumental aggression
7 Articoli
Accesso libero

A Hermeneutical Analysis of the InternalistApproachin the Philosophy of Sport

Pubblicato online: 26 Nov 2015
Pagine: 5 - 12

Astratto

Abstract

In this paper, we make a hermeneutical analysis of internalism, the dominant tradition in the philosophy of sports. In order to accomplish this, we identify the prejudices that guide the internalist view of sports, namely the Platonic-Analytic prejudice introduced by Suits, one of the forefathers of internalism. Then, we critically analyze four consequences of following such a prejudice: a) its reductive nature, b) the production of a unrealistic view of sports, c) the vagueness of the idea of excellence; and d) the leap from the descriptive analysis of the sporting phenomenon to the setting of normative requirements for the practice of sports.

Keywords

  • hermeneutics
  • philosophy of sports
  • internalism
  • Heidegger
  • excellency
  • prejudice
Accesso libero

Cardinal Virtues in Sport: Prudentia

Pubblicato online: 26 Nov 2015
Pagine: 13 - 19

Astratto

Abstract

Cardinal virtues present one of the oldest anthropological theories and ethical systems in the western philosophical tradition. Among other great ancient philosophers, Plato talked about four main virtues: prudence (practical wisdom), justice, fortitude (courage), and temperance (moderation). As these virtues are not arbitrary, but instead correspond to some fundamental characteristics of human beings, they are not only useful for moral decision-making, but they also present an original anthropological theory. This paper focuses on the role of prudence in sports.

Prudence has two aspects: it is a) cognitive, and b) decision-making. Perceptively it is turned toward reality, “imperatively” toward volition and action. As such, it is a fundamental virtue in sports practices. First of all, its role is in the cognition of the specific situations an athlete is in. In addition, it gives instructions as to how to respond to them. Prudence directed into the cognition of reality involves two main elements, namely memoria and docilitas. The role of memoria consists in developing and enriching special motor memory from past experiences, and so it is one of the goals of any practice of technical elements. Docilitas is the kind of open-mindedness which recognizes the true variety of things and situations to be experienced and does not cage itself in any presumption of deceptive knowledge. As such, it can be recognized in the concept of sports as “knowledge-gaining activity”.

The other aspect of prudence is directed towards deciding what actions to take. With solertia, the athlete can swiftly, but with open eyes and clear-sighted vision, decide to do something good in a concrete situation. The second element is providentia (foresight), meaning the capacity to estimate with a sure instinct for the future whether or not a particular action will lead to the realization of a goal. This is demanded of all sports, especially competitive sports, where the deciding factor between top and average athletes is often not physical or technical abilities but the intellectual capacity (or tactics) to foresee what is going to happen on the field in the next few moments.

Keywords

  • cardinal virtues
  • prudence
  • sports anthropology
  • sports ethics
Accesso libero

Everyday Physical Education: Functional and Dysfunctional Consequences in Hungarian Public Education

Pubblicato online: 26 Nov 2015
Pagine: 20 - 30

Astratto

Abstract

In Participation in physical education is considered to be a fundamental right of pupils all over the world. In Hungary, where the rich elite sports traditions of the country are paralleled by the population’s moderate physical activity, the challenge posed by non-communicable diseases and growing obesity figures among youth was addressed by the introduction of daily P.E. in public education starting in the 2012/13 academic year. The objective of the present paper is to discuss, based on empirical research, the intended and unintended consequences of this measure in an educational and social context using the qualitative analysis of the views of key stakeholders and the quantitative analysis of statistical data on the infrastructural and personal conditions of P.E. The results indicate that neither before nor after the enforcement of the Act on Public Education were the infrastructural and personal conditions of daily P.E. created and, in addition to the intended consequences, a number of unintended consequences have also been encountered by various stakeholders. The study can also be regarded as an attempt to reveal these dysfunctions in order to contribute to positive changes in the area.

Keywords

  • physical education
  • Hungary,public education
Accesso libero

The Assessment of the Quality of Life in Visually Impaired People with Different Level of Physical Activity

Pubblicato online: 26 Nov 2015
Pagine: 31 - 41

Astratto

Abstract

Quality of life (QOL) is associated with factors such as health, physical functioning, life satisfaction, a sense of happiness, and others. In case of disabled people, much attention is paid to their QOL rather than only the improvement of physiological variables. In a group of blind and visually impaired people, the effect of physical activity (PA) on the socialization process, the ability to explore own personality traits, developing creativity, and more motivation and desire to overcome the difficulties associated with visual impairment were observed.

The study involved 53 people: visually impaired (NT) sedentary lifestyle people (n=18; 51±12 years) and visually impaired tandem cycling athletes (N) (n=17; 42±13 years). Properly sighted people (P) (n=18; 38±12 years) were partners in tandem with visually impaired athletes. To determine the level of PA, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used. The WHO-Quality of Life (WHO-QOL-BREF), the National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25, version 2000), and the Retina AMD Poland Association questionnaire were used to assess QOL.

In visually impaired athletes, significantly greater PA with moderate intensity, moving by bike, and energy expenditure for vigorous recreational exercise and sport in leisuretime was found. Sedentary lifestyle people mainly participated in moderate physical activity around the house. Significant greater satisfaction with health was observed in the case of visually impaired athletes in comparison with NT. All disabled groups rarely had negative feelings such as despair, depression, and anxiety.

Moderate correlations between variables according to physical activity and quality of life in all participants were observed. The meaningfulness of life and life satisfaction also depended on cycling training and moderate physical activity around the house. The obtained data indicate that all available forms of regular PA in visually impaired people could have a beneficial effect on their quality of life.

Keywords

  • quality of life
  • visual impairment
  • physical activity
  • cycling
Accesso libero

Problem-Solving Skills of High School Students Exercising Regularly in Sport Teams

Pubblicato online: 26 Nov 2015
Pagine: 42 - 52

Astratto

Abstract

In this article, the effect of regular sport activities on the problem-solving approaches performed by high school students when they encountered said problem was analyzed. Six hundred male high school students participated in the study (Mage=15.45 years, age range: 14-17 years). The Problem-Solving Inventory (PSI) was used to evaluate students’ problem-solving solutions. Student-athletes were selected from the students who took charge in school teams, exercised for 6 days a week, provided that this exercise did not exceed 1 h 30 min, and who also participated in competitions. Mann-Whitney U test, which is nonparametrictest, was used to examine two samples (athlete, & non-athlete) and Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis was used to make intergroup (branches of sport) examinations. According to the findings that were obtained, a significant difference was found among selfconfident approach values of athlete and non-athlete students (U=45.0, p=0.008). A significant difference was observed among assessor approach values of athlete and non-athlete students (U=46.2, p=0.033). The students who did sports regularly were more self-confident than those who did not do sports regularly and were of the same age when they encountered a problem, and student-athletes evaluated the phase of solving the problem and results that they obtained more carefully than those who did not do sport regularly and were of the same age. Student-athletes believed that they would solve the problem that they encountered. Further, student athletes preferred using a systematic method while solving a problem and making a decision more often than those who were not athletes and were of the same age.

Keywords

  • problem solving
  • sport
  • exercising
  • school
  • education
Accesso libero

Impact of Sport-related Games on High School Students’ Communication Skills

Pubblicato online: 26 Nov 2015
Pagine: 53 - 64

Astratto

Abstract

In Recent studies underline the fact that adolescents are, at many times, likely to experience serious communication problems with their families and close environments. So, the aim of this study is to determine positive impact of sport-related games, which are performed as extracurricular activities, on high school students’ communication skills. In the study, pre, & post-tests was utilized with the control group’s experimental patterns. Two participant groups were made up of totally 30 high school students, 15 of whom would be in the experimental group and the rest of whom were in the control group. The former group was given sport- related 20 applications for 10 weeks during which the latter group would not deal with any extracurricular activities. Meanwhile, before and after the applications, data was collected by means of “The Communication Skills Scale” which was developed by Korkut (1996) and then analysed through “two-way ANCOVA” test techniques. Results clarify that the considerable gap in scores of the students’ pre, & post-tests perception concerning their communication skills are clearly attributed to sport-related games and it was also established that scores of the students in the experimental group were meaningfully higher than ones in the control group. However, perception of communication skills in the both groups was not significantly different by sex of the students. Moreover, the common effect of sex and participation on sport- related games was not found statistically meaningful in terms of communication skills. Consequently, it could be said that sport-related games impact positively communication skills.

Keywords

  • extracurricular activities
  • communication skills
  • sport-related games
  • high school students
Accesso libero

New Paradigm: Science on Aggression with Sport in the Background

Pubblicato online: 26 Nov 2015
Pagine: 65 - 75

Astratto

Abstract

In this work, the author focuses in particular on aggressive behavior in competitive sports (highly ranked professional, spectator, and Olympic sports) and on the behavior of fans accompanying sporting events.

Aggression in sports, when considered from the point of view of the regulations in specific disciplines, has two main variants. The first variant is necessary aggression, which is both instrumental and non-instrumental and is potential in the sense that it allows the manifestation of emotions which are not outlined in the rules of the discipline. Thus, aggression is considered necessary when it results from the rules of a given sport.

The second form of aggression is a non-instrumental and unpredictable aggression which is of an emotional origin. It is reactive, characterized by anger, and aims to cause harm. It is not stimulated by the rules of a given sport, but on the contrary is restricted and punished by the rules.

The author also points out that the aggressive behavior of fans before, during, and outside a sporting event will never be necessary in this respect because the rules, guidelines, or specific regulations of a sport apply to the behavior of players, not fans. Therefore, their aggression is potential, emotional, planned, or spontaneous, but never necessary.

Keywords

  • sport
  • aggression
  • instrumental and non-instrumental aggression

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