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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 1 (February 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

8 Articles
access type Open Access

Examination of the Average Chipping Rate on the Edges of Milled Granite Surfaces

Published Online: 11 Mar 2015
Page range: 1 - 8

Abstract

Abstract

The research described in this article was carried out for the purpose of developing a quantitative marker for defining the average edge chipping rate of milled granite surfaces and for testing and proving whether this quantitative marker can effectively be applied. Another aim of the research was to test the applicability of the developed measurement method and the precision of the body representing the volume loss caused by chipping. The surface edges of the milled specimens were digitised using a laser scanner and chipped volumes were defined on the basis of a body generated with the help of a point cloud, and then the errors of the volumes produced by the evaluation-purpose software were examined using a digital microscope. The investigations proved that the proposed measurement method is accurate and that the replacement body defined through measurements appropriately approximates the volume of chippings in the case of milled granite surfaces.

Keywords

  • Granite
  • qualification
  • quantitative marker
  • edge chippings
  • milling
access type Open Access

Correction of Scanning Steps to Improve Accuracy in Interferometric Profilometer

Published Online: 11 Mar 2015
Page range: 9 - 12

Abstract

Abstract

In scanning interferometry of longitudinal shift, an uncertainty of required phase shift performance leads to a measurement error. Such uncertainty can be caused by external factors (vibrations, air turbulence in measuring area etc.) as well as inaccuracy of the scanning system. The method for calculating the phase shift between interferograms, which allows reducing the measurement error, is proposed. The results of numerical and full scale experiments are presented.

Keywords

  • Phase shifting interferometry
  • nanorelief measurement
  • measurement error
access type Open Access

Torque Measurement of 3-DOF Haptic Master Operated by Controllable Electrorheological Fluid

Published Online: 11 Mar 2015
Page range: 13 - 18

Abstract

Abstract

This work presents a torque measurement method of 3-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) haptic master featuring controllable electrorheological (ER) fluid. In order to reflect the sense of an organ for a surgeon, the ER haptic master which can generate the repulsive torque of an organ is utilized as a remote controller for a surgery robot. Since accurate representation of organ feeling is essential for the success of the robot-assisted surgery, it is indispensable to develop a proper torque measurement method of 3-DOF ER haptic master. After describing the structural configuration of the haptic master, the torque models of ER spherical joint are mathematically derived based on the Bingham model of ER fluid. A new type of haptic device which has pitching, rolling, and yawing motions is then designed and manufactured using a spherical joint mechanism. Subsequently, the field-dependent parameters of the Bingham model are identified and generating repulsive torque according to applied electric field is measured. In addition, in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed torque model, a comparative work between simulated and measured torques is undertaken.

Keywords

  • Torque measurement
  • haptic master
  • repulsive torque
  • Bingham model
  • torque model
access type Open Access

A Kalman Filter-Based Algorithm for Measuring the Parameters of Moving Objects

Published Online: 11 Mar 2015
Page range: 19 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

One of the most complex problems in measuring equipment is related to the provision of the required dynamic accuracy of measuring systems determining the parameters of moving objects. The present paper views an algorithm for improving the dynamic accuracy of such measuring systems. It is based on the Kalman method. The algorithm aims to eliminate the influence of a number of interference sources, each of which is of secondary significance. However, their total effect can cause considerable distortion of the measurement signal. The algorithm model is designed for gyro-free measuring systems. It is based on one of the most widely used elements in the dynamic systems, namely the physical pendulum, due to which measuring systems of high dynamic accuracy and low cost can be developed. The presented experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm with respect to the dynamic accuracy of measuring systems of this type.

Keywords

  • Kalman filter
  • dynamic error
  • gyro-free measuring system
  • roll
  • pitch
  • heel
  • trim
access type Open Access

Simulation and Measurements of Small Arms Blast Wave Overpressure in the Process of Designing a Silencer

Published Online: 11 Mar 2015
Page range: 27 - 34

Abstract

Abstract

Simulation and measurements of muzzle blast overpressure and its physical manifestations are studied in this paper. The use of a silencer can have a great influence on the overpressure intensity. A silencer is regarded as an acoustic transducer and a waveguide. Wave equations for an acoustic dotted source of directed effect are used for physical interpretation of overpressure as an acoustic phenomenon. Decomposition approach has proven to be suitable to describe the formation of the output wave of the wave transducer. Electroacoustic analogies are used for simulations. A measurement chain was used to compare the simulation results with the experimental ones.

Keywords

  • Overpressure
  • silencer
  • decomposition approach
  • wave propagation
  • dotted wave source
access type Open Access

Hidden Markov Model-based Pedestrian Navigation System using MEMS Inertial Sensors

Published Online: 11 Mar 2015
Page range: 35 - 43

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, a foot-mounted pedestrian navigation system using MEMS inertial sensors is implemented, where the zero-velocity detection is abstracted into a hidden Markov model with 4 states and 15 observations. Moreover, an observations extraction algorithm has been developed to extract observations from sensor outputs; sample sets are used to train and optimize the model parameters by the Baum-Welch algorithm. Finally, a navigation system is developed, and the performance of the pedestrian navigation system is evaluated using indoor and outdoor field tests, and the results show that position error is less than 3% of total distance travelled.

Keywords

  • Pedestrian navigation system
  • hidden Markov model
  • zero velocity detection
  • inertial sensors
access type Open Access

Analytical Modeling for the Grating Eddy Current Displacement Sensors

Published Online: 11 Mar 2015
Page range: 44 - 51

Abstract

Abstract

As a new type of displacement sensor, grating eddy current displacement sensor (GECDS) combines traditional eddy current sensors and grating structure in one. The GECDS performs a wide range displacement measurement without precision reduction. This paper proposes an analytical modeling approach for the GECDS. The solution model is established in the Cartesian coordinate system, and the solving domain is limited to finite extents by using the truncated region eigenfunction expansion method. Based on the second order vector potential, expressions for the electromagnetic field as well as coil impedance related to the displacement can be expressed in closed-form. Theoretical results are then confirmed by experiments, which prove the suitability and effectiveness of the analytical modeling approach.

Keywords

  • Grating eddy current sensor
  • analytical modeling
  • displacement measurement
access type Open Access

3D Hole Inspection Using Lens with High Field Curvature

Published Online: 11 Mar 2015
Page range: 52 - 57

Abstract

Abstract

One of the actual 3D measurement problems is the optical inspection of various holes. In this respect, the task of plane image formation of holes as extended 3D objects using optical methods turns out to be of primary importance. We have developed specialized lenses that perform such transformations due to specially increased aberrations (field curvature, astigmatism) for the formation of extended objects plane images. The calculations of the lens parameters are presented. The detail analysis of the imaging properties was carried out. The presented hole inspection lens has been designed, constructed and used for inspection of the fuel assembly spacer grids.

Keywords

  • Hole inspection lens
  • 3D imaging
  • field curvature
  • distortion
  • fuel assembly
  • spacer grid
8 Articles
access type Open Access

Examination of the Average Chipping Rate on the Edges of Milled Granite Surfaces

Published Online: 11 Mar 2015
Page range: 1 - 8

Abstract

Abstract

The research described in this article was carried out for the purpose of developing a quantitative marker for defining the average edge chipping rate of milled granite surfaces and for testing and proving whether this quantitative marker can effectively be applied. Another aim of the research was to test the applicability of the developed measurement method and the precision of the body representing the volume loss caused by chipping. The surface edges of the milled specimens were digitised using a laser scanner and chipped volumes were defined on the basis of a body generated with the help of a point cloud, and then the errors of the volumes produced by the evaluation-purpose software were examined using a digital microscope. The investigations proved that the proposed measurement method is accurate and that the replacement body defined through measurements appropriately approximates the volume of chippings in the case of milled granite surfaces.

Keywords

  • Granite
  • qualification
  • quantitative marker
  • edge chippings
  • milling
access type Open Access

Correction of Scanning Steps to Improve Accuracy in Interferometric Profilometer

Published Online: 11 Mar 2015
Page range: 9 - 12

Abstract

Abstract

In scanning interferometry of longitudinal shift, an uncertainty of required phase shift performance leads to a measurement error. Such uncertainty can be caused by external factors (vibrations, air turbulence in measuring area etc.) as well as inaccuracy of the scanning system. The method for calculating the phase shift between interferograms, which allows reducing the measurement error, is proposed. The results of numerical and full scale experiments are presented.

Keywords

  • Phase shifting interferometry
  • nanorelief measurement
  • measurement error
access type Open Access

Torque Measurement of 3-DOF Haptic Master Operated by Controllable Electrorheological Fluid

Published Online: 11 Mar 2015
Page range: 13 - 18

Abstract

Abstract

This work presents a torque measurement method of 3-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) haptic master featuring controllable electrorheological (ER) fluid. In order to reflect the sense of an organ for a surgeon, the ER haptic master which can generate the repulsive torque of an organ is utilized as a remote controller for a surgery robot. Since accurate representation of organ feeling is essential for the success of the robot-assisted surgery, it is indispensable to develop a proper torque measurement method of 3-DOF ER haptic master. After describing the structural configuration of the haptic master, the torque models of ER spherical joint are mathematically derived based on the Bingham model of ER fluid. A new type of haptic device which has pitching, rolling, and yawing motions is then designed and manufactured using a spherical joint mechanism. Subsequently, the field-dependent parameters of the Bingham model are identified and generating repulsive torque according to applied electric field is measured. In addition, in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed torque model, a comparative work between simulated and measured torques is undertaken.

Keywords

  • Torque measurement
  • haptic master
  • repulsive torque
  • Bingham model
  • torque model
access type Open Access

A Kalman Filter-Based Algorithm for Measuring the Parameters of Moving Objects

Published Online: 11 Mar 2015
Page range: 19 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

One of the most complex problems in measuring equipment is related to the provision of the required dynamic accuracy of measuring systems determining the parameters of moving objects. The present paper views an algorithm for improving the dynamic accuracy of such measuring systems. It is based on the Kalman method. The algorithm aims to eliminate the influence of a number of interference sources, each of which is of secondary significance. However, their total effect can cause considerable distortion of the measurement signal. The algorithm model is designed for gyro-free measuring systems. It is based on one of the most widely used elements in the dynamic systems, namely the physical pendulum, due to which measuring systems of high dynamic accuracy and low cost can be developed. The presented experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm with respect to the dynamic accuracy of measuring systems of this type.

Keywords

  • Kalman filter
  • dynamic error
  • gyro-free measuring system
  • roll
  • pitch
  • heel
  • trim
access type Open Access

Simulation and Measurements of Small Arms Blast Wave Overpressure in the Process of Designing a Silencer

Published Online: 11 Mar 2015
Page range: 27 - 34

Abstract

Abstract

Simulation and measurements of muzzle blast overpressure and its physical manifestations are studied in this paper. The use of a silencer can have a great influence on the overpressure intensity. A silencer is regarded as an acoustic transducer and a waveguide. Wave equations for an acoustic dotted source of directed effect are used for physical interpretation of overpressure as an acoustic phenomenon. Decomposition approach has proven to be suitable to describe the formation of the output wave of the wave transducer. Electroacoustic analogies are used for simulations. A measurement chain was used to compare the simulation results with the experimental ones.

Keywords

  • Overpressure
  • silencer
  • decomposition approach
  • wave propagation
  • dotted wave source
access type Open Access

Hidden Markov Model-based Pedestrian Navigation System using MEMS Inertial Sensors

Published Online: 11 Mar 2015
Page range: 35 - 43

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, a foot-mounted pedestrian navigation system using MEMS inertial sensors is implemented, where the zero-velocity detection is abstracted into a hidden Markov model with 4 states and 15 observations. Moreover, an observations extraction algorithm has been developed to extract observations from sensor outputs; sample sets are used to train and optimize the model parameters by the Baum-Welch algorithm. Finally, a navigation system is developed, and the performance of the pedestrian navigation system is evaluated using indoor and outdoor field tests, and the results show that position error is less than 3% of total distance travelled.

Keywords

  • Pedestrian navigation system
  • hidden Markov model
  • zero velocity detection
  • inertial sensors
access type Open Access

Analytical Modeling for the Grating Eddy Current Displacement Sensors

Published Online: 11 Mar 2015
Page range: 44 - 51

Abstract

Abstract

As a new type of displacement sensor, grating eddy current displacement sensor (GECDS) combines traditional eddy current sensors and grating structure in one. The GECDS performs a wide range displacement measurement without precision reduction. This paper proposes an analytical modeling approach for the GECDS. The solution model is established in the Cartesian coordinate system, and the solving domain is limited to finite extents by using the truncated region eigenfunction expansion method. Based on the second order vector potential, expressions for the electromagnetic field as well as coil impedance related to the displacement can be expressed in closed-form. Theoretical results are then confirmed by experiments, which prove the suitability and effectiveness of the analytical modeling approach.

Keywords

  • Grating eddy current sensor
  • analytical modeling
  • displacement measurement
access type Open Access

3D Hole Inspection Using Lens with High Field Curvature

Published Online: 11 Mar 2015
Page range: 52 - 57

Abstract

Abstract

One of the actual 3D measurement problems is the optical inspection of various holes. In this respect, the task of plane image formation of holes as extended 3D objects using optical methods turns out to be of primary importance. We have developed specialized lenses that perform such transformations due to specially increased aberrations (field curvature, astigmatism) for the formation of extended objects plane images. The calculations of the lens parameters are presented. The detail analysis of the imaging properties was carried out. The presented hole inspection lens has been designed, constructed and used for inspection of the fuel assembly spacer grids.

Keywords

  • Hole inspection lens
  • 3D imaging
  • field curvature
  • distortion
  • fuel assembly
  • spacer grid

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