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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 16 (2016): Issue 5 (October 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

Practical Aspects of Log-ratio Coordinate Representations in Regression with Compositional Response

Published Online: 26 Oct 2016
Page range: 235 - 243

Abstract

Abstract

Regression analysis with compositional response, observations carrying relative information, is an appropriate tool for statistical modelling in many scientific areas (e.g. medicine, geochemistry, geology, economics). Even though this technique has been recently intensively studied, there are still some practical aspects that deserve to be further analysed. Here we discuss the issue related to the coordinate representation of compositional data. It is shown that linear relation between particular orthonormal coordinates and centred log-ratio coordinates can be utilized to simplify the computation concerning regression parameters estimation and hypothesis testing. To enhance interpretation of regression parameters, the orthogonal coordinates and their relation with orthonormal and centred log-ratio coordinates are presented. Further we discuss the quality of prediction in different coordinate system. It is shown that the mean squared error (MSE) for orthonormal coordinates is less or equal to the MSE for log-transformed data. Finally, an illustrative real-world example from geology is presented.

Keywords

  • Orthonormal coordinates
  • centred -ratio coordinates
  • orthogonal coordinates
  • log-transformation
  • multivariate regression model
  • mean squared error
Open Access

A Method of m-Point Sinusoidal Signal Amplitude Estimation

Published Online: 26 Oct 2016
Page range: 244 - 253

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents a new and original method of m-point estimation of sinusoidal signal amplitude. In this method, an m-point estimator is calculated on the basis of m initial signal samples. The way the estimator is constructed is explained. It is shown that the starting point for constructing the estimator is two initial signal samples. Next, in order to determine the estimator general form, three and m subsequent initial signal samples appearing in a signal period are used. Some special cases of an estimator are considered. Such an estimator is compared with a four-point estimator proposed by Vizireanu and Halunga. It is shown that the m-point estimator makes it possible to estimate the signal amplitude more accurately.

Keywords

  • Sinusoidal signal
  • amplitude
  • three and four samples
  • estimator
  • maximum error
Open Access

Plastic Deformations of Measured Object Surface in Contact with Undeformable Surface of Measuring Tool

Published Online: 26 Oct 2016
Page range: 254 - 259

Abstract

Abstract

Measuring errors caused by deformation (flattening) of a measured object appear under the influence of pressure force and weight of the measured object. Plastic strain, arising at the contact of a measured object and an undeformable contact tip of a measuring device, can be calculated by applying the Hertz plastic solution and the hypothesis of plastic strain. In a small area of contact between two bodies pressing against one another with force F, there appears the so-called contact stress. It can sometime reach very high values, exceeding the yield point, even when the contact pressure is relatively small. In the present work, the authors describe a theoretical solution to the problem of plastic strain between two bodies. The derived relationships enable to calculate force F during measurements of a deformable object by means of an instrument with an undeformable, spherical measuring tip. By applying the τmax hypothesis, a solution was obtained for the force F in an inexplicit form. The theoretical solution was verified with the digital simulation and experimental measurement. With the FEM method, the limit length gage was modeled in interaction with the measured shaft of a diameter d larger than the nominal one of Δl value.

Keywords

  • Measuring deformation
  • contact plastic strain
  • contact pressure
Open Access

Efficiency of Innovative Charge Pump versus Clock Frequency and MOSFETs Sizes

Published Online: 26 Oct 2016
Page range: 260 - 265

Abstract

Abstract

Charge pumps are circuits that produce the voltage higher than supply voltage or negative voltage. Today, charge pumps became an integral part of the electronic equipment. The integration of charge pumps directly into the system allows manufacturers to feed a complex system with many specific power requirements from a single source. However, charge pump efficiency is reduced by many phenomena. This paper is focused on the question of efficiency of proposed variant of the charge pump. In this article, the efficiency dependence on a number of stages, output current, clock frequency and MOSFETs sizes was simulated by Eldo. The aim of this study is to determine the MOSFETs sizes and theirs influence to efficiency and the output voltage. Complex optimization of the charge pump circuit will follow in further text.

Keywords

  • 2-phase Charge Pump
  • non-volatile memory
  • efficiency
  • switch size determination
Open Access

Automatic Parameter Extraction Technique for MOS Structures by C-V Characterization Including the Effects of Interface States

Published Online: 26 Oct 2016
Page range: 266 - 272

Abstract

Abstract

An automatic MOS structure parameter extraction algorithm accounting for quantum effects has been developed and applied in the semiconductor device analyzer Agilent B1500A. Parameter extraction is based on matching the experimental C-V data with numerical modeling results. The algorithm is used to extract the parameters of test MOS structures with ultrathin gate dielectrics. The applicability of the algorithm for the determination of distribution function of DOS and finding the donor defect level in silicon is shown.

Keywords

  • C-V measurement
  • parameter extraction
  • interface states
  • quantum simulation
  • MOS
Open Access

Information Contents of a Signal at Repeated Positioning Measurements of the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) by Laser Interferometer

Published Online: 26 Oct 2016
Page range: 273 - 279

Abstract

Abstract

The input of this paper lies in displaying possibilities how to determine the condition of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) based on a large number of repeated measurements. The number of repeated measurements exceeds common requirements for determining positioning accuracy. The total offset in the accuracy of spatial positioning consists of partial inaccuracies of individual axes. 6 basic errors may be defined at each axis. In a triaxial set, that translates into 18 errors, to which an offset from the perpendicularity between the axial pairs must be added. Therefore, the combined number of errors in a single position is 21. These errors are systemic and stem from the machine’s geometry. In addition, there are accidental errors to account for as well. Accidental errors can be attributed to vibrations, mass inertness, passive resistance, and in part to fluctuations in temperature. A peculiar set of systemic errors are time-varying errors. The nature of those errors may be reversible, for instance if they result from influence of temperature or elastic deformation. They can be also irreversible, for example as a result of wear and tear or line clogging, due to loosened connection or permanent deformation of a part post collision. A demonstration of thermal equalizing of the machine’s parts may also be observed in case of failure to adhere to a sufficient time interval from the moment the air-conditioning is turned on. Repeated measurements done on a selected axis with linear interferometer can provide complex information on the CMM condition and also on the machine’s interaction with the given technical environment.

Keywords

  • Laser interferometer
  • CMM
  • machine’s condition
6 Articles
Open Access

Practical Aspects of Log-ratio Coordinate Representations in Regression with Compositional Response

Published Online: 26 Oct 2016
Page range: 235 - 243

Abstract

Abstract

Regression analysis with compositional response, observations carrying relative information, is an appropriate tool for statistical modelling in many scientific areas (e.g. medicine, geochemistry, geology, economics). Even though this technique has been recently intensively studied, there are still some practical aspects that deserve to be further analysed. Here we discuss the issue related to the coordinate representation of compositional data. It is shown that linear relation between particular orthonormal coordinates and centred log-ratio coordinates can be utilized to simplify the computation concerning regression parameters estimation and hypothesis testing. To enhance interpretation of regression parameters, the orthogonal coordinates and their relation with orthonormal and centred log-ratio coordinates are presented. Further we discuss the quality of prediction in different coordinate system. It is shown that the mean squared error (MSE) for orthonormal coordinates is less or equal to the MSE for log-transformed data. Finally, an illustrative real-world example from geology is presented.

Keywords

  • Orthonormal coordinates
  • centred -ratio coordinates
  • orthogonal coordinates
  • log-transformation
  • multivariate regression model
  • mean squared error
Open Access

A Method of m-Point Sinusoidal Signal Amplitude Estimation

Published Online: 26 Oct 2016
Page range: 244 - 253

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents a new and original method of m-point estimation of sinusoidal signal amplitude. In this method, an m-point estimator is calculated on the basis of m initial signal samples. The way the estimator is constructed is explained. It is shown that the starting point for constructing the estimator is two initial signal samples. Next, in order to determine the estimator general form, three and m subsequent initial signal samples appearing in a signal period are used. Some special cases of an estimator are considered. Such an estimator is compared with a four-point estimator proposed by Vizireanu and Halunga. It is shown that the m-point estimator makes it possible to estimate the signal amplitude more accurately.

Keywords

  • Sinusoidal signal
  • amplitude
  • three and four samples
  • estimator
  • maximum error
Open Access

Plastic Deformations of Measured Object Surface in Contact with Undeformable Surface of Measuring Tool

Published Online: 26 Oct 2016
Page range: 254 - 259

Abstract

Abstract

Measuring errors caused by deformation (flattening) of a measured object appear under the influence of pressure force and weight of the measured object. Plastic strain, arising at the contact of a measured object and an undeformable contact tip of a measuring device, can be calculated by applying the Hertz plastic solution and the hypothesis of plastic strain. In a small area of contact between two bodies pressing against one another with force F, there appears the so-called contact stress. It can sometime reach very high values, exceeding the yield point, even when the contact pressure is relatively small. In the present work, the authors describe a theoretical solution to the problem of plastic strain between two bodies. The derived relationships enable to calculate force F during measurements of a deformable object by means of an instrument with an undeformable, spherical measuring tip. By applying the τmax hypothesis, a solution was obtained for the force F in an inexplicit form. The theoretical solution was verified with the digital simulation and experimental measurement. With the FEM method, the limit length gage was modeled in interaction with the measured shaft of a diameter d larger than the nominal one of Δl value.

Keywords

  • Measuring deformation
  • contact plastic strain
  • contact pressure
Open Access

Efficiency of Innovative Charge Pump versus Clock Frequency and MOSFETs Sizes

Published Online: 26 Oct 2016
Page range: 260 - 265

Abstract

Abstract

Charge pumps are circuits that produce the voltage higher than supply voltage or negative voltage. Today, charge pumps became an integral part of the electronic equipment. The integration of charge pumps directly into the system allows manufacturers to feed a complex system with many specific power requirements from a single source. However, charge pump efficiency is reduced by many phenomena. This paper is focused on the question of efficiency of proposed variant of the charge pump. In this article, the efficiency dependence on a number of stages, output current, clock frequency and MOSFETs sizes was simulated by Eldo. The aim of this study is to determine the MOSFETs sizes and theirs influence to efficiency and the output voltage. Complex optimization of the charge pump circuit will follow in further text.

Keywords

  • 2-phase Charge Pump
  • non-volatile memory
  • efficiency
  • switch size determination
Open Access

Automatic Parameter Extraction Technique for MOS Structures by C-V Characterization Including the Effects of Interface States

Published Online: 26 Oct 2016
Page range: 266 - 272

Abstract

Abstract

An automatic MOS structure parameter extraction algorithm accounting for quantum effects has been developed and applied in the semiconductor device analyzer Agilent B1500A. Parameter extraction is based on matching the experimental C-V data with numerical modeling results. The algorithm is used to extract the parameters of test MOS structures with ultrathin gate dielectrics. The applicability of the algorithm for the determination of distribution function of DOS and finding the donor defect level in silicon is shown.

Keywords

  • C-V measurement
  • parameter extraction
  • interface states
  • quantum simulation
  • MOS
Open Access

Information Contents of a Signal at Repeated Positioning Measurements of the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) by Laser Interferometer

Published Online: 26 Oct 2016
Page range: 273 - 279

Abstract

Abstract

The input of this paper lies in displaying possibilities how to determine the condition of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) based on a large number of repeated measurements. The number of repeated measurements exceeds common requirements for determining positioning accuracy. The total offset in the accuracy of spatial positioning consists of partial inaccuracies of individual axes. 6 basic errors may be defined at each axis. In a triaxial set, that translates into 18 errors, to which an offset from the perpendicularity between the axial pairs must be added. Therefore, the combined number of errors in a single position is 21. These errors are systemic and stem from the machine’s geometry. In addition, there are accidental errors to account for as well. Accidental errors can be attributed to vibrations, mass inertness, passive resistance, and in part to fluctuations in temperature. A peculiar set of systemic errors are time-varying errors. The nature of those errors may be reversible, for instance if they result from influence of temperature or elastic deformation. They can be also irreversible, for example as a result of wear and tear or line clogging, due to loosened connection or permanent deformation of a part post collision. A demonstration of thermal equalizing of the machine’s parts may also be observed in case of failure to adhere to a sufficient time interval from the moment the air-conditioning is turned on. Repeated measurements done on a selected axis with linear interferometer can provide complex information on the CMM condition and also on the machine’s interaction with the given technical environment.

Keywords

  • Laser interferometer
  • CMM
  • machine’s condition

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