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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 8 (2008): Issue 6 (December 2008)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

4 Articles
access type Open Access

The Analytic Versus Representational Theory of Measurement: A Philosophy of Science Perspective: (Invited Article)

Published Online: 29 Dec 2008
Page range: 129 - 146

Abstract

The Analytic Versus Representational Theory of Measurement: A Philosophy of Science Perspective: (Invited Article)

In this paper we motivate and develop the analytic theory of measurement, in which autonomously specified algebras of quantities (together with the resources of mathematical analysis) are used as a unified mathematical framework for modeling (a) the time-dependent behavior of natural systems, (b) interactions between natural systems and measuring instruments, (c) error and uncertainty in measurement, and (d) the formal propositional language for describing and reasoning about measurement results. We also discuss how a celebrated theorem in analysis, known as Gelfand representation, guarantees that autonomously specified algebras of quantities can be interpreted as algebras of observables on a suitable state space. Such an interpretation is then used to support (i) a realist conception of quantities as objective characteristics of natural systems, and (ii) a realist conception of measurement results (evaluations of quantities) as determined by and descriptive of the states of a target natural system. As a way of motivating the analytic approach to measurement, we begin with a discussion of some serious philosophical and theoretical problems facing the well-known representational theory of measurement. We then explain why we consider the analytic approach, which avoids all these problems, to be far more attractive on both philosophical and theoretical grounds.

Keywords

  • Gelfand representation
  • quantity algebra
  • state space
  • observables
  • measuring process
  • quantity conversion
  • quantity restoration
access type Open Access

The Evaluation of Expanded Uncertainty of Measurement Results in Direct Measurements Using the LabVIEW Environment

Published Online: 29 Dec 2008
Page range: 147 - 150

Abstract

The Evaluation of Expanded Uncertainty of Measurement Results in Direct Measurements Using the LabVIEW Environment

The paper presents a possible application of integrated LabVIEW environment to the final evaluation of measurement results in direct measurement. The possibilities of presenting and visualizing the uncertainty of measurement results in a convenient and userfriendly form are also discussed. The topics presented in the paper were using the selected LabVIEW application.

Keywords

  • Expanded uncertainty
  • coverage factor
  • confidence interval
  • probability distribution
  • virtual instrument
access type Open Access

Uncertainty Estimation for the Determination of Ni, Pb and Al in Natural Water Samples by SPE-ICP-OES

Published Online: 29 Dec 2008
Page range: 151 - 157

Abstract

Uncertainty Estimation for the Determination of Ni, Pb and Al in Natural Water Samples by SPE-ICP-OES

In this paper we propose uncertainty estimation for the analytical results we obtained from determination of Ni, Pb and Al by solidphase extraction and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (SPE-ICP-OES). The procedure is based on the retention of analytes in the form of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) complexes on a mini column of XAD-4 resin and subsequent elution with nitric acid. The influence of various analytical parameters including the amount of solid phase, pH, elution factors (concentration and volume of eluting solution), volume of sample solution, and amount of ligand on the extraction efficiency of analytes was investigated. To estimate the uncertainty of analytical result obtained, we propose assessing trueness by employing spiked sample. Two types of bias are calculated in the assessment of trueness: a proportional bias and a constant bias. We applied Nested design for calculating proportional bias and Youden method to calculate the constant bias. The results we obtained for proportional bias are calculated from spiked samples. In this case, the concentration found is plotted against the concentration added and the slop of standard addition curve is an estimate of the method recovery. Estimated method of average recovery in Karaj river water is: (1.004±0.0085) for Ni, (0.999±0.010) for Pb and (0.987±0.008) for Al.

Keywords

  • Solid phase extraction
  • Amberlite XAD-4
  • inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES)
  • Uncertainty
access type Open Access

Automatic Apparatus for Simultaneous Measurement of Resistance and Inductance Temperature Transition Dependences of Superconductors

Published Online: 29 Dec 2008
Page range: 158 - 160

Abstract

Automatic Apparatus for Simultaneous Measurement of Resistance and Inductance Temperature Transition Dependences of Superconductors

An automatic measurement complex for the study of transition properties of HTc superconductors using the transport method of the measurement of the resistance temperature dependence and the contactless mutual inductance method of the measurement of temperature dependence of the induced voltage based on the Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect have been developed. In addition, temperature dependences of harmonic components of the induced voltage may be measured simultaneously using the Brüel & Kjaer signal analyzer. Results of transport and induced voltage measurements are compared using YBCO superconductors with distinct grain and intergrain properties prepared by different technological procedures. The question of the mutual compatibility of such methods is discussed.

Keywords

  • high-temperature superconductors
  • transition characteristics
  • resistance method
  • mutual inductance method
  • harmonic response
  • critical temperature
4 Articles
access type Open Access

The Analytic Versus Representational Theory of Measurement: A Philosophy of Science Perspective: (Invited Article)

Published Online: 29 Dec 2008
Page range: 129 - 146

Abstract

The Analytic Versus Representational Theory of Measurement: A Philosophy of Science Perspective: (Invited Article)

In this paper we motivate and develop the analytic theory of measurement, in which autonomously specified algebras of quantities (together with the resources of mathematical analysis) are used as a unified mathematical framework for modeling (a) the time-dependent behavior of natural systems, (b) interactions between natural systems and measuring instruments, (c) error and uncertainty in measurement, and (d) the formal propositional language for describing and reasoning about measurement results. We also discuss how a celebrated theorem in analysis, known as Gelfand representation, guarantees that autonomously specified algebras of quantities can be interpreted as algebras of observables on a suitable state space. Such an interpretation is then used to support (i) a realist conception of quantities as objective characteristics of natural systems, and (ii) a realist conception of measurement results (evaluations of quantities) as determined by and descriptive of the states of a target natural system. As a way of motivating the analytic approach to measurement, we begin with a discussion of some serious philosophical and theoretical problems facing the well-known representational theory of measurement. We then explain why we consider the analytic approach, which avoids all these problems, to be far more attractive on both philosophical and theoretical grounds.

Keywords

  • Gelfand representation
  • quantity algebra
  • state space
  • observables
  • measuring process
  • quantity conversion
  • quantity restoration
access type Open Access

The Evaluation of Expanded Uncertainty of Measurement Results in Direct Measurements Using the LabVIEW Environment

Published Online: 29 Dec 2008
Page range: 147 - 150

Abstract

The Evaluation of Expanded Uncertainty of Measurement Results in Direct Measurements Using the LabVIEW Environment

The paper presents a possible application of integrated LabVIEW environment to the final evaluation of measurement results in direct measurement. The possibilities of presenting and visualizing the uncertainty of measurement results in a convenient and userfriendly form are also discussed. The topics presented in the paper were using the selected LabVIEW application.

Keywords

  • Expanded uncertainty
  • coverage factor
  • confidence interval
  • probability distribution
  • virtual instrument
access type Open Access

Uncertainty Estimation for the Determination of Ni, Pb and Al in Natural Water Samples by SPE-ICP-OES

Published Online: 29 Dec 2008
Page range: 151 - 157

Abstract

Uncertainty Estimation for the Determination of Ni, Pb and Al in Natural Water Samples by SPE-ICP-OES

In this paper we propose uncertainty estimation for the analytical results we obtained from determination of Ni, Pb and Al by solidphase extraction and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (SPE-ICP-OES). The procedure is based on the retention of analytes in the form of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) complexes on a mini column of XAD-4 resin and subsequent elution with nitric acid. The influence of various analytical parameters including the amount of solid phase, pH, elution factors (concentration and volume of eluting solution), volume of sample solution, and amount of ligand on the extraction efficiency of analytes was investigated. To estimate the uncertainty of analytical result obtained, we propose assessing trueness by employing spiked sample. Two types of bias are calculated in the assessment of trueness: a proportional bias and a constant bias. We applied Nested design for calculating proportional bias and Youden method to calculate the constant bias. The results we obtained for proportional bias are calculated from spiked samples. In this case, the concentration found is plotted against the concentration added and the slop of standard addition curve is an estimate of the method recovery. Estimated method of average recovery in Karaj river water is: (1.004±0.0085) for Ni, (0.999±0.010) for Pb and (0.987±0.008) for Al.

Keywords

  • Solid phase extraction
  • Amberlite XAD-4
  • inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES)
  • Uncertainty
access type Open Access

Automatic Apparatus for Simultaneous Measurement of Resistance and Inductance Temperature Transition Dependences of Superconductors

Published Online: 29 Dec 2008
Page range: 158 - 160

Abstract

Automatic Apparatus for Simultaneous Measurement of Resistance and Inductance Temperature Transition Dependences of Superconductors

An automatic measurement complex for the study of transition properties of HTc superconductors using the transport method of the measurement of the resistance temperature dependence and the contactless mutual inductance method of the measurement of temperature dependence of the induced voltage based on the Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect have been developed. In addition, temperature dependences of harmonic components of the induced voltage may be measured simultaneously using the Brüel & Kjaer signal analyzer. Results of transport and induced voltage measurements are compared using YBCO superconductors with distinct grain and intergrain properties prepared by different technological procedures. The question of the mutual compatibility of such methods is discussed.

Keywords

  • high-temperature superconductors
  • transition characteristics
  • resistance method
  • mutual inductance method
  • harmonic response
  • critical temperature

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