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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 1 (February 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

9 Articles
access type Open Access

A Proposal for Simplifying the Method of Evaluation of Uncertainties in Measurement Results

Published Online: 09 Feb 2013
Page range: 1 - 6

Abstract

Abstract

The paper deals with the innovative ways of nonstandard, simplifying applications of the valid method for evaluating uncertainties in measurement results and with the definition of conditions of their usability. The evaluation of a substitute criterion for measurement accuracy by means of a relative difference between the measurand and its reference value is proposed. This nonstandard relative uncertainty is comparable with the overall relative standard uncertainty in the measurement result, and thus the evaluation of it enables other simplifications in the calculations of measurement result uncertainties. The use of the simplified evaluation of measurement results is illustrated in two experiments in measurement of the coefficient of thermal conductivity of an insulating material newly developed for the needs of building practice, namely measurement using commercial instruments, and measurement using a newly developed original measuring instrument.

Keywords

  • Measurements
  • relative nonstandard uncertainty
  • verification
access type Open Access

Artifact Removal from Biosignal using Fixed Point ICA Algorithm for Pre-processing in Biometric Recognition

Published Online: 09 Feb 2013
Page range: 7 - 11

Abstract

Abstract

In the modern world of automation, biological signals, especially Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Electrocardiogram (ECG), are gaining wide attention as a source of biometric information. Earlier studies have shown that EEG and ECG show versatility with individuals and every individual has distinct EEG and ECG spectrum. EEG (which can be recorded from the scalp due to the effect of millions of neurons) may contain noise signals such as eye blink, eye movement, muscular movement, line noise, etc. Similarly, ECG may contain artifact like line noise, tremor artifacts, baseline wandering, etc. These noise signals are required to be separated from the EEG and ECG signals to obtain the accurate results. This paper proposes a technique for the removal of eye blink artifact from EEG and ECG signal using fixed point or FastICA algorithm of Independent Component Analysis (ICA). For validation, FastICA algorithm has been applied to synthetic signal prepared by adding random noise to the Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. FastICA algorithm separates the signal into two independent components, i.e. ECG pure and artifact signal. Similarly, the same algorithm has been applied to remove the artifacts (Electrooculogram or eye blink) from the EEG signal.

Keywords

  • Independent component analysis
  • electroencephalogram
  • electrocardiogram
  • electrooculogram
access type Open Access

Determination of Optimal Technological Parameters of a Compaction Process: Case Study

Published Online: 09 Feb 2013
Page range: 12 - 19

Abstract

Abstract

Pelletizing as a complicated compaction process is under continuous improvement. One of the problems - determination of optimal technological parameters to attain a sufficiently high density of pellets - is solved in this paper. The statistical model of density depending on four technological factors is built based on data obtained through a central composite design. Canonical analysis is used to find the stationary point, and as the received point is a saddle point, the optimal setting is determined by means of ridge analysis. Special attention is paid to the uncertainty associated with the indirect measurement of the pellet density. Substantial differences in the density exist between pellets created under the same conditions, and especially the type-A uncertainty must be taken into consideration

Keywords

  • Central composite design
  • response surface methodology
  • ridge analysis
  • measurement uncertainties
  • pressing process
access type Open Access

Development of the Vortex Mass Flowmeter with Wall Pressure Measurement

Published Online: 09 Feb 2013
Page range: 20 - 24

Abstract

Abstract

Mass flow measurement is essential to the understanding and control of processes concerning fluid flow. The availability of reliable mass flowmeters, however, is far inadequate to meet the demand. In this paper we developed a practical vortex mass flowmeter with wall pressure measurement. The meter coefficient of mass flow rate was acquired through experiments with air at Reynolds numbers from 1.3×103 to 9.8×103. Here we show that the meter coefficient of mass flow rate is nearly constant at Reynolds numbers greater than 5.5×103. To further extend the lower limit, a correction factor related to the Reynolds number was introduced into the vortex mass flowmeter. The results show that the relative errors of the vortex mass flowmeter developed are basically within ±5%. This device can satisfy a diversity of requirements of mass flow measurement in engineering fields.

Keywords

  • Mass flow measurement
  • vortex mass flowmeter
  • vortex shedding
  • wall pressure
  • meter coefficient of mass flow rate
  • correction factor
access type Open Access

Non-Destructive Detection of Rebar Buried in a Reinforced Concrete Wall with Wireless Passive SAW Sensor

Published Online: 09 Feb 2013
Page range: 25 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

In order to reduce the damage to the old reinforced concrete walls and work out the best construction scheme during the renovation of old buildings, it is often required to detect the position of rebar buried in concrete walls. In this paper, we propose a non-destructive method to detect the buried rebar by self-inductive sensor combined with surface acoustic wave resonator (SAWR). The proposed method has the advantages of wireless, passive and convenient operations. In our new design, the sensing element of self-inductance coil was made as a component of SAWR matching network. The distribution of rebar could be measured according to the system resonant frequency, using a signal demodulation device set. The depth of buried rebar and the deviation of output resonant frequency from inherent frequency of SAWR have an inverse relation. Finally, the validity of the method was verified in theoretical calculation and simulation.

Keywords

  • Reinforced concrete
  • rebar detection
  • passive wireless
  • non-destructive detection
  • surface acoustic wave resonator
access type Open Access

Setup for Triggering Force Testing of Touch Probes for CNC Machine Tools and CMMs

Published Online: 09 Feb 2013
Page range: 29 - 33

Abstract

Abstract

Touch-trigger probes are commonly used both in coordinate measuring machines (CMM) and in computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools. In both cases accuracy of measurement of the overall system and probing unit are closely interrelated. Key parameters of the probes are repeatability and pre-travel variation dependent on adjustable stylus force. To enable testing of the triggering force of the probes, the new setup was developed. The principle of the method and set-up is presented and its validity is experimentally confirmed.

Keywords

  • Triggering force
  • touch-trigger probe
  • coordinate measuring machines
  • on-machine measurement
access type Open Access

Projectile Two-dimensional Coordinate Measurement Method Based on Optical Fiber Coding Fire and its Coordinate Distribution Probability

Published Online: 09 Feb 2013
Page range: 34 - 38

Abstract

Abstract

To improve projectile coordinate measurement precision in fire measurement system, this paper introduces the optical fiber coding fire measurement method and principle, sets up their measurement model, and analyzes coordinate errors by using the differential method. To study the projectile coordinate position distribution, using the mathematical statistics hypothesis method to analyze their distributing law, firing dispersion and probability of projectile shooting the object center were put under study. The results show that exponential distribution testing is relatively reasonable to ensure projectile position distribution on the given significance level. Through experimentation and calculation, the optical fiber coding fire measurement method is scientific and feasible, which can gain accurate projectile coordinate position.

Keywords

  • Optical fiber coding fire
  • projectile
  • firing coordinate
  • mathematical statistics
  • distributing probability
access type Open Access

Research on Air Flow Measurement and Optimization of Control Algorithm in Air Disinfection System

Published Online: 09 Feb 2013
Page range: 39 - 44

Abstract

Abstract

As the air flow control system has the characteristics of delay and uncertainty, this research designed and achieved a practical air flow control system by using the hydrodynamic theory and the modern control theory. Firstly, the mathematical model of the air flow distribution of the system is analyzed from the hydrodynamics perspective. Then the model of the system is transformed into a lumped parameter state space expression by using the Galerkin method. Finally, the air flow is distributed more evenly through the estimation of the system state and optimal control. The simulation results show that this algorithm has good robustness and anti-interference ability

Keywords

  • Wind surface control
  • hydrodynamics
  • Galerkin method
  • optimal control
access type Open Access

A Method for Monitoring the Underground Mining Position Based on the Blasting Source Location

Published Online: 09 Feb 2013
Page range: 45 - 49

Abstract

Abstract

Some small and medium-sized coal mines are mining beyond their mining boundary driven by profit. The illegal activities cause many mine disasters but effective supervision is very hard to achieve, especially for underground coal mining. Nowadays, artificial blasting operation is widely used in tunneling or mining in small and medium-sized coal mines. A method for monitoring the underground mining position by monitoring the blasting source position is firstly introduced in this paper. The blasting vibration waves are picked up by the detectors and dealt by the signal acquisition sub-station, and then sent to the principal computer. The blasting source is located by the principal computer and displayed in the mine’s electronic map. The blasting source position is located in 10 seconds after the first P wave reaching the detector, whose error is registered within 20 meters by field-proven method. Auto-monitoring of the underground mining position in real-time is solved better and management level is improved using this method.

Keywords

  • Blasting vibration wave
  • real-time monitoring
  • underground mining positioning
  • blasting source location
9 Articles
access type Open Access

A Proposal for Simplifying the Method of Evaluation of Uncertainties in Measurement Results

Published Online: 09 Feb 2013
Page range: 1 - 6

Abstract

Abstract

The paper deals with the innovative ways of nonstandard, simplifying applications of the valid method for evaluating uncertainties in measurement results and with the definition of conditions of their usability. The evaluation of a substitute criterion for measurement accuracy by means of a relative difference between the measurand and its reference value is proposed. This nonstandard relative uncertainty is comparable with the overall relative standard uncertainty in the measurement result, and thus the evaluation of it enables other simplifications in the calculations of measurement result uncertainties. The use of the simplified evaluation of measurement results is illustrated in two experiments in measurement of the coefficient of thermal conductivity of an insulating material newly developed for the needs of building practice, namely measurement using commercial instruments, and measurement using a newly developed original measuring instrument.

Keywords

  • Measurements
  • relative nonstandard uncertainty
  • verification
access type Open Access

Artifact Removal from Biosignal using Fixed Point ICA Algorithm for Pre-processing in Biometric Recognition

Published Online: 09 Feb 2013
Page range: 7 - 11

Abstract

Abstract

In the modern world of automation, biological signals, especially Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Electrocardiogram (ECG), are gaining wide attention as a source of biometric information. Earlier studies have shown that EEG and ECG show versatility with individuals and every individual has distinct EEG and ECG spectrum. EEG (which can be recorded from the scalp due to the effect of millions of neurons) may contain noise signals such as eye blink, eye movement, muscular movement, line noise, etc. Similarly, ECG may contain artifact like line noise, tremor artifacts, baseline wandering, etc. These noise signals are required to be separated from the EEG and ECG signals to obtain the accurate results. This paper proposes a technique for the removal of eye blink artifact from EEG and ECG signal using fixed point or FastICA algorithm of Independent Component Analysis (ICA). For validation, FastICA algorithm has been applied to synthetic signal prepared by adding random noise to the Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. FastICA algorithm separates the signal into two independent components, i.e. ECG pure and artifact signal. Similarly, the same algorithm has been applied to remove the artifacts (Electrooculogram or eye blink) from the EEG signal.

Keywords

  • Independent component analysis
  • electroencephalogram
  • electrocardiogram
  • electrooculogram
access type Open Access

Determination of Optimal Technological Parameters of a Compaction Process: Case Study

Published Online: 09 Feb 2013
Page range: 12 - 19

Abstract

Abstract

Pelletizing as a complicated compaction process is under continuous improvement. One of the problems - determination of optimal technological parameters to attain a sufficiently high density of pellets - is solved in this paper. The statistical model of density depending on four technological factors is built based on data obtained through a central composite design. Canonical analysis is used to find the stationary point, and as the received point is a saddle point, the optimal setting is determined by means of ridge analysis. Special attention is paid to the uncertainty associated with the indirect measurement of the pellet density. Substantial differences in the density exist between pellets created under the same conditions, and especially the type-A uncertainty must be taken into consideration

Keywords

  • Central composite design
  • response surface methodology
  • ridge analysis
  • measurement uncertainties
  • pressing process
access type Open Access

Development of the Vortex Mass Flowmeter with Wall Pressure Measurement

Published Online: 09 Feb 2013
Page range: 20 - 24

Abstract

Abstract

Mass flow measurement is essential to the understanding and control of processes concerning fluid flow. The availability of reliable mass flowmeters, however, is far inadequate to meet the demand. In this paper we developed a practical vortex mass flowmeter with wall pressure measurement. The meter coefficient of mass flow rate was acquired through experiments with air at Reynolds numbers from 1.3×103 to 9.8×103. Here we show that the meter coefficient of mass flow rate is nearly constant at Reynolds numbers greater than 5.5×103. To further extend the lower limit, a correction factor related to the Reynolds number was introduced into the vortex mass flowmeter. The results show that the relative errors of the vortex mass flowmeter developed are basically within ±5%. This device can satisfy a diversity of requirements of mass flow measurement in engineering fields.

Keywords

  • Mass flow measurement
  • vortex mass flowmeter
  • vortex shedding
  • wall pressure
  • meter coefficient of mass flow rate
  • correction factor
access type Open Access

Non-Destructive Detection of Rebar Buried in a Reinforced Concrete Wall with Wireless Passive SAW Sensor

Published Online: 09 Feb 2013
Page range: 25 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

In order to reduce the damage to the old reinforced concrete walls and work out the best construction scheme during the renovation of old buildings, it is often required to detect the position of rebar buried in concrete walls. In this paper, we propose a non-destructive method to detect the buried rebar by self-inductive sensor combined with surface acoustic wave resonator (SAWR). The proposed method has the advantages of wireless, passive and convenient operations. In our new design, the sensing element of self-inductance coil was made as a component of SAWR matching network. The distribution of rebar could be measured according to the system resonant frequency, using a signal demodulation device set. The depth of buried rebar and the deviation of output resonant frequency from inherent frequency of SAWR have an inverse relation. Finally, the validity of the method was verified in theoretical calculation and simulation.

Keywords

  • Reinforced concrete
  • rebar detection
  • passive wireless
  • non-destructive detection
  • surface acoustic wave resonator
access type Open Access

Setup for Triggering Force Testing of Touch Probes for CNC Machine Tools and CMMs

Published Online: 09 Feb 2013
Page range: 29 - 33

Abstract

Abstract

Touch-trigger probes are commonly used both in coordinate measuring machines (CMM) and in computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools. In both cases accuracy of measurement of the overall system and probing unit are closely interrelated. Key parameters of the probes are repeatability and pre-travel variation dependent on adjustable stylus force. To enable testing of the triggering force of the probes, the new setup was developed. The principle of the method and set-up is presented and its validity is experimentally confirmed.

Keywords

  • Triggering force
  • touch-trigger probe
  • coordinate measuring machines
  • on-machine measurement
access type Open Access

Projectile Two-dimensional Coordinate Measurement Method Based on Optical Fiber Coding Fire and its Coordinate Distribution Probability

Published Online: 09 Feb 2013
Page range: 34 - 38

Abstract

Abstract

To improve projectile coordinate measurement precision in fire measurement system, this paper introduces the optical fiber coding fire measurement method and principle, sets up their measurement model, and analyzes coordinate errors by using the differential method. To study the projectile coordinate position distribution, using the mathematical statistics hypothesis method to analyze their distributing law, firing dispersion and probability of projectile shooting the object center were put under study. The results show that exponential distribution testing is relatively reasonable to ensure projectile position distribution on the given significance level. Through experimentation and calculation, the optical fiber coding fire measurement method is scientific and feasible, which can gain accurate projectile coordinate position.

Keywords

  • Optical fiber coding fire
  • projectile
  • firing coordinate
  • mathematical statistics
  • distributing probability
access type Open Access

Research on Air Flow Measurement and Optimization of Control Algorithm in Air Disinfection System

Published Online: 09 Feb 2013
Page range: 39 - 44

Abstract

Abstract

As the air flow control system has the characteristics of delay and uncertainty, this research designed and achieved a practical air flow control system by using the hydrodynamic theory and the modern control theory. Firstly, the mathematical model of the air flow distribution of the system is analyzed from the hydrodynamics perspective. Then the model of the system is transformed into a lumped parameter state space expression by using the Galerkin method. Finally, the air flow is distributed more evenly through the estimation of the system state and optimal control. The simulation results show that this algorithm has good robustness and anti-interference ability

Keywords

  • Wind surface control
  • hydrodynamics
  • Galerkin method
  • optimal control
access type Open Access

A Method for Monitoring the Underground Mining Position Based on the Blasting Source Location

Published Online: 09 Feb 2013
Page range: 45 - 49

Abstract

Abstract

Some small and medium-sized coal mines are mining beyond their mining boundary driven by profit. The illegal activities cause many mine disasters but effective supervision is very hard to achieve, especially for underground coal mining. Nowadays, artificial blasting operation is widely used in tunneling or mining in small and medium-sized coal mines. A method for monitoring the underground mining position by monitoring the blasting source position is firstly introduced in this paper. The blasting vibration waves are picked up by the detectors and dealt by the signal acquisition sub-station, and then sent to the principal computer. The blasting source is located by the principal computer and displayed in the mine’s electronic map. The blasting source position is located in 10 seconds after the first P wave reaching the detector, whose error is registered within 20 meters by field-proven method. Auto-monitoring of the underground mining position in real-time is solved better and management level is improved using this method.

Keywords

  • Blasting vibration wave
  • real-time monitoring
  • underground mining positioning
  • blasting source location

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