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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 22 (2022): Issue 4 (August 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

On Angular Measures in Axiomatic Euclidean Planar Geometry

Published Online: 14 May 2022
Page range: 152 - 159

Abstract

Abstract

We address the issue of angular measure, which is a contested issue for the International System of Units (SI). We provide a mathematically rigorous and axiomatic presentation of angular measure that leads to the traditional way of measuring a plane angle subtended by a circular arc as the length of the arc divided by the radius of the arc, a scalar quantity. We distinguish between the angular magnitude, defined in terms of congruence classes of angles, and the (numerical) angular measure that can be assigned to each congruence class in such a way that, e.g., the right angle has the numerical value π2 {\pi \over 2} . We argue that angles are intrinsically different from lengths, as there are angles of special significance (such as the right angle, or the straight angle), while there is no distinguished length in Euclidean geometry. This is further underlined by the observation that, while units such as the metre and kilogram have been refined over time due to advances in metrology, no such refinement of the radian is conceivable. It is a mathematically defined unit, set in stone for eternity. We conclude that angular measures are numbers, and the current definition in SI should remain unaltered.

Keywords

  • Angle magnitude
  • Euclidean geometry
  • radians
  • International System of Units
  • SI units
Open Access

Comparison of GUM and Monte Carlo Methods for Measurement Uncertainty Estimation of the Energy Performance Measurements of Gas Stoves

Published Online: 14 May 2022
Page range: 160 - 169

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the comparison of uncertainty measurement estimations of the energy performances of gas stoves. The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) framework and two Monte Carlo Simulation (MCM) approaches: ordinary and adaptive MCM were applied for the energy performance uncertainty: thermal energy and efficiency measurement uncertainties. The validation of the two MCMs is performed by comparing the MCM estimations to the GUM estimations for the thermal energy and efficiency measurement results. A test method designed in Indonesia National Standard SNI 7368:2011 was employed for the thermal energy and efficiency determinations. The results of the GUM and two MCM methods are in good agreement for the estimation of the thermal energy value. Significant differences of the uncertainty estimations for the thermal energy and efficiency results are observed for both GUM and MCM methods. Both the ordinary and adaptive MCM estimations give larger coverage interval compared to the GUM method. The adaptive MCM can give similar estimations with a much lower number of iterations compared to the ordinary MCM. From the estimation difference between the GUM and MCM methods, suggestions are needed for the improvement in measurement models for thermal energy and efficiency of the standard.

Keywords

  • measurement uncertainty
  • national standard
  • GUM framework
  • Monte Carlo
  • thermal energy
  • efficiency
Open Access

Estimation of Energy Meter Accuracy using Remote Non-invasive Observation

Published Online: 14 May 2022
Page range: 170 - 176

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents an error analysis of the estimation of energy meter correction factor (CF) using a remote non-invasive technique. A method of the CF estimation based on the comparison of synchronously detected power steps in power consumption profiles of meter under test and reference meter is elaborated. The dependence of meter CF estimation uncertainty upon the magnitude of power steps, the number of power steps per observation interval, and the number of meters under test monitored by one reference meter is approximated. The synthesized consumer active power profiles are used to obtain training data points that are fit by these approximating equations.

Keywords

  • Energy meter
  • accuracy
  • remote and non-invasive observation
Open Access

Stacked Auto-encoder Based Feature Transfer Learning and Optimized LSSVM-PSO Classifier in Bearing Fault Diagnosis

Published Online: 14 May 2022
Page range: 177 - 186

Abstract

Abstract

This paper proposes a new diagnosis technique for predicting the big data of roller bearing multi-level fault, which uses the deep learning method for the feature representation of the vibration signal and an optimized machine learning model. First, vibration feature extraction by stacked auto-encoders (VFE-SAE) with two layers in roller bearing fault signals is proposed. The unsupervised learning algorithm in VFE-SAE is used to reveal significant properties in the vibration data, such as nonlinear and non-stationary properties. The extracted features can provide good discriminability for fault diagnosis tasks. Second, a classifier model is optimized based on least squares support vector machine classification and particle swarm optimization (LSSVM-PSO). This model is used to perform supervised fine-tuning and classification; it is trained with the labelled features to identify the target data. Especially, using transfer learning, the performance of the bearing fault diagnosis technique can be fine-tuned. In other words, the features of the target vibration signal can be extracted by the learning of feature representation, which is dependent on the weight matrix of hidden layers of the VFE-SAE method. The experimental results (by analyzing the roller bearing vibration signals with multi-status fault) demonstrate that VFE-SAE based feature extraction in conjunction with the LSSVM-PSO classification is more accurate than other popular classifier models. The proposed VFE-SAE – LSSVMPSO method can effectively diagnose bearing faults with 97.76 % accuracy, even when using 80 % of the target data.

Keywords

  • Multi-level fault
  • SAE transfer learning
  • vibration feature
  • deep learning
  • LSSVM-PSO classifier model
Open Access

Deep Learning Measurement Model to Segment the Nuchal Translucency Region for the Early Identification of Down Syndrome

Published Online: 14 May 2022
Page range: 187 - 192

Abstract

Abstract

Down syndrome (DS) or Trisomy 21 is a genetic disorder that causes intellectual and mental disability in fetuses. The most essential marker for detecting DS during the first trimester of pregnancy is nuchal translucency (NT). Effective segmentation of the NT contour from the ultrasound (US) images becomes challenging due to the presence of speckle noise and weak edges. This study presents a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based SegNet model using a Visual Geometry Group (VGG-16) for semantically segmenting the NT region from the US fetal images and providing a fast and affordable diagnosis during the early stages of gestation. A transfer learning approach using AlexNet is implemented to train the NT segmented regions for the identification of DS. The proposed model achieved a Jaccard index of 0.96 and classification accuracy of 91.7 %, sensitivity of 85.7 %, and a Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of 0.95.

Keywords

  • Fetus
  • Down syndrome
  • Nuchal translucency
  • Deep neural network
  • convolution
  • SegNet
Open Access

Integrated Sensing and Computing for Wearable Human Activity Recognition with MEMS IMU and BLE Network

Published Online: 14 May 2022
Page range: 193 - 201

Abstract

Abstract

The miniature sensor devices and power-efficient Body Area Networks (BANs) for Human Activity Recognition (HAR) have gained increasing interest in different fields, including Daily Life Assistants (DLAs), medical treatment, sports analysis, etc. The HAR systems normally collect data with wearable sensors and implement the computational tasks with a host machine, where real-time transmission and processing of sensor data raise a challenge for both the network and the host machine. This investigation focuses on the hardware/software co-design for optimized sensing and computing of wearable HAR sensor networks. The contributions include (1) design of a miniature wearable sensor node integrating a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS IMU) with a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) in-built Micro-Control Unit (MCU) for unobtrusive wearable sensing; (2) task-centric optimization of the computation by shifting data pre-processing and feature extraction to sensor nodes for in-situ computing, which reduces data transmission and relieves the load of the host machine; (3) optimization and evaluation of classification algorithms Particle Swarm Optimization-based Support Vector Machine (PSO-SVM) and Cross Validation-based K-Nearest Neighbors (CV-KNN) for HAR with the presented techniques. Finally, experimental studies were conducted with two sensor nodes worn on the wrist and elbow to verify the effectiveness of the recognition of 10 virtual handwriting activities, where 10 recruited participants each repeated an activity 5 times. The results demonstrate that the proposed system can implement HAR tasks effectively with an accuracy of 99.20 %.

Keywords

  • Integrated sensing and computing
  • Human Activity Recognition (HAR)
  • Body Area Networks (BANs)
  • Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS IMU)
  • Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
6 Articles
Open Access

On Angular Measures in Axiomatic Euclidean Planar Geometry

Published Online: 14 May 2022
Page range: 152 - 159

Abstract

Abstract

We address the issue of angular measure, which is a contested issue for the International System of Units (SI). We provide a mathematically rigorous and axiomatic presentation of angular measure that leads to the traditional way of measuring a plane angle subtended by a circular arc as the length of the arc divided by the radius of the arc, a scalar quantity. We distinguish between the angular magnitude, defined in terms of congruence classes of angles, and the (numerical) angular measure that can be assigned to each congruence class in such a way that, e.g., the right angle has the numerical value π2 {\pi \over 2} . We argue that angles are intrinsically different from lengths, as there are angles of special significance (such as the right angle, or the straight angle), while there is no distinguished length in Euclidean geometry. This is further underlined by the observation that, while units such as the metre and kilogram have been refined over time due to advances in metrology, no such refinement of the radian is conceivable. It is a mathematically defined unit, set in stone for eternity. We conclude that angular measures are numbers, and the current definition in SI should remain unaltered.

Keywords

  • Angle magnitude
  • Euclidean geometry
  • radians
  • International System of Units
  • SI units
Open Access

Comparison of GUM and Monte Carlo Methods for Measurement Uncertainty Estimation of the Energy Performance Measurements of Gas Stoves

Published Online: 14 May 2022
Page range: 160 - 169

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the comparison of uncertainty measurement estimations of the energy performances of gas stoves. The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) framework and two Monte Carlo Simulation (MCM) approaches: ordinary and adaptive MCM were applied for the energy performance uncertainty: thermal energy and efficiency measurement uncertainties. The validation of the two MCMs is performed by comparing the MCM estimations to the GUM estimations for the thermal energy and efficiency measurement results. A test method designed in Indonesia National Standard SNI 7368:2011 was employed for the thermal energy and efficiency determinations. The results of the GUM and two MCM methods are in good agreement for the estimation of the thermal energy value. Significant differences of the uncertainty estimations for the thermal energy and efficiency results are observed for both GUM and MCM methods. Both the ordinary and adaptive MCM estimations give larger coverage interval compared to the GUM method. The adaptive MCM can give similar estimations with a much lower number of iterations compared to the ordinary MCM. From the estimation difference between the GUM and MCM methods, suggestions are needed for the improvement in measurement models for thermal energy and efficiency of the standard.

Keywords

  • measurement uncertainty
  • national standard
  • GUM framework
  • Monte Carlo
  • thermal energy
  • efficiency
Open Access

Estimation of Energy Meter Accuracy using Remote Non-invasive Observation

Published Online: 14 May 2022
Page range: 170 - 176

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents an error analysis of the estimation of energy meter correction factor (CF) using a remote non-invasive technique. A method of the CF estimation based on the comparison of synchronously detected power steps in power consumption profiles of meter under test and reference meter is elaborated. The dependence of meter CF estimation uncertainty upon the magnitude of power steps, the number of power steps per observation interval, and the number of meters under test monitored by one reference meter is approximated. The synthesized consumer active power profiles are used to obtain training data points that are fit by these approximating equations.

Keywords

  • Energy meter
  • accuracy
  • remote and non-invasive observation
Open Access

Stacked Auto-encoder Based Feature Transfer Learning and Optimized LSSVM-PSO Classifier in Bearing Fault Diagnosis

Published Online: 14 May 2022
Page range: 177 - 186

Abstract

Abstract

This paper proposes a new diagnosis technique for predicting the big data of roller bearing multi-level fault, which uses the deep learning method for the feature representation of the vibration signal and an optimized machine learning model. First, vibration feature extraction by stacked auto-encoders (VFE-SAE) with two layers in roller bearing fault signals is proposed. The unsupervised learning algorithm in VFE-SAE is used to reveal significant properties in the vibration data, such as nonlinear and non-stationary properties. The extracted features can provide good discriminability for fault diagnosis tasks. Second, a classifier model is optimized based on least squares support vector machine classification and particle swarm optimization (LSSVM-PSO). This model is used to perform supervised fine-tuning and classification; it is trained with the labelled features to identify the target data. Especially, using transfer learning, the performance of the bearing fault diagnosis technique can be fine-tuned. In other words, the features of the target vibration signal can be extracted by the learning of feature representation, which is dependent on the weight matrix of hidden layers of the VFE-SAE method. The experimental results (by analyzing the roller bearing vibration signals with multi-status fault) demonstrate that VFE-SAE based feature extraction in conjunction with the LSSVM-PSO classification is more accurate than other popular classifier models. The proposed VFE-SAE – LSSVMPSO method can effectively diagnose bearing faults with 97.76 % accuracy, even when using 80 % of the target data.

Keywords

  • Multi-level fault
  • SAE transfer learning
  • vibration feature
  • deep learning
  • LSSVM-PSO classifier model
Open Access

Deep Learning Measurement Model to Segment the Nuchal Translucency Region for the Early Identification of Down Syndrome

Published Online: 14 May 2022
Page range: 187 - 192

Abstract

Abstract

Down syndrome (DS) or Trisomy 21 is a genetic disorder that causes intellectual and mental disability in fetuses. The most essential marker for detecting DS during the first trimester of pregnancy is nuchal translucency (NT). Effective segmentation of the NT contour from the ultrasound (US) images becomes challenging due to the presence of speckle noise and weak edges. This study presents a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based SegNet model using a Visual Geometry Group (VGG-16) for semantically segmenting the NT region from the US fetal images and providing a fast and affordable diagnosis during the early stages of gestation. A transfer learning approach using AlexNet is implemented to train the NT segmented regions for the identification of DS. The proposed model achieved a Jaccard index of 0.96 and classification accuracy of 91.7 %, sensitivity of 85.7 %, and a Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of 0.95.

Keywords

  • Fetus
  • Down syndrome
  • Nuchal translucency
  • Deep neural network
  • convolution
  • SegNet
Open Access

Integrated Sensing and Computing for Wearable Human Activity Recognition with MEMS IMU and BLE Network

Published Online: 14 May 2022
Page range: 193 - 201

Abstract

Abstract

The miniature sensor devices and power-efficient Body Area Networks (BANs) for Human Activity Recognition (HAR) have gained increasing interest in different fields, including Daily Life Assistants (DLAs), medical treatment, sports analysis, etc. The HAR systems normally collect data with wearable sensors and implement the computational tasks with a host machine, where real-time transmission and processing of sensor data raise a challenge for both the network and the host machine. This investigation focuses on the hardware/software co-design for optimized sensing and computing of wearable HAR sensor networks. The contributions include (1) design of a miniature wearable sensor node integrating a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS IMU) with a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) in-built Micro-Control Unit (MCU) for unobtrusive wearable sensing; (2) task-centric optimization of the computation by shifting data pre-processing and feature extraction to sensor nodes for in-situ computing, which reduces data transmission and relieves the load of the host machine; (3) optimization and evaluation of classification algorithms Particle Swarm Optimization-based Support Vector Machine (PSO-SVM) and Cross Validation-based K-Nearest Neighbors (CV-KNN) for HAR with the presented techniques. Finally, experimental studies were conducted with two sensor nodes worn on the wrist and elbow to verify the effectiveness of the recognition of 10 virtual handwriting activities, where 10 recruited participants each repeated an activity 5 times. The results demonstrate that the proposed system can implement HAR tasks effectively with an accuracy of 99.20 %.

Keywords

  • Integrated sensing and computing
  • Human Activity Recognition (HAR)
  • Body Area Networks (BANs)
  • Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS IMU)
  • Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)

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