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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 10 (2010): Issue 5 (October 2010)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

Measurement of Viscoelastic Properties of Condensed Matter using Magnetic Resonance Elastography

Published Online: 21 Dec 2010
Page range: 147 - 152

Abstract

Measurement of Viscoelastic Properties of Condensed Matter using Magnetic Resonance Elastography

Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a phase contrast technique that provides a non-invasive means of evaluating the viscoelastic properties of soft condensed matter. This has a profound bio-medical significance as it allows for the virtual palpation of areas of the body usually not accessible to the hands of a medical practitioner, such as the brain. Applications of MRE are not restricted to bio-medical applications, however, the viscoelastic properties of prepackaged food products can also non-invasively be determined. Here we describe the design and use of a modular MRE acoustic actuator that can be used for experiments ranging from the human brain to pre-packaged food products. The unique feature of the used actuator design is its simplicity and flexibility, which allows easy reconfiguration.

Keywords

  • MRI
  • non-invasive
  • brain
  • food products
  • shear stress
  • elasticity
  • acoustic waves
Open Access

Measurement of nanopatterned surfaces by real and reciprocal space techniques

Published Online: 21 Dec 2010
Page range: 153 - 156

Abstract

Measurement of nanopatterned surfaces by real and reciprocal space techniques

A newly developed laboratory grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering GISAXS system capable of statistical measurements of surface morphology at the nanometer scale was developed. The potential of the GISAXS system is compared to the AFM technique for a nanopatterned silicon surface produced by ion-beam erosion. The characteristic period of the ion-beam induced ripples and their lateral correlation length were estimated from AFM. Using GISAXS the reciprocal space map of surface morphology was measured and analyzed. The two microfocus X-ray sources emitting radiation at the Cu-Kα and Cr-Kα were used. The lateral periods of ripples obtained by the reciprocal space mapping techniques match the results of real space techniques. The setup has the potential to monitor and control the deposition process and formation of nanostructures with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution.

Keywords

  • AFM
  • GISAXS
  • nanostructures
  • ion-beam sputtering
Open Access

Influence of interface cables termination impedance on radiated emission measurement

Published Online: 21 Dec 2010
Page range: 157 - 161

Abstract

Influence of interface cables termination impedance on radiated emission measurement

Interface cables and especially their arrangement and terminations significantly affect the results of the radiated emission measurement of tested equipment. Two types of shortened two-wire interface cables were surveyed to obtain the influence of cable's termination. Two analyses, based on theoretical knowledge, were performed - the analysis using numerical simulation and the measurement of input impedance of the cable using network analyzer. The methods of analysis were verified and compared with real radiated emission measurements. Finally, the influence of cable termination was obtained and discussed.

Keywords

  • radiated emission measurement
  • cable terminator
  • two-wire cable
Open Access

Modified Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of nanoparticles - measurement of 2D to 3D ordered arrays

Published Online: 21 Dec 2010
Page range: 162 - 165

Abstract

Modified Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of nanoparticles - measurement of 2D to 3D ordered arrays

The ordered nanoparticle monolayers and multilayers over macroscopic areas were prepared by the modified Langmuir-Blodgett method. Using this approach, the nanoparticle monolayer is formed on the water surface by compression and subsequently it is transferred onto the substrate by a controlled removal of the water subphase. The ordering and homogeneity of the prepared mono- and multilayers was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and X-ray reflectivity (XRR) techniques. From the results it follows that an ordered nanoparticle monolayer was formed over a large area. For the multilayer, the layering and lateral ordering of each layer was confirmed by XRR and SEM performed after the deposition of each nanoparticle layer.

Keywords

  • Langmuir-Blodgett
  • GISAXS
  • nanoparticles
  • self-assembly
Open Access

Non-Intrusive Device for Real-Time Circulatory System Assessment with Advanced Signal Processing Capabilities

Published Online: 21 Dec 2010
Page range: 166 - 175

Abstract

Non-Intrusive Device for Real-Time Circulatory System Assessment with Advanced Signal Processing Capabilities

This paper presents a device that uses three cardiography signals to characterize several important parameters of a subject's circulatory system. Using electrocardiogram, finger photoplethysmogram, and ballistocardiogram, three heart rate estimates are acquired from beat-to-beat time interval extraction. Furthermore, pre-ejection period, pulse transit time (PTT), and pulse arrival time (PAT) are computed, and their long-term evolution is analyzed. The system estimates heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) from the heart rate and PAT time series, to infer the activity of the cardiac autonomic system. The software component of the device evaluates the frequency content of HRV and BPV, and also their fractal dimension and entropy, thus providing a detailed analysis of the time series' regularity and complexity evolution, to allow personalized subject evaluation.

Keywords

  • Biomedical instrumentation
  • blood pressure
  • cardiovascular system
  • heart rate
  • medical services
  • time series
Open Access

Low-Cost Embedded Oximeter

Published Online: 21 Dec 2010
Page range: 176 - 179

Abstract

Low-Cost Embedded Oximeter

Nowadays, many medical devices have been developed for the purposes of diagnosing and treatment. Wearable sensors and systems have evolved to the point that they can be considered ready for clinical application. The use of wearable monitoring devices that allow continuous or intermittent monitoring of physiological signals is critical for the advancement of both the diagnosis as well as treatment of diseases. Patient vital sign monitoring within hospitals requires the use of noninvasive sensors that are hardwired to bedside monitors. This paper describes the initial bench testing of a wireless wearable pulse oximeter. Arterial oxygen saturation in the patient's blood signal was measured with an optical sensor, and then converted to digital data using a microcontroller system. The digital data were then sent to a receiver where it is in 433 MHz FM/FSK transmitter. At the receiver, the digital data were reconverted to analog signal to be monitored and recorded on the PC.

Keywords

  • Oximeter
  • Wireless
  • Telemedicine
  • FSK
  • Microcontroller
6 Articles
Open Access

Measurement of Viscoelastic Properties of Condensed Matter using Magnetic Resonance Elastography

Published Online: 21 Dec 2010
Page range: 147 - 152

Abstract

Measurement of Viscoelastic Properties of Condensed Matter using Magnetic Resonance Elastography

Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a phase contrast technique that provides a non-invasive means of evaluating the viscoelastic properties of soft condensed matter. This has a profound bio-medical significance as it allows for the virtual palpation of areas of the body usually not accessible to the hands of a medical practitioner, such as the brain. Applications of MRE are not restricted to bio-medical applications, however, the viscoelastic properties of prepackaged food products can also non-invasively be determined. Here we describe the design and use of a modular MRE acoustic actuator that can be used for experiments ranging from the human brain to pre-packaged food products. The unique feature of the used actuator design is its simplicity and flexibility, which allows easy reconfiguration.

Keywords

  • MRI
  • non-invasive
  • brain
  • food products
  • shear stress
  • elasticity
  • acoustic waves
Open Access

Measurement of nanopatterned surfaces by real and reciprocal space techniques

Published Online: 21 Dec 2010
Page range: 153 - 156

Abstract

Measurement of nanopatterned surfaces by real and reciprocal space techniques

A newly developed laboratory grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering GISAXS system capable of statistical measurements of surface morphology at the nanometer scale was developed. The potential of the GISAXS system is compared to the AFM technique for a nanopatterned silicon surface produced by ion-beam erosion. The characteristic period of the ion-beam induced ripples and their lateral correlation length were estimated from AFM. Using GISAXS the reciprocal space map of surface morphology was measured and analyzed. The two microfocus X-ray sources emitting radiation at the Cu-Kα and Cr-Kα were used. The lateral periods of ripples obtained by the reciprocal space mapping techniques match the results of real space techniques. The setup has the potential to monitor and control the deposition process and formation of nanostructures with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution.

Keywords

  • AFM
  • GISAXS
  • nanostructures
  • ion-beam sputtering
Open Access

Influence of interface cables termination impedance on radiated emission measurement

Published Online: 21 Dec 2010
Page range: 157 - 161

Abstract

Influence of interface cables termination impedance on radiated emission measurement

Interface cables and especially their arrangement and terminations significantly affect the results of the radiated emission measurement of tested equipment. Two types of shortened two-wire interface cables were surveyed to obtain the influence of cable's termination. Two analyses, based on theoretical knowledge, were performed - the analysis using numerical simulation and the measurement of input impedance of the cable using network analyzer. The methods of analysis were verified and compared with real radiated emission measurements. Finally, the influence of cable termination was obtained and discussed.

Keywords

  • radiated emission measurement
  • cable terminator
  • two-wire cable
Open Access

Modified Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of nanoparticles - measurement of 2D to 3D ordered arrays

Published Online: 21 Dec 2010
Page range: 162 - 165

Abstract

Modified Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of nanoparticles - measurement of 2D to 3D ordered arrays

The ordered nanoparticle monolayers and multilayers over macroscopic areas were prepared by the modified Langmuir-Blodgett method. Using this approach, the nanoparticle monolayer is formed on the water surface by compression and subsequently it is transferred onto the substrate by a controlled removal of the water subphase. The ordering and homogeneity of the prepared mono- and multilayers was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and X-ray reflectivity (XRR) techniques. From the results it follows that an ordered nanoparticle monolayer was formed over a large area. For the multilayer, the layering and lateral ordering of each layer was confirmed by XRR and SEM performed after the deposition of each nanoparticle layer.

Keywords

  • Langmuir-Blodgett
  • GISAXS
  • nanoparticles
  • self-assembly
Open Access

Non-Intrusive Device for Real-Time Circulatory System Assessment with Advanced Signal Processing Capabilities

Published Online: 21 Dec 2010
Page range: 166 - 175

Abstract

Non-Intrusive Device for Real-Time Circulatory System Assessment with Advanced Signal Processing Capabilities

This paper presents a device that uses three cardiography signals to characterize several important parameters of a subject's circulatory system. Using electrocardiogram, finger photoplethysmogram, and ballistocardiogram, three heart rate estimates are acquired from beat-to-beat time interval extraction. Furthermore, pre-ejection period, pulse transit time (PTT), and pulse arrival time (PAT) are computed, and their long-term evolution is analyzed. The system estimates heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) from the heart rate and PAT time series, to infer the activity of the cardiac autonomic system. The software component of the device evaluates the frequency content of HRV and BPV, and also their fractal dimension and entropy, thus providing a detailed analysis of the time series' regularity and complexity evolution, to allow personalized subject evaluation.

Keywords

  • Biomedical instrumentation
  • blood pressure
  • cardiovascular system
  • heart rate
  • medical services
  • time series
Open Access

Low-Cost Embedded Oximeter

Published Online: 21 Dec 2010
Page range: 176 - 179

Abstract

Low-Cost Embedded Oximeter

Nowadays, many medical devices have been developed for the purposes of diagnosing and treatment. Wearable sensors and systems have evolved to the point that they can be considered ready for clinical application. The use of wearable monitoring devices that allow continuous or intermittent monitoring of physiological signals is critical for the advancement of both the diagnosis as well as treatment of diseases. Patient vital sign monitoring within hospitals requires the use of noninvasive sensors that are hardwired to bedside monitors. This paper describes the initial bench testing of a wireless wearable pulse oximeter. Arterial oxygen saturation in the patient's blood signal was measured with an optical sensor, and then converted to digital data using a microcontroller system. The digital data were then sent to a receiver where it is in 433 MHz FM/FSK transmitter. At the receiver, the digital data were reconverted to analog signal to be monitored and recorded on the PC.

Keywords

  • Oximeter
  • Wireless
  • Telemedicine
  • FSK
  • Microcontroller

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