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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 18 (2018): Issue 1 (February 2018)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

Time Alignment as a Necessary Step in the Analysis of Sleep Probabilistic Curves

Published Online: 07 Mar 2018
Page range: 1 - 6

Abstract

Abstract

Sleep can be characterised as a dynamic process that has a finite set of sleep stages during the night. The standard Rechtschaffen and Kales sleep model produces discrete representation of sleep and does not take into account its dynamic structure. In contrast, the continuous sleep representation provided by the probabilistic sleep model accounts for the dynamics of the sleep process. However, analysis of the sleep probabilistic curves is problematic when time misalignment is present. In this study, we highlight the necessity of curve synchronisation before further analysis. Original and in time aligned sleep probabilistic curves were transformed into a finite dimensional vector space, and their ability to predict subjects’ age or daily measures is evaluated. We conclude that curve alignment significantly improves the prediction of the daily measures, especially in the case of the S2-related sleep states or slow wave sleep.

Keywords

  • Curve alignment
  • probabilistic sleep model
  • functional principal component analysis
Open Access

I-cored Coil Probe Located Above a Conductive Plate with a Surface Hole

Published Online: 07 Mar 2018
Page range: 7 - 12

Abstract

Abstract

This work presents an axially symmetric mathematical model of an I-cored coil placed over a two-layered conductive material with a cylindrical surface hole. The problem was divided into regions for which the magnetic vector potential of a filamentary coil was established applying the truncated region eigenfunction expansion method. Then the final formula was developed to calculate impedance changes for a cylindrical coil with reference to both the air and to a material with no hole. The influence of a surface flaw in the conductive material on the components of coil impedance was examined. Calculations were made in Matlab for a hole with various radii and the results thereof were verified with the finite element method in COMSOL Multiphysics package. Very good consistency was achieved in all cases.

Keywords

  • Nondestructive testing
  • eddy current
  • coil impedance
  • calculation
  • modeling
  • truncated region eigenfunction expansion
Open Access

Research on Measurement Accuracy of Laser Tracking System Based on Spherical Mirror with Rotation Errors of Gimbal Mount Axes

Published Online: 07 Mar 2018
Page range: 13 - 19

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents a novel experimental approach for confirming that spherical mirror of a laser tracking system can reduce the influences of rotation errors of gimbal mount axes on the measurement accuracy. By simplifying the optical system model of laser tracking system based on spherical mirror, we can easily extract the laser ranging measurement error caused by rotation errors of gimbal mount axes with the positions of spherical mirror, biconvex lens, cat’s eye reflector, and measuring beam. The motions of polarization beam splitter and biconvex lens along the optical axis and vertical direction of optical axis are driven by error motions of gimbal mount axes. In order to simplify the experimental process, the motion of biconvex lens is substituted by the motion of spherical mirror according to the principle of relative motion. The laser ranging measurement error caused by the rotation errors of gimbal mount axes could be recorded in the readings of laser interferometer. The experimental results showed that the laser ranging measurement error caused by rotation errors was less than 0.1 μm if radial error motion and axial error motion were within ±10 μm. The experimental method simplified the experimental procedure and the spherical mirror could reduce the influences of rotation errors of gimbal mount axes on the measurement accuracy of the laser tracking system.

Keywords

  • Spherical mirror
  • laser tracking system
  • gimbal mount axes
  • rotation errors
  • relative motion thinking
Open Access

Measurement System Analyses – Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility Methods

Published Online: 07 Mar 2018
Page range: 20 - 27

Abstract

Abstract

The submitted article focuses on a detailed explanation of the average and range method (Automotive Industry Action Group, Measurement System Analysis approach) and of the honest Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility method (Evaluating the Measurement Process approach). The measured data (thickness of plastic parts) were evaluated by both methods and their results were compared on the basis of numerical evaluation. Both methods were additionally compared and their advantages and disadvantages were discussed. One difference between both methods is the calculation of variation components. The AIAG method calculates the variation components based on standard deviation (then a sum of variation components does not give 100 %) and the honest GRR study calculates the variation components based on variance, where the sum of all variation components (part to part variation, EV & AV) gives the total variation of 100 %. Acceptance of both methods among the professional society, future use, and acceptance by manufacturing industry were also discussed. Nowadays, the AIAG is the leading method in the industry.

Keywords

  • GRR study approach
  • the average and range method
  • the honest GRR study
Open Access

Theoretical Analysis of the Rectangular Defect Orientation using Magnetic Flux Leakage

Published Online: 07 Mar 2018
Page range: 28 - 34

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents an approach to estimate the orientation of the rectangular defect in the ferromagnetic specimen using the magnetic flux leakage technique. Three components of the magnetic flux leakage profile, such as radial, axial, and tangential component are considered to estimate the orientation of the rectangular defect. The orientation of the rectangular defect is estimated by the proposed analytical model using MATLAB software. The results calculated by the analytical model are validated by the three-dimensional finite element analysis using COMSOL Multiphysics software. Tangential component provides better performance to estimate the orientation of the rectangular defect compared with radial and axial component of the magnetic flux leakage profile.

Keywords

  • Magnetic flux leakage
  • orientation of the defect
  • radial component
  • axial component
  • tangential component
  • finite element analysis
Open Access

Testing an Impedance Non-destructive Method to Evaluate Steel-Fiber Concrete Samples

Published Online: 07 Mar 2018
Page range: 35 - 40

Abstract

Abstract

Steel-fiber reinforced concrete is a composite material characterized by outstanding tensile properties and resistance to the development of cracks. The concrete, however, exhibits such characteristics only on the condition that the steel fibers in the final, hardened composite have been distributed evenly. The current methods to evaluate the distribution and concentration of a fiber composite are either destructive or exhibit a limited capability of evaluating the concentration and orientation of the fibers. In this context, the paper discusses tests related to the evaluation of the density and orientation of fibers in a composite material. Compared to the approaches used to date, the proposed technique is based on the evaluation of the electrical impedance Z in the band close to the resonance of the sensor–sample configuration. Using analytically expressed equations, we can evaluate the monitored part of the composite and its density at various depths of the tested sample. The method employs test blocks of composites, utilizing the resonance of the measuring device and the measured sample set; the desired state occurs within the interval of between f=3 kHz and 400 kHz.

Keywords

  • Steel-fiber
  • concrete
  • non-destructive testing
  • electromagnetic field
  • electric impedance
6 Articles
Open Access

Time Alignment as a Necessary Step in the Analysis of Sleep Probabilistic Curves

Published Online: 07 Mar 2018
Page range: 1 - 6

Abstract

Abstract

Sleep can be characterised as a dynamic process that has a finite set of sleep stages during the night. The standard Rechtschaffen and Kales sleep model produces discrete representation of sleep and does not take into account its dynamic structure. In contrast, the continuous sleep representation provided by the probabilistic sleep model accounts for the dynamics of the sleep process. However, analysis of the sleep probabilistic curves is problematic when time misalignment is present. In this study, we highlight the necessity of curve synchronisation before further analysis. Original and in time aligned sleep probabilistic curves were transformed into a finite dimensional vector space, and their ability to predict subjects’ age or daily measures is evaluated. We conclude that curve alignment significantly improves the prediction of the daily measures, especially in the case of the S2-related sleep states or slow wave sleep.

Keywords

  • Curve alignment
  • probabilistic sleep model
  • functional principal component analysis
Open Access

I-cored Coil Probe Located Above a Conductive Plate with a Surface Hole

Published Online: 07 Mar 2018
Page range: 7 - 12

Abstract

Abstract

This work presents an axially symmetric mathematical model of an I-cored coil placed over a two-layered conductive material with a cylindrical surface hole. The problem was divided into regions for which the magnetic vector potential of a filamentary coil was established applying the truncated region eigenfunction expansion method. Then the final formula was developed to calculate impedance changes for a cylindrical coil with reference to both the air and to a material with no hole. The influence of a surface flaw in the conductive material on the components of coil impedance was examined. Calculations were made in Matlab for a hole with various radii and the results thereof were verified with the finite element method in COMSOL Multiphysics package. Very good consistency was achieved in all cases.

Keywords

  • Nondestructive testing
  • eddy current
  • coil impedance
  • calculation
  • modeling
  • truncated region eigenfunction expansion
Open Access

Research on Measurement Accuracy of Laser Tracking System Based on Spherical Mirror with Rotation Errors of Gimbal Mount Axes

Published Online: 07 Mar 2018
Page range: 13 - 19

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents a novel experimental approach for confirming that spherical mirror of a laser tracking system can reduce the influences of rotation errors of gimbal mount axes on the measurement accuracy. By simplifying the optical system model of laser tracking system based on spherical mirror, we can easily extract the laser ranging measurement error caused by rotation errors of gimbal mount axes with the positions of spherical mirror, biconvex lens, cat’s eye reflector, and measuring beam. The motions of polarization beam splitter and biconvex lens along the optical axis and vertical direction of optical axis are driven by error motions of gimbal mount axes. In order to simplify the experimental process, the motion of biconvex lens is substituted by the motion of spherical mirror according to the principle of relative motion. The laser ranging measurement error caused by the rotation errors of gimbal mount axes could be recorded in the readings of laser interferometer. The experimental results showed that the laser ranging measurement error caused by rotation errors was less than 0.1 μm if radial error motion and axial error motion were within ±10 μm. The experimental method simplified the experimental procedure and the spherical mirror could reduce the influences of rotation errors of gimbal mount axes on the measurement accuracy of the laser tracking system.

Keywords

  • Spherical mirror
  • laser tracking system
  • gimbal mount axes
  • rotation errors
  • relative motion thinking
Open Access

Measurement System Analyses – Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility Methods

Published Online: 07 Mar 2018
Page range: 20 - 27

Abstract

Abstract

The submitted article focuses on a detailed explanation of the average and range method (Automotive Industry Action Group, Measurement System Analysis approach) and of the honest Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility method (Evaluating the Measurement Process approach). The measured data (thickness of plastic parts) were evaluated by both methods and their results were compared on the basis of numerical evaluation. Both methods were additionally compared and their advantages and disadvantages were discussed. One difference between both methods is the calculation of variation components. The AIAG method calculates the variation components based on standard deviation (then a sum of variation components does not give 100 %) and the honest GRR study calculates the variation components based on variance, where the sum of all variation components (part to part variation, EV & AV) gives the total variation of 100 %. Acceptance of both methods among the professional society, future use, and acceptance by manufacturing industry were also discussed. Nowadays, the AIAG is the leading method in the industry.

Keywords

  • GRR study approach
  • the average and range method
  • the honest GRR study
Open Access

Theoretical Analysis of the Rectangular Defect Orientation using Magnetic Flux Leakage

Published Online: 07 Mar 2018
Page range: 28 - 34

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents an approach to estimate the orientation of the rectangular defect in the ferromagnetic specimen using the magnetic flux leakage technique. Three components of the magnetic flux leakage profile, such as radial, axial, and tangential component are considered to estimate the orientation of the rectangular defect. The orientation of the rectangular defect is estimated by the proposed analytical model using MATLAB software. The results calculated by the analytical model are validated by the three-dimensional finite element analysis using COMSOL Multiphysics software. Tangential component provides better performance to estimate the orientation of the rectangular defect compared with radial and axial component of the magnetic flux leakage profile.

Keywords

  • Magnetic flux leakage
  • orientation of the defect
  • radial component
  • axial component
  • tangential component
  • finite element analysis
Open Access

Testing an Impedance Non-destructive Method to Evaluate Steel-Fiber Concrete Samples

Published Online: 07 Mar 2018
Page range: 35 - 40

Abstract

Abstract

Steel-fiber reinforced concrete is a composite material characterized by outstanding tensile properties and resistance to the development of cracks. The concrete, however, exhibits such characteristics only on the condition that the steel fibers in the final, hardened composite have been distributed evenly. The current methods to evaluate the distribution and concentration of a fiber composite are either destructive or exhibit a limited capability of evaluating the concentration and orientation of the fibers. In this context, the paper discusses tests related to the evaluation of the density and orientation of fibers in a composite material. Compared to the approaches used to date, the proposed technique is based on the evaluation of the electrical impedance Z in the band close to the resonance of the sensor–sample configuration. Using analytically expressed equations, we can evaluate the monitored part of the composite and its density at various depths of the tested sample. The method employs test blocks of composites, utilizing the resonance of the measuring device and the measured sample set; the desired state occurs within the interval of between f=3 kHz and 400 kHz.

Keywords

  • Steel-fiber
  • concrete
  • non-destructive testing
  • electromagnetic field
  • electric impedance

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