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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 2 (April 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
access type Open Access

Fusion Estimation of Point Sets from Multiple Stations of Spherical Coordinate Instruments Utilizing Uncertainty Estimation Based on Monte Carlo

Published Online: 19 Apr 2012
Page range: 40 - 45

Abstract

Fusion Estimation of Point Sets from Multiple Stations of Spherical Coordinate Instruments Utilizing Uncertainty Estimation Based on Monte Carlo

Multiple instrument stations, based on spherical coordinate measurements, are often used in the measurement of large objects. A data fusion method is proposed to derive optimal estimations of the positions of the object features, measured by more than one device. First, each device has a dedicated coordinate system that is linked together through the measurement of common points. Second, the weighted mean coordinates are derived. The covariance matrix of the sensory, covering of the radial distance and the angles, is propagated to get a weight matrix. Third, a nonlinear function is minimized to determine the optimized coordinate of the points. Monte Carlo error propagation is utilized to estimate the uncertainty of the fusion points. Simulation of the fusion algorithms is performed using laser tracking and laser radar. The fusion algorithm experiments are performed using two laser tracking stations. Simulation and experiments prove that the fusion method improves the precision of the measurements of an object's location, due to incorporating the degree of uncertainty for each measurement point.

Keywords

  • Large volume metrology
  • multiple-station data fusion
  • uncertainty
  • Monte Carlo
  • laser tracker
access type Open Access

Denoising EOG Signal using Stationary Wavelet Transform

Published Online: 19 Apr 2012
Page range: 46 - 51

Abstract

Denoising EOG Signal using Stationary Wavelet Transform

Eye movements are critical signs of the neurological disorders and they can be acquired by EOG. The EOG signal is electrical signal generated due to eye ball movements and is contaminated with brain signals and power line while recording. As the EOG signal is a non-stationary signal, it can be denoised by wavelet transformation techniques. The present work covers denoising of noisy EOG signal using Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT), which was done with all suitable wavelets that are morphologically similar to an EOG signal by applying both Soft and Hard Thresholding methods. An EOG signal was simulated and added with noise to obtain noisy EOG signal. The wavelet analysis of the simulated noisy EOG signal reveals that the Biorthogonal 3.3 wavelet is the best wavelet to denoise by using SWT technique, wherein the yield achieved was good with Signal to Noise Ratio of 36.5882 dB and minimum Mean Square Error of 0.383313 for quality diagnosis.

Keywords

  • EOG signal
  • Wavelet transform
  • denoising
  • thresholding
  • biorthogonal wavelet
access type Open Access

Hardware Prototyping of Neural Network based Fetal Electrocardiogram Extraction

Published Online: 19 Apr 2012
Page range: 52 - 55

Abstract

Hardware Prototyping of Neural Network based Fetal Electrocardiogram Extraction

The aim of this paper is to model the algorithm for Fetal ECG (FECG) extraction from composite abdominal ECG (AECG) using VHDL (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language) for FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) implementation. Artificial Neural Network that provides efficient and effective ways of separating FECG signal from composite AECG signal has been designed. The proposed method gives an accuracy of 93.7% for R-peak detection in FHR monitoring. The designed VHDL model is synthesized and fitted into Altera's Stratix II EP2S15F484C3 using the Quartus II version 8.0 Web Edition for FPGA implementation.

Keywords

  • Fetal electrocardiogram
  • neural network
  • FPGA
  • VHDL
access type Open Access

New Scatterometer for Spatial Distribution Measurements of Light Scattering from Materials

Published Online: 19 Apr 2012
Page range: 56 - 61

Abstract

New Scatterometer for Spatial Distribution Measurements of Light Scattering from Materials

A new scatterometer is composed of two ellipsoidal mirrors of revolution and an optical detection system. It enables us to absolutely measure diffuse reflectance and transmittance and to measure the spatial distribution of light scattering from almost all materials. The optical detection system has been developed both to measure total photo-intensity using a photodiode and to capture the imaging data using a CCD camera. This results in faster, more complete and often more accurate measurements than can be achieved with traditional goniometric methods and integrated sphere methods. The absolute total integrated reflectance and transmittance of well-known samples were measured and the spatial distribution of light scattering from a diffraction grating was captured and evaluated.

Keywords

  • STAR GEM®
  • CCD camera
  • fish-eye lens
  • absolute reflectance
  • bi-directional reflection distribution function
  • total integrated reflectance
access type Open Access

Fusion Research of Electrical Tomography with Other Sensors for Two-phase Flow Measurement

Published Online: 19 Apr 2012
Page range: 62 - 67

Abstract

Fusion Research of Electrical Tomography with Other Sensors for Two-phase Flow Measurement

The two-phase flow widely exists in the nature and industrial processes. The measurement of two-phase flows, including gas/solids, gas/liquid and liquid/liquid flows, is still challenging. Fusions of electrical tomography with conventional sensors provide possibilities to improve two-phase flow accurate measurement. In this paper, fusions of (1) electrical resistance tomography (ERT) with electromagnetic (EM) flowmeter, (2) electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) with ERT and (3) ECT with electrostatic sensor are introduced. Some research results of fusion methods are presented and discussed. This paper can provide the theoretical support for the multi-sensor fusion for two-phase flow measurement.

Keywords

  • Two-phase flow measurement
  • electrical tomography
  • fusion
  • multi-sensor
access type Open Access

A Method for the Estimation of the Square Size in the Chessboard Image using Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrix

Published Online: 19 Apr 2012
Page range: 68 - 73

Abstract

A Method for the Estimation of the Square Size in the Chessboard Image using Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrix

The paper proposes a new simple procedure for measuring the square size employing the gray-level co-occurrence matrix of a chessboard image. As the size of the square structure in a chessboard image provides the geometric constraint information among the corners, it is available to improve the precision of extracting corners and serve the camera calibration. The co-occurrence matrix of a chessboard image is constructed to obtain the statistic information of the grayscale distribution. The 2D offset of the matrix is parameterized to calculate the correlation which is regarded as the implication of the repetition probability of the similar textures. A descending tendency is observed in the experiments because the similarity decreases with the greater offset. However, minimum and maximum are captured in the correlation curve, which represents that the square texture reappears with the periods of one and two square size, separately. The size of the square is tested by applying the first minimum of the correlation. The experiments are performed on the horizontal and vertical directions which are corresponding to the length and the width of the square, respectively. The experiments prove that the described method has the potential to measure square size of the chessboard.

Keywords

  • Chessboard image
  • measurement
  • gray-level co-occurrence matrix
  • correlation
6 Articles
access type Open Access

Fusion Estimation of Point Sets from Multiple Stations of Spherical Coordinate Instruments Utilizing Uncertainty Estimation Based on Monte Carlo

Published Online: 19 Apr 2012
Page range: 40 - 45

Abstract

Fusion Estimation of Point Sets from Multiple Stations of Spherical Coordinate Instruments Utilizing Uncertainty Estimation Based on Monte Carlo

Multiple instrument stations, based on spherical coordinate measurements, are often used in the measurement of large objects. A data fusion method is proposed to derive optimal estimations of the positions of the object features, measured by more than one device. First, each device has a dedicated coordinate system that is linked together through the measurement of common points. Second, the weighted mean coordinates are derived. The covariance matrix of the sensory, covering of the radial distance and the angles, is propagated to get a weight matrix. Third, a nonlinear function is minimized to determine the optimized coordinate of the points. Monte Carlo error propagation is utilized to estimate the uncertainty of the fusion points. Simulation of the fusion algorithms is performed using laser tracking and laser radar. The fusion algorithm experiments are performed using two laser tracking stations. Simulation and experiments prove that the fusion method improves the precision of the measurements of an object's location, due to incorporating the degree of uncertainty for each measurement point.

Keywords

  • Large volume metrology
  • multiple-station data fusion
  • uncertainty
  • Monte Carlo
  • laser tracker
access type Open Access

Denoising EOG Signal using Stationary Wavelet Transform

Published Online: 19 Apr 2012
Page range: 46 - 51

Abstract

Denoising EOG Signal using Stationary Wavelet Transform

Eye movements are critical signs of the neurological disorders and they can be acquired by EOG. The EOG signal is electrical signal generated due to eye ball movements and is contaminated with brain signals and power line while recording. As the EOG signal is a non-stationary signal, it can be denoised by wavelet transformation techniques. The present work covers denoising of noisy EOG signal using Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT), which was done with all suitable wavelets that are morphologically similar to an EOG signal by applying both Soft and Hard Thresholding methods. An EOG signal was simulated and added with noise to obtain noisy EOG signal. The wavelet analysis of the simulated noisy EOG signal reveals that the Biorthogonal 3.3 wavelet is the best wavelet to denoise by using SWT technique, wherein the yield achieved was good with Signal to Noise Ratio of 36.5882 dB and minimum Mean Square Error of 0.383313 for quality diagnosis.

Keywords

  • EOG signal
  • Wavelet transform
  • denoising
  • thresholding
  • biorthogonal wavelet
access type Open Access

Hardware Prototyping of Neural Network based Fetal Electrocardiogram Extraction

Published Online: 19 Apr 2012
Page range: 52 - 55

Abstract

Hardware Prototyping of Neural Network based Fetal Electrocardiogram Extraction

The aim of this paper is to model the algorithm for Fetal ECG (FECG) extraction from composite abdominal ECG (AECG) using VHDL (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language) for FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) implementation. Artificial Neural Network that provides efficient and effective ways of separating FECG signal from composite AECG signal has been designed. The proposed method gives an accuracy of 93.7% for R-peak detection in FHR monitoring. The designed VHDL model is synthesized and fitted into Altera's Stratix II EP2S15F484C3 using the Quartus II version 8.0 Web Edition for FPGA implementation.

Keywords

  • Fetal electrocardiogram
  • neural network
  • FPGA
  • VHDL
access type Open Access

New Scatterometer for Spatial Distribution Measurements of Light Scattering from Materials

Published Online: 19 Apr 2012
Page range: 56 - 61

Abstract

New Scatterometer for Spatial Distribution Measurements of Light Scattering from Materials

A new scatterometer is composed of two ellipsoidal mirrors of revolution and an optical detection system. It enables us to absolutely measure diffuse reflectance and transmittance and to measure the spatial distribution of light scattering from almost all materials. The optical detection system has been developed both to measure total photo-intensity using a photodiode and to capture the imaging data using a CCD camera. This results in faster, more complete and often more accurate measurements than can be achieved with traditional goniometric methods and integrated sphere methods. The absolute total integrated reflectance and transmittance of well-known samples were measured and the spatial distribution of light scattering from a diffraction grating was captured and evaluated.

Keywords

  • STAR GEM®
  • CCD camera
  • fish-eye lens
  • absolute reflectance
  • bi-directional reflection distribution function
  • total integrated reflectance
access type Open Access

Fusion Research of Electrical Tomography with Other Sensors for Two-phase Flow Measurement

Published Online: 19 Apr 2012
Page range: 62 - 67

Abstract

Fusion Research of Electrical Tomography with Other Sensors for Two-phase Flow Measurement

The two-phase flow widely exists in the nature and industrial processes. The measurement of two-phase flows, including gas/solids, gas/liquid and liquid/liquid flows, is still challenging. Fusions of electrical tomography with conventional sensors provide possibilities to improve two-phase flow accurate measurement. In this paper, fusions of (1) electrical resistance tomography (ERT) with electromagnetic (EM) flowmeter, (2) electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) with ERT and (3) ECT with electrostatic sensor are introduced. Some research results of fusion methods are presented and discussed. This paper can provide the theoretical support for the multi-sensor fusion for two-phase flow measurement.

Keywords

  • Two-phase flow measurement
  • electrical tomography
  • fusion
  • multi-sensor
access type Open Access

A Method for the Estimation of the Square Size in the Chessboard Image using Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrix

Published Online: 19 Apr 2012
Page range: 68 - 73

Abstract

A Method for the Estimation of the Square Size in the Chessboard Image using Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrix

The paper proposes a new simple procedure for measuring the square size employing the gray-level co-occurrence matrix of a chessboard image. As the size of the square structure in a chessboard image provides the geometric constraint information among the corners, it is available to improve the precision of extracting corners and serve the camera calibration. The co-occurrence matrix of a chessboard image is constructed to obtain the statistic information of the grayscale distribution. The 2D offset of the matrix is parameterized to calculate the correlation which is regarded as the implication of the repetition probability of the similar textures. A descending tendency is observed in the experiments because the similarity decreases with the greater offset. However, minimum and maximum are captured in the correlation curve, which represents that the square texture reappears with the periods of one and two square size, separately. The size of the square is tested by applying the first minimum of the correlation. The experiments are performed on the horizontal and vertical directions which are corresponding to the length and the width of the square, respectively. The experiments prove that the described method has the potential to measure square size of the chessboard.

Keywords

  • Chessboard image
  • measurement
  • gray-level co-occurrence matrix
  • correlation

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